Article 15(j) of the Convention on the International Maritime Organization concerning
the functions of the Assembly in relation to regulations and guidelines concerning
RECALLING ALSO that the Maritime
Safety Committee adopted, on 10 April 1992, resolution MSC.24(60) and, on 11 December
1992, resolution MSC.27(61), both of which require, inter alia, that in addition to the
emergency lighting required by SOLAS regulations II-1/42 and III/11.5, the means of
escape including stairways and exits shall be marked by lighting or photoluminescent
strip indicators placed not more than 0.3 m above the deck at all points of the escape
RECALLING FURTHER that the above resolutions
require Administrations to ensure that such lighting or photoluminescent equipment have
been evaluated, tested and applied in accordance with guidelines developed by the
CONSCIOUS of the need for passengers
to readily identify, in case of emergencies, the route of escape when the normal
emergency lighting is less effective due to smoke,
BELIEVING that passenger safety, in case of fire on board, can be greatly enhanced by
the installation of a low-location lighting system, as described in the Guidelines
referred to in operative paragraph 1,
CONSIDERED the recommendation made by the Maritime Safety Committee at its sixty-second
1. ADOPTS the Guidelines for the
Evaluation, Testing and Application of Low-Location Lighting on Passenger Ships, set out
in the Annex to the present resolution;
Governments to implement these Guidelines at the earliest possible opportunity;
3. REQUESTS the Maritime Safety Committee to keep the
Guidelines under review and to amend them as necessary in the light of experience gained
in their application.
1.1 These guidelines cover the approval, installation and
maintenance of low-location lighting (LLL) required by the regulations II-2/28,
paragraph 1.10 and II-2/41-2, paragraph 4.7 of the 1974 SOLAS Convention, as amended,
on all passenger ships carrying more than 36 passengers, to readily identify the
passengers' route of escape when the normal emergency lighting is less effective due
2.1 In addition to the emergency lighting required by
regulations II-1/42 and III/11.5 of the 1974 SOLAS Convention, as amended, the means
of escape including stairways and exits should be marked by LLL at all points of the
escape route including angles and intersections. In addition, all escape route signs
and fire equipment location markings should be of photoluminescent material, or marked
by lighting, or a combination of both.
The supplementary emergency lighting for ro-ro passenger ships required by regulation
II-1/42-1 of the 1974 SOLAS Convention, as amended, may be accepted to form partly or
wholly the LLL system provided that such a system complies with the requirements of
2.3 The LLL system should
function at all times for at least 60 min after its activation. Entire systems,
including those that are automatically activated or continuously operating, are to be
capable of being manually activated by a single action from the continuously manned
central control station.
3.1 Low-location lighting (LLL) - Electrically powered
lighting or photoluminescent indicators placed at points of the escape route to
readily identify all routes of escape.
Photoluminescent (PL) system - An LLL system which uses PL material. Photoluminescant
material contains a chemical (example: zinc sulphide) that has the quality of storing
energy when illuminated by visible light. The PL material emits light which becomes
visible when the ambient light source is less effective. Without the light source to
re-energize it, the PL material gives off the stored energy for a period of time with
powered (EP) system - An LLL system which requires electrical power for its operation,
such as systems using incandescent bulbs, light emitting diodes, electroluminescent
strips or lamps, electrofluorescent lamps, etc.
4.1 The Administration should ensure that the LLL systems
meet the requirements of international standards acceptable to the organization.*
4.2 In all passageways, the LLL should be
continuous except as interrupted by corridors and cabin doors in order to provide a
visible delineation along the escape route. Systems tested to an international
standard* to demonstrate a visible delineation without being continuous should also be
acceptable. The LLL should be installed at least on one side of the corridor, either
on the bulkhead within 300 mm of the deck, or on the deck within 150 mm of the
bulkhead. In corridors more than two metres wide, LLL should be installed on both
4.3 In dead-end corridors, LLL
should have arrows placed at intervals of no more than 1 m, or equivalent direction
indicators, pointing away from the dead end.
