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76(40) Standard specification for shipboard incinerators (MEPC.93(45))
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THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT PROTECT10N COMMITTEE,

RECALLING Article 38(c) of the Convention on the International Maritime Organization concerning the function of the Committee,

RECALLING ALSO that Annex V of the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, 1973, as modified by the Protocol of 1978 relating thereto (MARPOL 73/78), provides regulations for the prevention of pollution by garbage from ships,

RECOGNIZING that the Assembly at its seventeenth session adopted resolution A.719(17) on prevention of air pollution from ships, and requested the Committee and the Maritime Safety Committee to develop environmentally based standards for incineration of garbage and other ship-generated waste,

RECOGNIZING ALSO that the Committee, at its thirty-third session, adopted resolution MEPC.59(33) - Revised Guidelines for the Implementation of Annex V of MARPOL 73/78, which included the original text of the Standard Specification for Shipboard Incinerators,

NOTING that the Conference of parties to NARPOL 73/78, held in conjunction with MEPC 40, adopted the Protocol of 1997 to amend MARPOL 73/78, including its Annex VI - Regulations for the Prevention of Air Pollution from Ships,

BEING AWARE that the regulation 16(2) on shipboard incinerators within Annex Vl to MARPOL 73/78 includes reference to mandatory operating limits fur shipboard incinerators as contained in appendix IV to Annex Vl and approval of such incinerators by the Administration to be based on the standard specification developed by the Organization,

ALSO BEING AWARE that regulation 16 of Annex Vl of MARPOL 73/78 prohibits shipboard incineration of certain substances,

HAVING CONSIDERED the recommendations by the Sub-Committee on Ship Design and Equipment at its fortieth session regarding the Standard Specification for Shipboard Incinerators,

1 ADOPTS the Standard Specification for Shipboard Incinerators, the text of which supersedes Appendix2 to the Revised Guidelines for the Implementation of Annex V of MARPOL 73/78, adopted by resolution MEPC.S9(33), and which is set out at Annex to this resolution; and

2. URGES Governments to apply the Standard Specification for Shipboard Incinerators when implementing the provisions of Annexes V and Vl of MARPOL 73/78.

6 Development of interim measures(term of 5 years or less), with an indication of economic impacts, aiming at a reduction of adverse effects of anti-fouling system to the marine environment, such as, but not limited to:

    .1 optimization of the use of existing systems;

    .2 further possible restrictions on the leaching rate of the systems;

    .3 measures relating to the application and removal of systems; and

    .4 standards adopted by IMO for certain categories of ships¹ 7 Development of long-term measures(within the next 10 years, but ultimately by the year 2006), moving towards a total ban of TBT paints and other anti-fouling systems which are harmful to the marine environment.

    8 Consideration of mandatory and/or recommendatory measures, preferably within the framework of the MARPOL Convention, for achieving the above-mentioned goals as far as applicable.

    Consideration of control and enforcement.

    9 Preparation of a written report to MEPC 41 including the envisaged measures with indication of the time-frame for finalization of the work.

    ____________

    ¹Such as ships below a certain size, ships having high drydocking frequencies; ships solely operated in restricted services(such as ferries), certain ship types.

    Ingangsdatum: 25-09-1997

    THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT PROTECT10N COMMITTEE,

    RECALLING Article 38(c) of the Convention on the International Maritime Organization concerning the function of the Committee,

    RECALLING ALSO that Annex V of the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, 1973, as modified by the Protocol of 1978 relating thereto (MARPOL 73/78), provides regulations for the prevention of pollution by garbage from ships,

    RECOGNIZING that the Assembly at its seventeenth session adopted resolution A.719(17) on prevention of air pollution from ships, and requested the Committee and the Maritime Safety Committee to develop environmentally based standards for incineration of garbage and other ship-generated waste,

    RECOGNIZING ALSO that the Committee, at its thirty-third session, adopted resolution MEPC.59(33) - Revised Guidelines for the Implementation of Annex V of MARPOL 73/78, which included the original text of the Standard Specification for Shipboard Incinerators,

    NOTING that the Conference of parties to NARPOL 73/78, held in conjunction with MEPC 40, adopted the Protocol of 1997 to amend MARPOL 73/78, including its Annex VI - Regulations for the Prevention of Air Pollution from Ships,

    BEING AWARE that the regulation 16(2) on shipboard incinerators within Annex Vl to MARPOL 73/78 includes reference to mandatory operating limits fur shipboard incinerators as contained in appendix IV to Annex Vl and approval of such incinerators by the Administration to be based on the standard specification developed by the Organization,

    ALSO BEING AWARE that regulation 16 of Annex Vl of MARPOL 73/78 prohibits shipboard incineration of certain substances,

    HAVING CONSIDERED the recommendations by the Sub-Committee on Ship Design and Equipment at its fortieth session regarding the Standard Specification for Shipboard Incinerators,

    1 ADOPTS the Standard Specification for Shipboard Incinerators, the text of which supersedes Appendix2 to the Revised Guidelines for the Implementation of Annex V of MARPOL 73/78, adopted by resolution MEPC.S9(33), and which is set out at Annex to this resolution; and

    2. URGES Governments to apply the Standard Specification for Shipboard Incinerators when implementing the provisions of Annexes V and Vl of MARPOL 73/78.

    6 Development of interim measures(term of 5 years or less), with an indication of economic impacts, aiming at a reduction of adverse effects of anti-fouling system to the marine environment, such as, but not limited to:

      .1 optimization of the use of existing systems;

      .2 further possible restrictions on the leaching rate of the systems;

      .3 measures relating to the application and removal of systems; and

      .4 standards adopted by IMO for certain categories of ships¹ 7 Development of long-term measures(within the next 10 years, but ultimately by the year 2006), moving towards a total ban of TBT paints and other anti-fouling systems which are harmful to the marine environment.

      8 Consideration of mandatory and/or recommendatory measures, preferably within the framework of the MARPOL Convention, for achieving the above-mentioned goals as far as applicable.

      Consideration of control and enforcement.

      9 Preparation of a written report to MEPC 41 including the envisaged measures with indication of the time-frame for finalization of the work.

      ____________

      ¹Such as ships below a certain size, ships having high drydocking frequencies; ships solely operated in restricted services(such as ferries), certain ship types.

      Standard specification for shipboard incinerators

      RESOLUTION MEPC.76(40)

      Table of Contents
      1. Scope
      2. Definitions
      3. Materials and manufacture
      4. Operating requirements
      5. Operating controls
      6. Other requirements
      7. Tests
      8. Certification
      9. Marking
      10. Quality assurance

      ANNEX
      A1 - Emission Standard for Shipboard Incinerators
      A2 - Fire Protection Requirements for Incinerators for Incinerators and Waste Stowage Spaces
      A3 - Incinerators integrated with heat recovery units
      A4 - Flue gas temperature

      STANDARD SPECIFICATION FOR SHIPBOARD INCINERATORS

      1 Scope
      1.1 This specification covers the design, manufacture, performance, operation and testing of incinerators intended to incinerate garbage and other shipboard wastes generated during the ship's normal service.
      1.2 This specification applies to those incinerator plants with capacities up to 1,500 ㎾ per unit.
      1.3 This specification does not apply to systems on special incinerator ships, e.g., for burning industrial wastes such as chemicals, manufacturing residues, etc.
      1.4 This specification does not address the electrical supply to the unit, nor the foundation connections and stack connections.
      1.5 This specification provides emission requirements in annex A1, and fire protection requirements in annex A2. Provisions for incinerators integrated with heat recovery units and provisions for flue gas temperature are given in annex A3 and annex A4, respectively.
      1.6 This specification may involve hazardous materials, operations, and equipment. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety problems associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use, including possible port State limitations.

      2 Definitions
      2.1 Ship means a vessel of any type whatsoever operating in the marine environment and includes hydrofoil boats, air-cushioned vehicles, submersibles, floating craft and fixed or floating platforms.
      2.2 Incinerator means shipboard facilities for incinerating solid wastes approximating in composition to household waste and liquid wastes arising from the operation of the ship, e.g., domestic waste, cargo-associated waste, maintenance waste, operational waste, cargo residues, and fishing gear, etc. These facilities may be designed to use or not to use the heat energy produced.
      2.3 Garbage means all kinds of victual, domestic and operational waste excluding fresh fish and parts thereof, generated during normal operation of the ship as defined in Annex V to MARPOL 73/78.
      2.4 Waste means useless, unneeded or superfluous matter which is to be discarded.
      2.5 Food wastes are any spoiled or unspoiled victual substances, such as fruits, vegetables, dairy products, poultry, meat products, food scraps, food particles, and all other materials contaminated by such wastes, generated aboard ship, principally in the galley and dining areas.
      2.6 Plastic means a solid material which contains as an essential ingredient one or more synthetic organic high polymers and which is formed (shaped) during either manufacture of the polymer or the fabrication into a finished product by heat and/or pressure. plastics have Intertidal properties ranging from hard and brittle to soft and elastic. Plastics are used for a variety of marine purposes including, but not limited to, packaging (vapour-proof barriers, bottles, containers, liners), ship construction (fiberglass and laminated structures, siding, piping, insulation, flooring, carpets, fabrics, paints and finishes, adhesives, electrical and electronic components), disposable eating utensils and cups, bags, sheeting, floats, fishing nets, strapping bands, rope and line.
      2.7 Domestic waste means all types of food wastes, sewage and wastes generated in the living spaces on board the ship for the purpose of this specification.
      2.8 Cargo-associated waste means all materials which have become wastes as a result of use on board a ship for cargo stowage and handling. Cargo- associated waste includes but is not limited to dunnage, shoring pallets, lining and packing materials, plywood, paper, cardboard, wire, and steel strapping.
      2.9 Maintenance waste means materials collected by the engine department and the deck department while maintaining and operating the vessel, such as soot, machinery deposits, scraped paint, deck sweeping, wiping wastes, oily rags, etc.
      2.10 Operational wastes means all cargo-associated wastes and maintenance waste (including ash and clinkers), and cargo residues defined as garbage in 2.13.
      2.11 Sludge oil means sludge from fuel and lubricating oil separators, waste lubricating oil from main and auxiliary machinery, waste oil from bilge water separators, drip trays, etc.
      2.12 Oily rags are rags which have been saturated with oil as controlled in Annex I to the Convention. Contaminated rags are rags which have been saturated with a substance defined as a harmful substance in the other Annexes to MARPOL 73/78.
      2.13 Cargo residues for the purposes of this standard are defined as the remnants of any cargo material on board that cannot be placed in proper cargo holds (loading excess and spillage) or which remains in cargo holds and elsewhere after unloading procedures are completed (unloading residual and spillage). However, cargo residues are expected to be in small quantities..
      2.14 Fishing gear is defined as any physical device or part thereof or combination of items that may be placed on or in the water with the intended purpose of capturing, or controlling for subsequent capture, living marine or freshwater organisms.

      3 Materials and manufacture:
      3.1 The materials used in the individual parts of the incinerator are to be suitable for the intended application with respect to heat resistance, mechanical properties, oxidation, corrosion, etc., as in other auxiliary marine equipment.
      3.2 Piping for fuel and sludge oil should be seamless steel of adequate strength and to the satisfaction of the Administration. Short lengths of steel, or annealed copper nickel, nickel copper, or copper pipe and tubing may be used at the burners. The use of nonmetallic material for fuel lines is prohibited. Valves and fittings may be threaded in sizes up to and including 60 ㎜ O.D. (outside diameter), but threaded unions are not to be used on pressure lines in sizes 33 ㎜ O.D. (outside diameter) and over.
      3.3 All rotating or moving mechanical and exposed electrical parts should be protected against accidental contact.
      3.4 Incinerator walls are to be protected with insulated fire bricks/refractory and a cooling system. Outside surface temperature of the incinerator casing being touched during normal operations should not exceed 20 ºC above ambient temperature,
      3.5 Refractory should be resistant to thermal shocks and resistant to normal ship's vibration. The refractory design temperature should be equal to the combustion chamber design temperature plus 20%. (See 4.1)
      3.6 Incinerating systems should be designed such that corrosion will be minimized on the inside of the systems.
      3.7 In systems equipped for incinerating liquid wastes, safe ignition and maintenance of combustion must be ensured, e.g., by a supplementary burner using gas oil/diesel oil or equivalent.
      3.8 The combustion chamber(s) should be designed for easy maintenance of all internal parts including the refractory and insulation.
      3.9 The combustion process should take place under negative pressure which means that the pressure in the furnace under all circumstances should be lower than the ambient pressure in the room where the incinerator is installed. A flue gas fan may be fitted to secure negative pressure,
      3.10 The incinerating furnace may be charged with solid waste either by hand or automatically. In every case, fire dangers should be avoided and charging should be possible without danger to the operating personnel. For instance, where charging is carried out by hand, a charging lock may be provided which ensures that the charging space is isolated from the fire box as long as the filling hatch is open. There charging is not effected through a charging lock, an interlock should be installed to prevent the charging door from opening while the incinerator is in operation with burning of garbage in progress or while the furnace temperature is above 220 ºC.
      3.11 Incinerators equipped with a feeding sluice or system should ensure that the material charged will move to the combustion chamber. Such system should be designed such that both operator and environment are protected from hazardous exposure,
      3.12 Interlocks should be installed to prevent ash removal doors from opening while burning is in progress or while the furnace temperature is above 220 ºC.
      3.13 The incinerator should be provided with a safe observation port of the combustion chamber its order to provide visual control of the burning process and waste accumulation in the combustion chamber. Neither heat, flame, nor particles should be able to pass through the observation port. An example of a safe observation port is high-temperature glass with a metal closure.
      3.14 Electrical requirements*

      * International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) Standards, particularly IEC Publication 92-Electrical Installations in Ships and Mobile and Fixed Offshore Units, are applicable for this equipment.

      3.14.1 Electrical installation requirements should apply to all electrical equipment, including controls, safety devices, cables, and burners and incinerators.
      3.14.1.1 A disconnecting means capable of being locked in the open position should be installed at an accessible location at the incinerator so that the incinerator can be disconnected from all sources of potential. This disconnecting means should be an integral part of the incinerator or adjacent to it (See 5.1)
      3.14.1.2 All uninsulated live metal parts should be guarded to avoid accidental contact.
      3.14.1.3 The electrical equipment should be so arranged so that failure of this equipment will cause the fuel supply to be shut off.
      3.14.1.4 All electrical contacts of every safety device installed in the control circuit should be electrically connected in series. However, special consideration should be given to arrangements when certain devices are wired in parallel,
      3.14.1.5 All electrical components and devices should have a voltage rating commensurate with the supply voltage of the control system.
      3.14.1.6 All electrical devices and electric equipment exposed to the weather should meet the requirements of international standards acceptable to the Organizations.*

      * Refer to IEC Publication 92-201, Table V(1980 edition).

      3.14.1.7 All electrical and mechanical control devices should be of a type tested and accepted by a nationally recognized testing agency, according to international standards.
      3.14.1.8 The design of the control circuits should be such that limit and primary safety controls should directly open a circuit that functions to interrupt the supply of fuel to combustion units.
      3.14.2 Overcurrent protection
      3.14.2.1 Conductors for interconnecting wiring that is smaller than the supply conductors should be provided with overcurrent protection based on the size of the smallest interconnecting conductors external to any control box, in accordance with the requirements of international standards acceptable to the Organization**.

      ** Refer to IEC Publication 92-202 (1980 edition with amendment).
      3.14.2.2 Overcurrent protection for interconnecting wiring should be located at the point where the smaller conductors connect to the larger conductors. However, overall overcurrent protection is acceptable if it is sized on the basis of the smallest conductors of the interconnecting wiring, or in accordance with the requirements of international standards acceptable to the Organization.**

      ** Refer to IEC Publication 92-202 (1980 edition with amendment).

      3.14.2.3 Overcurrent protection devices should be accessible and their function should be identified
      3.14.3 Motors
      3.14.3.1 All electric motors should have enclosures corresponding to the environment where they are located, at least IP 44, in accordance with the requirements of international standards acceptable to the Organization***.

      *** Refer to IEC Publication 529 (1976 edition with amendment).

      3.14.3.2 Motors should be provided with a corrosion-resistant nameplate specifying information in accordance with the requirements of international standards acceptable to the Organization****.

      **** Refer to IEC Publication 91-301 (1980 edition).

      3.14.3.3 Motors should be provided with running protection by means of integral thermal protection, by overcurrent devices, or a combination of both in accordance with manufacturer's instruction that should be in accordance with manufacturer's instruction that should meet the requirements of international standards acceptable to the Organization*.

      * Refer to IEC Publication 92-202 (1980 edition with amendment).

      3.14.3.4 Motors should be rated for continuous duty and should be designed for an ambient temperature of 45 ºC or higher
      3.14.3.5 All motors should be provided with terminal leads or terminal screws in terminal boxes integral with, or Secured to, the motor frames.
      3.14.4 Ignition system
      3.14.4.1 When automatic electric ignition is provided, it should be accomplished by means of either a high-voltage electric spark, a high-energy electric spark, or a glow coil.
      3.14.4.2 Ignition transformers should have an enclosure corresponding to the environment where they are located, at least IP 44 in accordance with the requirements of international standards acceptable to the Organizations**.