4.4 In all stairways, LLL should be installed on at least one side at a
height less than 300 mm above the steps which will make the location of each step
readily identifiable to any person standing above and below that step. LLL should be
installed on both sides if the width of the stairway is two metres or more. The top
and bottom of each set of stairs should be identified to show that there are no
4.5 IMO symbols should be
incorporated into the LLL which directs the passengers to the muster stations required
by regulation III/24 of the 1974 SOLAS Convention, as amended.
4.6 In all passenger cabins a placard explaining the LLL system
should be installed on the inside of the cabin door. It should also have a diagram
showing the location of, and the way to, the two closest exits with respect to the
4.7 Materials used in the
manufacture of LLL products should not contain radioactive or toxic materials.
* Pending the development of international standards acceptable to the
Organization, national standards as prescribed by the Administration should be
5.1 LLL should lead to the exit door handle. To prevent
confusion, no other doors should be similarly marked.
5.2 Sliding fire doors and watertight doors should be marked
with an LLL sign showing how the door opens.
6 Signs and markings
6.1 All escape route signs and fire equipment location
marking should be of photoluminescent material or marked by lighting and fitted in the
lower 300 mm of the bulkhead. The dimensions of such signs and markings are to be
commensurate with the rest of the LLL system.
6.2 Low-location-lighting exit signs should be provided at all exits. The
signs should be located within the lower 300 mm on the side of exit doors where the
handle is located.
6.3 All signs should
contrast in colour to the background (bulkhead or deck) on which they are
7 Photoluminescent systems
7.1 Except where noted, PL strips should be no less than
75 mm wide. Photoluminescent having a width less than that stated herein should be
used only if their luminance is increased proportionally to compensate for their
7.2 Photoluminescent materials
should provide at least 15 mcd/m² measured 10 min after the removal of all external
illuminating sources. The system should continue to provide luminance values greater
than 2 mcd/m² for 60 min.
7.3 Any PL system
materials should be provided with not less than the minimum level of ambient light
necessary to charge the PL material to meet the above luminance requirements.
8 Electrically powered systems
8.1 Electrically powered systems should be connected to
the emergency switchboard required by regulation
II-1/42 of the 1974 SOLAS Convention, as amended, so as to be powered by the
main source of electrical power under normal circumstances and also by the emergency
source of electrical power when the latter is in operation. Alternatively, for
existing ships only, EP systems may be connected to the main lighting system, provided
independent batteries provide a backup of at least 60 min and are charged from the
main lighting system. Performance of the system while powered by batteries should meet
all the requirements stated herein.
Where electrically powered systems are installed the following standards of luminance
are to be applied:
.1 the active parts of electrically
powered system should have a minimum luminance of 10 cd/m²;
.2 the point sources of miniature incandescent lamps should provide not
less than 150 mcd mean spherical intensity with a spacing of not more than 100 mm
.3 the point sources of light emitting diode
systems should have a minimum peak intensity of 35 mcd. The angle of half intensity
cone should be appropriate to the likely track directions of approach and viewing.
Spacing between lamps should be no more than 300 mm; and
for electroluminescent systems these should function for 60 min from the instant when
the main power supply to which it was required to be connected by paragraph 8.1 is
8.3 All EP systems should be
arranged so that the failure of any single light, lighting strip, or battery will not
result in the marking being ineffective.
8.4 Electrically powered systems should meet the relevant requirements for
emergency luminaries in the current edition of publication 598-22-2 published by the
International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) when tested at a reference ambient
temperature of 40° C.
powered systems should meet the requirements for vibration and electromagnetic
interference in the current edition of publication 945 published by the IEC.
8.6 Electrically powered systems should
provide a minimum degree of ingress protection of at least IP 55 in accordance with
publication 529 published by the IEC.
9.1 All LLL systems should be visually examined and
checked at least once a week and a record kept. All missing, damaged or inoperable LLL
should be replaced.
9.2 All LLL systems
should have their luminance tested at least once every five years. Readings should be
taken on site. If the luminance for a particular reading does not meet the requirement
of these guidelines, readings should be taken in at least ten locations equally spaced
apart in the space. If more than 30% of the readings do not meet the requirements of
these guidelines, the LLL should be replaced. If between 20% and 30% of the readings
do not meet the requirements of these guidelines, the LLL should be checked again in
one year or may be replaced.