      * Refer to IEC Publication 529 (1976 edition with amendment).

      3.14.4.3 Ignition cable should meet the standards acceptable to the Organization***.

      ***Refer to IEC Publication 92-503 (1975 edition).
      3.14.5 Wiring
      3.14.5.1 All wiring for incinerators should be rated and selected in accordance with the requirements of international standards acceptable to the Organization****.

      **** Refer to IEC Publication 92-352 (1979 edition with amendments).

      3.14.6 Bending and grounding
      3.14.6.1 Means should be provided for grounding the major metallic frame or assembly of the incinerators.
      3.14.6.2 Noncurrent carrying enclosures, frames and similar parts of all electrical components and devices should be bonded to the main frame or assembly of the incinerator Electrical components that are bonded by their installation do not require a separate bonding conductor.
      3.14.6.3 When an insulated conductor is used to bond electrical components and devices, it should show a continuous green colour, with or without a yellow stripe.

      4 Operating requirements
      4.1 The incinerator system should be designed and constructed for operation with the following conditions:

      - Maximum combustion chamber flue gas outlet temperature 1,200 ºC
      - Minimum combustion chamber flue gas outlet temperature 850 ºC
      - Preheat temperature of combustion chamber 650 ºC

      For Batch Loaded Incinerators, there are no preheating requirements. However, the incinerator should be designed that the temperature in the actual combustion space should reach 600 ºC within 5 minutes after start.

      Prepurge, before ignition: at least 4 air changes in the chamber(s) and stack, but not less than 15 seconds.
      Time between restarts: at least 4 air changes in the chamber(s) and stack, but not less than 15 seconds.
      Postpurge, after shut-off not less than 15 seconds after fuel oil: the closing of the fuel oil valves

      Incinerator discharge gases :Minimum 6% O 2,
       (measured in dry flue gas).


      4.2 Outside surface of combustion chamber(s) should be shielded from contact such that people in normal work situations will not be exposed to extreme heat (20 ºC above ambient temperature) or direct contact of surface temperatures exceeding 60 ºC. Examples for alternatives to accomplish this are a double jacket with an air flow in between or an expanded metal jacket.
      4.3 Incinerating systems are to be operated with underpressure (negative pressure) in the combustion chamber such that no gases or smoke can leak out to the surrounding areas.
      4.4 The incinerator should have warning plates attached in a prominent location on the unit, warning against unauthorized opening of doors to combustion chamber(s) during operation and against overloading the incinerator with garbage.
      4.5 The incinerator should have instruction plate(s) attached in a prominent location on the unit that clearly addresses the following:
      4.5.1 Cleaning ashes and slag from the combustion chamber(s) and cleaning of combustion air openings before starting the incinerator (where applicable).
      4.5.2 Operating procedures and instructions. These should include proper start-up procedures, normal shut-down procedures, emergency shut-down procedures, and procedures for loading garbage (where applicable).
      4.6 To avoid building up of dioxins, the flue gas should be shock-cooled to a maximum 350 º within 2.5 metres from the combustion chamber flue gas outlet.

      5 Operating controls
      5.1 The entire unit should be capable of being disconnected from all sources of electricity by means of one disconnect switch located near the incinerator. (See 3.14. 1.1)
      5.2 There should be an emergency stop switch located outside the compartment which stops all power to the equipment. The emergency stop switch should also be able to stop all power to the fuel pumps. If the incinerator is equipped with a flue gas fan, the fan should be capable of being restarted independently of the other equipment on the incinerator.
      5.3 The control equipment should be so designed that any failure of the following equipment will prevent continued operations and cause the fuel supply to be cut off.
      5.3.1 Safety thermostat/draft failure
      5.3.1.1 A flue gas temperature controller, with a sensor placed in the flue gas duct, should be provided that will shut down the burner if the flue gas temperature exceeds the temperature set by the manufacturer for the specific design.
      5.3.1.2 A combustion temperature controller, with a sensor placed in the combustion chamber, should be provided that will shut down the burner if the combustion chamber temperature exceeds the maximum temperature.
      5.3.1.3 A negative pressure switch should be provided to monitor the draft and the negative pressure in the combustion chamber. The purpose of this negative pressure switch is to ensure that there is sufficient draft/negative pressure in the incinerator during operations. The circuit to the program relay for the burner will be opened and an alarm activated before the negative pressure: rises to atmospheric pressure.
      5.3.2 Flame failure/fuel oil pressure
      5.3.2.1 The incinerator should have a flame safeguard control consisting of a flame sensing element and associated equipment for shut down of the unit in the event of ignition failure and flame failure during the firing cycle. The flame safeguard control should be so designed that the failure of any component will cause a safety shut down,
      5.3.2.2 The flame safeguard control should be capable of closing the fuel valves in not more than 4 seconds after a flame failure.
      5.3.2.3 The flame safeguard control should provide a trial-for-ignition period of not more that 10 seconds during which fuel may be supplied to establish flame. If flame is not established within 10 Seconds, the fuel supply to the burners should be immediately shut off automatically.
      5.3.2.4 Whenever the flame safeguard control has operated because of failure of ignition, flame failure, or failure of any component, only one automatic restart may be provided. If this is not successful then manual reset of the flame safeguard control should be required for restart.
      5.3.2.5 Flame safeguard controls of the thermostatic type, such as stack switches and pyrostats operated by means of an open bimetallic helix, are prohibited.
      5.3.2.6 If fuel oil pressure drops below that set by the manufacturer, a failure and lock out of the program relay should result. This also applies to a sludge oil burner. (Applies where pressure is important for the combustion process or a pump is not an integral part of the burner.)
      5.3.3 Loss of power If there is a loss of power to the incinerator control/alarm panel (not remote alarm panel), the system should shut down.
      5.4 Fuel supply
      Two fuel control solenoid valves should be provided in series in the fuel supply line to each burner. On multiple burner units, a valve on the main fuel supply line and a valve at each burner will satisfy this requirement. The valves should be connected electrically in parallel so that both operate simultaneously.
      5.5 Alarms
      5.5.1 An outlet for an audible alarm should be provided for connection to a local alarm system or a central a1arm system. When a failure occurs, a visible indicator should show what caused the failure. (The indicated may cover more than one fault condition.)
      5.5.2 The visible indicators should be designed so that, where failure is a safety related shutdown, manual reset is required.
      5.6 After shutdown of the oil burner, provision should be made for the fire box to cool sufficiently. (As an example, of how this may be accomplished, the exhaust fan or ejector could be designed to continue to operate. This would not apply in the case of an emergency manual trip.)

      6 Other requirements
      6.1 Documentation
      A complete instruction and maintenance manual with drawings, electric diagrams, spare parts list, etc., should be furnished with each incinerator.
      6.2 Installation
      All devices and components should, as fitted in the ship, be designed to operate when the ship is upright and when inclined at any angle of list up to and including 15 º either way under static conditions and 22.5 º under dynamic conditions (rolling) either way and simultaneously inclined dynamically (pitching) 7.5 º by bow or stern.
      6.3 Incinerator
      6.3.1 Incinerators are to be fitted with an energy source with sufficient energy to ensure a safe ignition and complete combustion. The combustion is to take place at sufficient negative pressure in the combustion chamber(s) to ensure no gases or smoke leaking out to the surrounding areas. (See 5.3.1.3)
      6.3.2 A driptray is to be fitted under each burner and under any pumps, strainers, etc., that require occasional examination

      7 Tests
      7.1 Prototype tests
      An operating test for the prototype of each design should be conducted, with a test report completed indicating results of all tests. The tests should be conducted to ensure that all of the control components have been properly installed and that all parts of the incinerator, including controls and safety devices, are in satisfactory operating condition. Tests should include those described in section 7.3 below.
      7.2 Factory tests
      For each unit, if preassembled, an operating test should be conducted to ensure that all of the control components have been properly installed and that all parts of the incinerator, including controls and safety devices, are in satisfactory operating condition. Tests should include those described in 7.3 below.
      7.3 Installation tests
      An operating test after installation should be conducted to ensure that all of the control components have been properly installed and that all parts of the incinerator, including controls and safety devices, are in satisfactory operating condition. The requirements for prepurge and time between restarts referred to in 4.1 should be verified at the time of the installation test.
      7.3.1 Flame safeguard. The operation of the flame safeguard system should be verified by causing flame and ignition failures. Operation of the audible alarm (where applicable) and visible indicator should be verified. The shutdown times should be verified.
      7.3.2 Limit controls. Shutdown due to the operation of the limit controls should be verified.
      7.3.2.1 Oil pressure limit control. The lowering of the fuel oil pressure below the value required for safe combustion should initiate a safety shutdown.
      7.3.2.2 Other interlocks. Other interlocks provided should be tested for proper operation as specified by the unit manufacturer.
      7.3.3 Combustion controls. The combustion controls should be stable and operate smoothly.
      7.3.4 Programming controls. Programming controls should be verified as controlling and cycling the unit in the intended manner. Proper prepurge, ignition, postpurge, and modulation should be verified. A stopwatch should be used for verifying intervals of time.
      7.3.5 Fuel supply controls. The satisfactory operation of the two fuel control solenoid valves for all conditions of operation and shutdown should be verified.
      7.3.6 Low voltage test. A low voltage test should be conducted on the incinerator unit to satisfactorily demonstrate that the fuel supply to the burners will be automatically shut off before an incinerator malfunction results from the reduced voltage.
      7.3.7 Switches. All switches should be tested to verify proper operation

      8 Certification
      8.1 Manufacturer's certification that an incinerator has been constructed in accordance with this standard should be provided (by letter, certificate, or in the instruction manual).

      9 Marking
      9.1 Each incinerator should be permanently marked indicating:
      9.1.1 Manufacturer's name or trademark.
      9.1.2 Style, type, model or other manufacturer's designation for the incinerator.
      9.1.3 Capacity-to be indicated by net designed heat release of the incinerator in heat units per timed period; for example, British Thermal Units per hour, megajoules per hour, kilocalories per hour.

      10 Quality assurance Incinerators should be designed, manufactured and tested in a manner that ensures they meet the requirements of this standard.

      A 1 - EMISSION STANDARD FOR SHIPBOARD INCINERATORS WITH CAPACITIES OF UP TO 1,500 ㎾

      Minimum information to be provided

      A1.1 An IMO TYPE APPROVAL CERTIFICATE should be required for each shipboard incinerator. In order to obtain such certificate, the incinerator should be designed and built to an IMO approved standard. Each model should go through a specified type approval test operation at the factory or an approved test facility, and under the responsibility of the Administration.

      A1.2 TYPE APPROVAL TEST SHOULD INCLUDE MEASURING OF THE FOLLOWING PARAMETERS:

      Max capacity :

      ㎾ or kcal/h

      ㎏/h of specified waste

      ㎏/h per burner

       Pilot fuel consumption ㎏/h per burner O2 Average in combustion chamber/zone :  %CO Average in flue gas :  ㎎/MJSoot number average :Bacharach or ringelman ScaleCombustion chamber flue gas outlet temperature average :°CAmount of unburned components in ashes:% by weight


      A1.3 DURATION OF TEST OPERATION
      For sludge oil burning: 6-8 hours
      For solid waste burning: 6-8 hours

      A1.4 FUEL/WASTE SPECIFICATION FOR TYPE APPROVAL TEST (% BY WEIGHT)

      Sludge oil consisting of:

      75% sludge oil from heavy fuel oil

       5% waste lubricating oil
      20% emulsified water
      50% Food Waste
      Solid waste (class 2) consisting of:50% rubbish Containing
       Approx. 30% paper,
            "       40% Cardboard,
            "       10% Rags,
            "       20% Plastic

      The mixture will have up to 50% moisture and 7% incombustible solids



      Classes of waste

      Reference: Waste Classification from Incinerator Institute of America (Information for type approval tests only)
      Class2 Refuse, consisting of approximately even mixture of rubbish and garbage by weight. This type waste is common to passenger ships occupancy, consisting of up to 50-moisture, 7% incombustible solids and has a heating value of about 10,000 kJ/kg as fired,

      Calorific ValueskJ/Kgkcal/kg
      Vegetable and putrescibles 5,7001,360
      Paper 14,3003,415
      Rag 15,5003,415

      Plastics 

      36,0008,600
      Oil sludge 36,0008,600
      Sewage sludge  3,000716
         
         
      DensitieskJ/m ³ 

      Paper(loose)

      50 
      Refuse(75% wet) 720 
      Dry rubbish110 
      Scrap wood190 
      Wood sawdust 220 


      Density of loose general waste generated on board ship will be about 130 kg/m³

      A1.5 REQUIRED EMISSION STANDARDS TO BE VERIFIED BY TYPE APPROVAL TEST

      O2, in combustion chamber 6-12%
      CO in flue gas maximum average 200 ㎎/MJ
      Soot number maximum average BACHARACH3or RINGELMAN1
      (A higher soot number is acceptable only during very short periods such as starting up)
      Unburned components in ash residues Max 10% by weight
      Combustion chamber flue gas outlet temperature range 850-1200 ºC

      Flue gas outlet temperature and 02 content should be measured during the combustion period, and not during the preheating or cooling periods. For a batch loaded incinerator, it is acceptable to carry out the type approval test by means of a single batch. A high temperature in the actual combustion chamber/zone is an absolute requirement in order to obtain a complete and smoke free incineration, including that of plastic and other synthetic materials while minimizing DIOXINE, VOC (Volatile Organic Compounds), and emissions.

      A1.6 FUEL RELATED EMISSION
      A1.6.1 Even with good incineration technology the emission from an incinerator will depend on the type of material being incinerated. If for instance a vessel has bunkered a fuel with high sulphur content, then sludge oil from separators which is burned in the incinerator will lead to emission of SOx. But again, the SOx emission from the incinerator would only amount to less than one per cent of the SOx discharged with the exhaust from main and auxiliary engines.
      A1.6.2 Principal organic constituents (POC) cannot be measured on a continuous basis. Specifically, there are no instruments with provision for continuous time telemetry that measures POC, HCI, or waste destruction efficiency, to date. These measurements can only be made using grab sample approaches where the sample is returned to a laboratory for analysis. In the case of organic constituents (undestroyed wastes), the laboratory work requires considerable time to complete. Thus, continuous emission control can only be assured by secondary measurements.
      A1.6.3 ON-BOARD OPERATION/EMISSION CONTROL
      For a shipboard incinerator with IMO TYPE APPROVAL, emission control/ monitoring should be limited to the following:
      .1 Control-monitor O2, content in combustion chamber (spot checks only; an O2, content analyse-is not required to be kept on board).
      .2 Control-monitor temperature in combustion chamber flue gas outlet. By continuous (auto) control of the incineration process, ensure that the above mentioned two parameters are kept within the prescribed limits. This mode of operation will ensure that particulates and ash residue contain only traces of organic constituents.
      A1.7 PASSENGER/CRUISE SHIPS WITH INCINERATOR INSTALLATIONS HAVING A TOTAL CAPACITY OF MORE THAN 1,500 ㎾
      A1.7.1 On board this type of vessel, the following conditions will probably exist£º
      .1 Generation of huge amounts of burnable waste with a high content of plastic and synthetic materials.
      .2 Incinerating plant with a high capacity operating continuously over long periods.
      .3 This type of vessel will often be operating in very sensitive coastal areas.
      A1.7.2 In view of the fuel related emission from a plant with such a high capacity, installation of a flue gas sea water scrubber should be considered. This installation can perform an efficient after-cleaning of the flue gases, thus minimizing the content of£º
      HCI
      SOx
      PARTICULATE MATTER
      A1.7.3 Any restriction on NITROGEN OXIDE (NOx) should only be considered in connection with possible future regulations on prevention from the vessel's total pollution, i.e., main and auxiliary machinery, boilers, etc.

      A2 -FIRE PROTECTION REQUIREMENTS FOR INCINERATORS AND WASTE STOWAGE SPACES
      For the purpose of construction, arrangement and insulation, incinerator spaces and waste stowage spaces should be treated as category A machinery spaces (SOLAS II-2/3.19) and service spaces, (SOLAS II-2/3.12), respectively To minimize the fire hazards these spaces represent, the following SOLAS requirements in chapter II-2 should be applied:
      A2.1 For passenger vessels carrying more than 36 passengers'
      .1 regulation 26.2.2(12) should apply to incinerator and combined incinerator/waste storage spaces, and the flue uptakes from such spaces; and
      .2 regulation 26.2.2(13) should apply to waste storage spaces and garbage chutes connected thereto.
      A2.2 For all other vessels including passenger vessels carrying not more than 36 passengers:
      .1 regulation 44.2.2(6) should apply to incinerator and combined incinerator/waste spaces, and the flue uptakes from such spaces; and
      .2 regulation 44.2.2(9) should apply to waste storage spaces and garbage chutes connected thereto.
      A2.3 Incinerators and waste stowage spaces located on weather decks (regulation II-2/3.(17)) need not meet the above requirements but should be located:
      .1 as far aft on the vessel as possible;
      .2 not less than 3 m from entrances, air inlets and openings to accommodations, service spaces and control stations;
      .3 not less than 5 m measured horizontally from the nearest hazardous area, or vent outlet from a hazardous area; and
      .4 not less than 2 m should separate the incinerator and the waste material storage area, unless physically separated by a structural fire barrier.
      A2.4 A fixed fire detection and fire-extinguishing system should be installed in enclosed spaces containing incinerators, in combined incinerator/waste storage spaces, and in any waste storage space in accordance with the following table:

       Automatic sprinkler systemFixed fire-extinguishing systemFixed fire detection system
      Combined incinerator and waste storage spacex  
      Incinerator space xx
      Waste storage spacex  


      A2.5 Where an incinerator or waste storage space is located on weather decks it must be accessible with two means of fire extinguishment; either fire hoses, semi-portable fire extinguishers, fire monitors or combination of any two of these extinguishing devices. A fixed fire-extinguishing system is acceptable as one means of extinguishment.
      A2.6 Flue uptake piping/ducting should be led independently to an appropriate terminus via a continuous funnel or trunk.

      A3 - INCINERATORS INTEGRATED WITH HEAT RECOVERY UNITS
      A3.1 The flue gas system, for incinerators where the flue gas is led through a heat recovery device, should be designed so that the incinerator can continue operation with the economizer coils dry. This maybe accomplished with bypass dampers if needed.
      A3.2 The incinerator unit should be equipped with a visual and an audible alarm in case of loss of feed-water.
      A3.3 The gas-side of the heat recovery device should have equipment for proper cleaning. Sufficient access should be provided for adequate inspection of external heating surfaces.

      A4 - FLUE GAS TEMPERATURE
      A4.1 When deciding upon the type of incinerator, consideration should be given as to what the flue gas temperature will be. The flue gas temperature can be a determining factor in the selection of materials for fabricating the stack. Special high temperature material may be required for use in fabricating the stack when the flue gas temperatures exceed 430 ºC

      ANNEX
      FORM OF IMO TYPE APPROVAL CERTIFICATE FOR SHIPBOARD INCINERATORS WITH CAPACITIES OF UP TO 1,500 ㎾

      CERTIFICATE OF SHIPBOARD INCINERATOR
      BADGE
      NAME OF ADMINISTRATION
      OR CYPHER


      This is to certify that the shipboard incinerator listed has been examined and tested in accordance with the requirement of the standard for shipboard incinerators for disposing of ship-generated waster appended to the Guidelines for the Implementation of Annex V of MARPOL 73/78.
      Incinerate-manufactured by .................................................................................................................
      Style, type or model for the incinerator* .............................................................................................

      * Delete as appropriate

      Max. capacity ......................... ㎾ or kcal/h
      .........................kg¸/h of specified
      ........................ kg¸/h per burner
      O2, Average in combustion chamber/zone ....................... %
      CO Average in flue gas ....................... mg/MJ
      Soot number average ....................... Bacharach or ringelman scale
      Combustion chamber flue gas outlet temperature average .....................ºC
      Amount of unburned components in ashes .................... % by weight

      A copy of this certificate should be carried on board a vessel fitted with this equipment at all times.
      Signed ......................................................
      Official stamp Administration of ..................................... ...................................................................
      Dated this ........day of ..... 19 ...................

      Ingangsdatum: 05-10-2000
      RESOLUTION MEPC.76(40)

      Table of Contents
      1. Scope
      2. Definitions
      3. Materials and manufacture
      4. Operating requirements
      5. Operating controls
      6. Other requirements
      7. Tests
      8. Certification
      9. Marking
      10. Quality assurance

      ANNEX
      A1 - Emission Standard for Shipboard Incinerators
      A2 - Fire Protection Requirements for Incinerators for Incinerators and Waste Stowage Spaces
      A3 - Incinerators integrated with heat recovery units
      A4 - Flue gas temperature

      STANDARD SPECIFICATION FOR SHIPBOARD INCINERATORS

      1 Scope
      1.1 This specification covers the design, manufacture, performance, operation and testing of incinerators intended to incinerate garbage and other shipboard wastes generated during the ship's normal service.
      1.2 This specification applies to those incinerator plants with capacities up to 1,500 ㎾ per unit.
      1.3 This specification does not apply to systems on special incinerator ships, e.g., for burning industrial wastes such as chemicals, manufacturing residues, etc.
      1.4 This specification does not address the electrical supply to the unit, nor the foundation connections and stack connections.
      1.5 This specification provides emission requirements in annex A1, and fire protection requirements in annex A2. Provisions for incinerators integrated with heat recovery units and provisions for flue gas temperature are given in annex A3 and annex A4, respectively.
      1.6 This specification may involve hazardous materials, operations, and equipment. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety problems associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use, including possible port State limitations.

      2 Definitions
      2.1 Ship means a vessel of any type whatsoever operating in the marine environment and includes hydrofoil boats, air-cushioned vehicles, submersibles, floating craft and fixed or floating platforms.
      2.2 Incinerator means shipboard facilities for incinerating solid wastes approximating in composition to household waste and liquid wastes arising from the operation of the ship, e.g., domestic waste, cargo-associated waste, maintenance waste, operational waste, cargo residues, and fishing gear, etc. These facilities may be designed to use or not to use the heat energy produced.
      2.3 Garbage means all kinds of victual, domestic and operational waste excluding fresh fish and parts thereof, generated during normal operation of the ship as defined in Annex V to MARPOL 73/78.
      2.4 Waste means useless, unneeded or superfluous matter which is to be discarded.
      2.5 Food wastes are any spoiled or unspoiled victual substances, such as fruits, vegetables, dairy products, poultry, meat products, food scraps, food particles, and all other materials contaminated by such wastes, generated aboard ship, principally in the galley and dining areas.
      2.6 Plastic means a solid material which contains as an essential ingredient one or more synthetic organic high polymers and which is formed (shaped) during either manufacture of the polymer or the fabrication into a finished product by heat and/or pressure. plastics have Intertidal properties ranging from hard and brittle to soft and elastic. Plastics are used for a variety of marine purposes including, but not limited to, packaging (vapour-proof barriers, bottles, containers, liners), ship construction (fiberglass and laminated structures, siding, piping, insulation, flooring, carpets, fabrics, paints and finishes, adhesives, electrical and electronic components), disposable eating utensils and cups, bags, sheeting, floats, fishing nets, strapping bands, rope and line.
      2.7 Domestic waste means all types of food wastes, sewage and wastes generated in the living spaces on board the ship for the purpose of this specification.
      2.8 Cargo-associated waste means all materials which have become wastes as a result of use on board a ship for cargo stowage and handling. Cargo- associated waste includes but is not limited to dunnage, shoring pallets, lining and packing materials, plywood, paper, cardboard, wire, and steel strapping.
      2.9 Maintenance waste means materials collected by the engine department and the deck department while maintaining and operating the vessel, such as soot, machinery deposits, scraped paint, deck sweeping, wiping wastes, oily rags, etc.
      2.10 Operational wastes means all cargo-associated wastes and maintenance waste (including ash and clinkers), and cargo residues defined as garbage in 2.13.
      2.11 Sludge oil means sludge from fuel and lubricating oil separators, waste lubricating oil from main and auxiliary machinery, waste oil from bilge water separators, drip trays, etc.
      2.12 Oily rags are rags which have been saturated with oil as controlled in Annex I to the Convention. Contaminated rags are rags which have been saturated with a substance defined as a harmful substance in the other Annexes to MARPOL 73/78.
      2.13 Cargo residues for the purposes of this standard are defined as the remnants of any cargo material on board that cannot be placed in proper cargo holds (loading excess and spillage) or which remains in cargo holds and elsewhere after unloading procedures are completed (unloading residual and spillage). However, cargo residues are expected to be in small quantities..
      2.14 Fishing gear is defined as any physical device or part thereof or combination of items that may be placed on or in the water with the intended purpose of capturing, or controlling for subsequent capture, living marine or freshwater organisms.

      3 Materials and manufacture:
      3.1 The materials used in the individual parts of the incinerator are to be suitable for the intended application with respect to heat resistance, mechanical properties, oxidation, corrosion, etc., as in other auxiliary marine equipment.
      3.2 Piping for fuel and sludge oil should be seamless steel of adequate strength and to the satisfaction of the Administration. Short lengths of steel, or annealed copper nickel, nickel copper, or copper pipe and tubing may be used at the burners. The use of nonmetallic material for fuel lines is prohibited. Valves and fittings may be threaded in sizes up to and including 60 ㎜ O.D. (outside diameter), but threaded unions are not to be used on pressure lines in sizes 33 ㎜ O.D. (outside diameter) and over.
      3.3 All rotating or moving mechanical and exposed electrical parts should be protected against accidental contact.
      3.4 Incinerator walls are to be protected with insulated fire bricks/refractory and a cooling system. Outside surface temperature of the incinerator casing being touched during normal operations should not exceed 20 ºC above ambient temperature,
      3.5 Refractory should be resistant to thermal shocks and resistant to normal ship's vibration. The refractory design temperature should be equal to the combustion chamber design temperature plus 20%. (See 4.1)
      3.6 Incinerating systems should be designed such that corrosion will be minimized on the inside of the systems.
      3.7 In systems equipped for incinerating liquid wastes, safe ignition and maintenance of combustion must be ensured, e.g., by a supplementary burner using gas oil/diesel oil or equivalent.
      3.8 The combustion chamber(s) should be designed for easy maintenance of all internal parts including the refractory and insulation.
      3.9 The combustion process should take place under negative pressure which means that the pressure in the furnace under all circumstances should be lower than the ambient pressure in the room where the incinerator is installed. A flue gas fan may be fitted to secure negative pressure,
      3.10 The incinerating furnace may be charged with solid waste either by hand or automatically. In every case, fire dangers should be avoided and charging should be possible without danger to the operating personnel. For instance, where charging is carried out by hand, a charging lock may be provided which ensures that the charging space is isolated from the fire box as long as the filling hatch is open. There charging is not effected through a charging lock, an interlock should be installed to prevent the charging door from opening while the incinerator is in operation with burning of garbage in progress or while the furnace temperature is above 220 ºC.
      3.11 Incinerators equipped with a feeding sluice or system should ensure that the material charged will move to the combustion chamber. Such system should be designed such that both operator and environment are protected from hazardous exposure,
      3.12 Interlocks should be installed to prevent ash removal doors from opening while burning is in progress or while the furnace temperature is above 220 ºC.
      3.13 The incinerator should be provided with a safe observation port of the combustion chamber its order to provide visual control of the burning process and waste accumulation in the combustion chamber. Neither heat, flame, nor particles should be able to pass through the observation port. An example of a safe observation port is high-temperature glass with a metal closure.
      3.14 Electrical requirements*

      * International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) Standards, particularly IEC Publication 92-Electrical Installations in Ships and Mobile and Fixed Offshore Units, are applicable for this equipment.

      3.14.1 Electrical installation requirements should apply to all electrical equipment, including controls, safety devices, cables, and burners and incinerators.
      3.14.1.1 A disconnecting means capable of being locked in the open position should be installed at an accessible location at the incinerator so that the incinerator can be disconnected from all sources of potential. This disconnecting means should be an integral part of the incinerator or adjacent to it (See 5.1)
      3.14.1.2 All uninsulated live metal parts should be guarded to avoid accidental contact.
      3.14.1.3 The electrical equipment should be so arranged so that failure of this equipment will cause the fuel supply to be shut off.
      3.14.1.4 All electrical contacts of every safety device installed in the control circuit should be electrically connected in series. However, special consideration should be given to arrangements when certain devices are wired in parallel,
      3.14.1.5 All electrical components and devices should have a voltage rating commensurate with the supply voltage of the control system.
      3.14.1.6 All electrical devices and electric equipment exposed to the weather should meet the requirements of international standards acceptable to the Organizations.*

      * Refer to IEC Publication 92-201, Table V(1980 edition).

      3.14.1.7 All electrical and mechanical control devices should be of a type tested and accepted by a nationally recognized testing agency, according to international standards.
      3.14.1.8 The design of the control circuits should be such that limit and primary safety controls should directly open a circuit that functions to interrupt the supply of fuel to combustion units.
      3.14.2 Overcurrent protection
      3.14.2.1 Conductors for interconnecting wiring that is smaller than the supply conductors should be provided with overcurrent protection based on the size of the smallest interconnecting conductors external to any control box, in accordance with the requirements of international standards acceptable to the Organization**.

      ** Refer to IEC Publication 92-202 (1980 edition with amendment).
      3.14.2.2 Overcurrent protection for interconnecting wiring should be located at the point where the smaller conductors connect to the larger conductors. However, overall overcurrent protection is acceptable if it is sized on the basis of the smallest conductors of the interconnecting wiring, or in accordance with the requirements of international standards acceptable to the Organization.**

      ** Refer to IEC Publication 92-202 (1980 edition with amendment).

      3.14.2.3 Overcurrent protection devices should be accessible and their function should be identified
      3.14.3 Motors
      3.14.3.1 All electric motors should have enclosures corresponding to the environment where they are located, at least IP 44, in accordance with the requirements of international standards acceptable to the Organization***.

      *** Refer to IEC Publication 529 (1976 edition with amendment).

      3.14.3.2 Motors should be provided with a corrosion-resistant nameplate specifying information in accordance with the requirements of international standards acceptable to the Organization****.

      **** Refer to IEC Publication 91-301 (1980 edition).

      3.14.3.3 Motors should be provided with running protection by means of integral thermal protection, by overcurrent devices, or a combination of both in accordance with manufacturer's instruction that should be in accordance with manufacturer's instruction that should meet the requirements of international standards acceptable to the Organization*.

      * Refer to IEC Publication 92-202 (1980 edition with amendment).

      3.14.3.4 Motors should be rated for continuous duty and should be designed for an ambient temperature of 45 ºC or higher
      3.14.3.5 All motors should be provided with terminal leads or terminal screws in terminal boxes integral with, or Secured to, the motor frames.
      3.14.4 Ignition system
      3.14.4.1 When automatic electric ignition is provided, it should be accomplished by means of either a high-voltage electric spark, a high-energy electric spark, or a glow coil.
      3.14.4.2 Ignition transformers should have an enclosure corresponding to the environment where they are located, at least IP 44 in accordance with the requirements of international standards acceptable to the Organizations**.

      * Refer to IEC Publication 529 (1976 edition with amendment).

      3.14.4.3 Ignition cable should meet the standards acceptable to the Organization***.

      ***Refer to IEC Publication 92-503 (1975 edition).
      3.14.5 Wiring
      3.14.5.1 All wiring for incinerators should be rated and selected in accordance with the requirements of international standards acceptable to the Organization****.

      **** Refer to IEC Publication 92-352 (1979 edition with amendments).

      3.14.6 Bending and grounding
      3.14.6.1 Means should be provided for grounding the major metallic frame or assembly of the incinerators.
      3.14.6.2 Noncurrent carrying enclosures, frames and similar parts of all electrical components and devices should be bonded to the main frame or assembly of the incinerator Electrical components that are bonded by their installation do not require a separate bonding conductor.
      3.14.6.3 When an insulated conductor is used to bond electrical components and devices, it should show a continuous green colour, with or without a yellow stripe.

      4 Operating requirements
      4.1 The incinerator system should be designed and constructed for operation with the following conditions:

      - Maximum combustion chamber flue gas outlet temperature 1,200 ºC
      - Minimum combustion chamber flue gas outlet temperature 850 ºC
      - Preheat temperature of combustion chamber 650 ºC

      For Batch Loaded Incinerators, there are no preheating requirements. However, the incinerator should be designed that the temperature in the actual combustion space should reach 600 ºC within 5 minutes after start.

      Prepurge, before ignition: at least 4 air changes in the chamber(s) and stack, but not less than 15 seconds.
      Time between restarts: at least 4 air changes in the chamber(s) and stack, but not less than 15 seconds.
      Postpurge, after shut-off not less than 15 seconds after fuel oil: the closing of the fuel oil valves

      Incinerator discharge gases :Minimum 6% O 2,
       (measured in dry flue gas).


      4.2 Outside surface of combustion chamber(s) should be shielded from contact such that people in normal work situations will not be exposed to extreme heat (20 ºC above ambient temperature) or direct contact of surface temperatures exceeding 60 ºC. Examples for alternatives to accomplish this are a double jacket with an air flow in between or an expanded metal jacket.
      4.3 Incinerating systems are to be operated with underpressure (negative pressure) in the combustion chamber such that no gases or smoke can leak out to the surrounding areas.
      4.4 The incinerator should have warning plates attached in a prominent location on the unit, warning against unauthorized opening of doors to combustion chamber(s) during operation and against overloading the incinerator with garbage.
      4.5 The incinerator should have instruction plate(s) attached in a prominent location on the unit that clearly addresses the following:
      4.5.1 Cleaning ashes and slag from the combustion chamber(s) and cleaning of combustion air openings before starting the incinerator (where applicable).
      4.5.2 Operating procedures and instructions. These should include proper start-up procedures, normal shut-down procedures, emergency shut-down procedures, and procedures for loading garbage (where applicable).
      4.6 To avoid building up of dioxins, the flue gas should be shock-cooled to a maximum 350 º within 2.5 metres from the combustion chamber flue gas outlet.

      5 Operating controls
      5.1 The entire unit should be capable of being disconnected from all sources of electricity by means of one disconnect switch located near the incinerator. (See 3.14. 1.1)
      5.2 There should be an emergency stop switch located outside the compartment which stops all power to the equipment. The emergency stop switch should also be able to stop all power to the fuel pumps. If the incinerator is equipped with a flue gas fan, the fan should be capable of being restarted independently of the other equipment on the incinerator.
      5.3 The control equipment should be so designed that any failure of the following equipment will prevent continued operations and cause the fuel supply to be cut off.
      5.3.1 Safety thermostat/draft failure
      5.3.1.1 A flue gas temperature controller, with a sensor placed in the flue gas duct, should be provided that will shut down the burner if the flue gas temperature exceeds the temperature set by the manufacturer for the specific design.
      5.3.1.2 A combustion temperature controller, with a sensor placed in the combustion chamber, should be provided that will shut down the burner if the combustion chamber temperature exceeds the maximum temperature.
      5.3.1.3 A negative pressure switch should be provided to monitor the draft and the negative pressure in the combustion chamber. The purpose of this negative pressure switch is to ensure that there is sufficient draft/negative pressure in the incinerator during operations. The circuit to the program relay for the burner will be opened and an alarm activated before the negative pressure: rises to atmospheric pressure.
      5.3.2 Flame failure/fuel oil pressure
      5.3.2.1 The incinerator should have a flame safeguard control consisting of a flame sensing element and associated equipment for shut down of the unit in the event of ignition failure and flame failure during the firing cycle. The flame safeguard control should be so designed that the failure of any component will cause a safety shut down,
      5.3.2.2 The flame safeguard control should be capable of closing the fuel valves in not more than 4 seconds after a flame failure.
      5.3.2.3 The flame safeguard control should provide a trial-for-ignition period of not more that 10 seconds during which fuel may be supplied to establish flame. If flame is not established within 10 Seconds, the fuel supply to the burners should be immediately shut off automatically.
      5.3.2.4 Whenever the flame safeguard control has operated because of failure of ignition, flame failure, or failure of any component, only one automatic restart may be provided. If this is not successful then manual reset of the flame safeguard control should be required for restart.
      5.3.2.5 Flame safeguard controls of the thermostatic type, such as stack switches and pyrostats operated by means of an open bimetallic helix, are prohibited.
      5.3.2.6 If fuel oil pressure drops below that set by the manufacturer, a failure and lock out of the program relay should result. This also applies to a sludge oil burner. (Applies where pressure is important for the combustion process or a pump is not an integral part of the burner.)
      5.3.3 Loss of power If there is a loss of power to the incinerator control/alarm panel (not remote alarm panel), the system should shut down.
      5.4 Fuel supply
      Two fuel control solenoid valves should be provided in series in the fuel supply line to each burner. On multiple burner units, a valve on the main fuel supply line and a valve at each burner will satisfy this requirement. The valves should be connected electrically in parallel so that both operate simultaneously.
      5.5 Alarms
      5.5.1 An outlet for an audible alarm should be provided for connection to a local alarm system or a central a1arm system. When a failure occurs, a visible indicator should show what caused the failure. (The indicated may cover more than one fault condition.)
      5.5.2 The visible indicators should be designed so that, where failure is a safety related shutdown, manual reset is required.
      5.6 After shutdown of the oil burner, provision should be made for the fire box to cool sufficiently. (As an example, of how this may be accomplished, the exhaust fan or ejector could be designed to continue to operate. This would not apply in the case of an emergency manual trip.)

      6 Other requirements
      6.1 Documentation
      A complete instruction and maintenance manual with drawings, electric diagrams, spare parts list, etc., should be furnished with each incinerator.
      6.2 Installation
      All devices and components should, as fitted in the ship, be designed to operate when the ship is upright and when inclined at any angle of list up to and including 15 º either way under static conditions and 22.5 º under dynamic conditions (rolling) either way and simultaneously inclined dynamically (pitching) 7.5 º by bow or stern.
      6.3 Incinerator
      6.3.1 Incinerators are to be fitted with an energy source with sufficient energy to ensure a safe ignition and complete combustion. The combustion is to take place at sufficient negative pressure in the combustion chamber(s) to ensure no gases or smoke leaking out to the surrounding areas. (See 5.3.1.3)
      6.3.2 A driptray is to be fitted under each burner and under any pumps, strainers, etc., that require occasional examination

      7 Tests
      7.1 Prototype tests
      An operating test for the prototype of each design should be conducted, with a test report completed indicating results of all tests. The tests should be conducted to ensure that all of the control components have been properly installed and that all parts of the incinerator, including controls and safety devices, are in satisfactory operating condition. Tests should include those described in section 7.3 below.
      7.2 Factory tests
      For each unit, if preassembled, an operating test should be conducted to ensure that all of the control components have been properly installed and that all parts of the incinerator, including controls and safety devices, are in satisfactory operating condition. Tests should include those described in 7.3 below.
      7.3 Installation tests
      An operating test after installation should be conducted to ensure that all of the control components have been properly installed and that all parts of the incinerator, including controls and safety devices, are in satisfactory operating condition. The requirements for prepurge and time between restarts referred to in 4.1 should be verified at the time of the installation test.
      7.3.1 Flame safeguard. The operation of the flame safeguard system should be verified by causing flame and ignition failures. Operation of the audible alarm (where applicable) and visible indicator should be verified. The shutdown times should be verified.
      7.3.2 Limit controls. Shutdown due to the operation of the limit controls should be verified.
      7.3.2.1 Oil pressure limit control. The lowering of the fuel oil pressure below the value required for safe combustion should initiate a safety shutdown.
      7.3.2.2 Other interlocks. Other interlocks provided should be tested for proper operation as specified by the unit manufacturer.
      7.3.3 Combustion controls. The combustion controls should be stable and operate smoothly.
      7.3.4 Programming controls. Programming controls should be verified as controlling and cycling the unit in the intended manner. Proper prepurge, ignition, postpurge, and modulation should be verified. A stopwatch should be used for verifying intervals of time.
      7.3.5 Fuel supply controls. The satisfactory operation of the two fuel control solenoid valves for all conditions of operation and shutdown should be verified.
      7.3.6 Low voltage test. A low voltage test should be conducted on the incinerator unit to satisfactorily demonstrate that the fuel supply to the burners will be automatically shut off before an incinerator malfunction results from the reduced voltage.
      7.3.7 Switches. All switches should be tested to verify proper operation

      8 Certification
      8.1 Manufacturer's certification that an incinerator has been constructed in accordance with this standard should be provided (by letter, certificate, or in the instruction manual).

      9 Marking
      9.1 Each incinerator should be permanently marked indicating:
      9.1.1 Manufacturer's name or trademark.
      9.1.2 Style, type, model or other manufacturer's designation for the incinerator.
      9.1.3 Capacity-to be indicated by net designed heat release of the incinerator in heat units per timed period; for example, British Thermal Units per hour, megajoules per hour, kilocalories per hour.

      10 Quality assurance Incinerators should be designed, manufactured and tested in a manner that ensures they meet the requirements of this standard.

      A 1 - EMISSION STANDARD FOR SHIPBOARD INCINERATORS WITH CAPACITIES OF UP TO 1,500 ㎾

      Minimum information to be provided

      A1.1 An IMO TYPE APPROVAL CERTIFICATE should be required for each shipboard incinerator. In order to obtain such certificate, the incinerator should be designed and built to an IMO approved standard. Each model should go through a specified type approval test operation at the factory or an approved test facility, and under the responsibility of the Administration.

      A1.2 TYPE APPROVAL TEST SHOULD INCLUDE MEASURING OF THE FOLLOWING PARAMETERS:

      Max capacity :

      ㎾ or kcal/h

      ㎏/h of specified waste

      ㎏/h per burner

       Pilot fuel consumption ㎏/h per burner O2 Average in combustion chamber/zone :  %CO Average in flue gas :  ㎎/MJSoot number average :Bacharach or ringelman ScaleCombustion chamber flue gas outlet temperature average :°CAmount of unburned components in ashes:% by weight


      A1.3 DURATION OF TEST OPERATION
      For sludge oil burning: 6-8 hours
      For solid waste burning: 6-8 hours

      A1.4 FUEL/WASTE SPECIFICATION FOR TYPE APPROVAL TEST (% BY WEIGHT)

      Sludge oil consisting of:

      75% sludge oil from heavy fuel oil

       5% waste lubricating oil
      20% emulsified water
      50% Food Waste
      Solid waste (class 2) consisting of:50% rubbish Containing
       Approx. 30% paper,
            "       40% Cardboard,
            "       10% Rags,
            "       20% Plastic

      The mixture will have up to 50% moisture and 7% incombustible solids



      Classes of waste

      Reference: Waste Classification from Incinerator Institute of America (Information for type approval tests only)
      Class2 Refuse, consisting of approximately even mixture of rubbish and garbage by weight. This type waste is common to passenger ships occupancy, consisting of up to 50-moisture, 7% incombustible solids and has a heating value of about 10,000 kJ/kg as fired,

      Calorific ValueskJ/Kgkcal/kg
      Vegetable and putrescibles 5,7001,360
      Paper 14,3003,415
      Rag 15,5003,415

      Plastics 

      36,0008,600
      Oil sludge 36,0008,600
      Sewage sludge  3,000716
         
         
      DensitieskJ/m ³ 

      Paper(loose)

      50 
      Refuse(75% wet) 720 
      Dry rubbish110 
      Scrap wood190 
      Wood sawdust 220 


      Density of loose general waste generated on board ship will be about 130 kg/m³

      A1.5 REQUIRED EMISSION STANDARDS TO BE VERIFIED BY TYPE APPROVAL TEST

      O2, in combustion chamber 6-12%
      CO in flue gas maximum average 200 ㎎/MJ
      Soot number maximum average BACHARACH3or RINGELMAN1
      (A higher soot number is acceptable only during very short periods such as starting up)
      Unburned components in ash residues Max 10% by weight
      Combustion chamber flue gas outlet temperature range 850-1200 ºC

      Flue gas outlet temperature and 02 content should be measured during the combustion period, and not during the preheating or cooling periods. For a batch loaded incinerator, it is acceptable to carry out the type approval test by means of a single batch. A high temperature in the actual combustion chamber/zone is an absolute requirement in order to obtain a complete and smoke free incineration, including that of plastic and other synthetic materials while minimizing DIOXINE, VOC (Volatile Organic Compounds), and emissions.

      A1.6 FUEL RELATED EMISSION
      A1.6.1 Even with good incineration technology the emission from an incinerator will depend on the type of material being incinerated. If for instance a vessel has bunkered a fuel with high sulphur content, then sludge oil from separators which is burned in the incinerator will lead to emission of SOx. But again, the SOx emission from the incinerator would only amount to less than one per cent of the SOx discharged with the exhaust from main and auxiliary engines.
      A1.6.2 Principal organic constituents (POC) cannot be measured on a continuous basis. Specifically, there are no instruments with provision for continuous time telemetry that measures POC, HCI, or waste destruction efficiency, to date. These measurements can only be made using grab sample approaches where the sample is returned to a laboratory for analysis. In the case of organic constituents (undestroyed wastes), the laboratory work requires considerable time to complete. Thus, continuous emission control can only be assured by secondary measurements.
      A1.6.3 ON-BOARD OPERATION/EMISSION CONTROL
      For a shipboard incinerator with IMO TYPE APPROVAL, emission control/ monitoring should be limited to the following:
      .1 Control-monitor O2, content in combustion chamber (spot checks only; an O2, content analyse-is not required to be kept on board).
      .2 Control-monitor temperature in combustion chamber flue gas outlet. By continuous (auto) control of the incineration process, ensure that the above mentioned two parameters are kept within the prescribed limits. This mode of operation will ensure that particulates and ash residue contain only traces of organic constituents.
      A1.7 PASSENGER/CRUISE SHIPS WITH INCINERATOR INSTALLATIONS HAVING A TOTAL CAPACITY OF MORE THAN 1,500 ㎾
      A1.7.1 On board this type of vessel, the following conditions will probably exist£º
      .1 Generation of huge amounts of burnable waste with a high content of plastic and synthetic materials.
      .2 Incinerating plant with a high capacity operating continuously over long periods.
      .3 This type of vessel will often be operating in very sensitive coastal areas.
      A1.7.2 In view of the fuel related emission from a plant with such a high capacity, installation of a flue gas sea water scrubber should be considered. This installation can perform an efficient after-cleaning of the flue gases, thus minimizing the content of£º
      HCI
      SOx
      PARTICULATE MATTER
      A1.7.3 Any restriction on NITROGEN OXIDE (NOx) should only be considered in connection with possible future regulations on prevention from the vessel's total pollution, i.e., main and auxiliary machinery, boilers, etc.

      A2 -FIRE PROTECTION REQUIREMENTS FOR INCINERATORS AND WASTE STOWAGE SPACES
      For the purpose of construction, arrangement and insulation, incinerator spaces and waste stowage spaces should be treated as category A machinery spaces (SOLAS II-2/3.19) and service spaces, (SOLAS II-2/3.12), respectively To minimize the fire hazards these spaces represent, the following SOLAS requirements in chapter II-2 should be applied:
      A2.1 For passenger vessels carrying more than 36 passengers'
      .1 regulation 26.2.2(12) should apply to incinerator and combined incinerator/waste storage spaces, and the flue uptakes from such spaces; and
      .2 regulation 26.2.2(13) should apply to waste storage spaces and garbage chutes connected thereto.
      A2.2 For all other vessels including passenger vessels carrying not more than 36 passengers:
      .1 regulation 44.2.2(6) should apply to incinerator and combined incinerator/waste spaces, and the flue uptakes from such spaces; and
      .2 regulation 44.2.2(9) should apply to waste storage spaces and garbage chutes connected thereto.
      A2.3 Incinerators and waste stowage spaces located on weather decks (regulation II-2/3.(17)) need not meet the above requirements but should be located:
      .1 as far aft on the vessel as possible;
      .2 not less than 3 m from entrances, air inlets and openings to accommodations, service spaces and control stations;
      .3 not less than 5 m measured horizontally from the nearest hazardous area, or vent outlet from a hazardous area; and
      .4 not less than 2 m should separate the incinerator and the waste material storage area, unless physically separated by a structural fire barrier.
      A2.4 A fixed fire detection and fire-extinguishing system should be installed in enclosed spaces containing incinerators, in combined incinerator/waste storage spaces, and in any waste storage space in accordance with the following table:

       Automatic sprinkler systemFixed fire-extinguishing systemFixed fire detection system
      Combined incinerator and waste storage spacex  
      Incinerator space xx
      Waste storage spacex  


      A2.5 Where an incinerator or waste storage space is located on weather decks it must be accessible with two means of fire extinguishment; either fire hoses, semi-portable fire extinguishers, fire monitors or combination of any two of these extinguishing devices. A fixed fire-extinguishing system is acceptable as one means of extinguishment.
      A2.6 Flue uptake piping/ducting should be led independently to an appropriate terminus via a continuous funnel or trunk.

      A3 - INCINERATORS INTEGRATED WITH HEAT RECOVERY UNITS
      A3.1 The flue gas system, for incinerators where the flue gas is led through a heat recovery device, should be designed so that the incinerator can continue operation with the economizer coils dry. This maybe accomplished with bypass dampers if needed.
      A3.2 The incinerator unit should be equipped with a visual and an audible alarm in case of loss of feed-water.
      A3.3 The gas-side of the heat recovery device should have equipment for proper cleaning. Sufficient access should be provided for adequate inspection of external heating surfaces.

      A4 - FLUE GAS TEMPERATURE
      A4.1 When deciding upon the type of incinerator, consideration should be given as to what the flue gas temperature will be. The flue gas temperature can be a determining factor in the selection of materials for fabricating the stack. Special high temperature material may be required for use in fabricating the stack when the flue gas temperatures exceed 430 ºC

      ANNEX
      FORM OF IMO TYPE APPROVAL CERTIFICATE FOR SHIPBOARD INCINERATORS WITH CAPACITIES OF UP TO 1,500 ㎾

      CERTIFICATE OF SHIPBOARD INCINERATOR
      BADGE
      NAME OF ADMINISTRATION
      OR CYPHER


      This is to certify that the shipboard incinerator listed has been examined and tested in accordance with the requirements of the Standard for Shipboard Incinerators for disposing of ship-generated waste appended to the Guidelines for the Implementation of Annex V of MARPOL 73/78 as amended by resolution MEPC.76(40) and referenced by regulation 16 of Annex VI to MARPOL 73/78
      Incinerate-manufactured by .................................................................................................................
      Style, type or model for the incinerator* .............................................................................................

      * Delete as appropriate

      Max. capacity ......................... ㎾ or kcal/h
      .........................kg¸/h of specified
      ........................ kg¸/h per burner
      O2, Average in combustion chamber/zone ....................... %
      CO Average in flue gas ....................... mg/MJ
      Soot number average ....................... Bacharach or ringelman scale
      Combustion chamber flue gas outlet temperature average .....................ºC
      Amount of unburned components in ashes .................... % by weight

      A copy of this certificate should be carried on board a vessel fitted with this equipment at all times.
      Signed ......................................................
      Official stamp Administration of ..................................... ...................................................................
      Dated this ........day of ..... 19 ...................
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