Onderwerp: Bezoek-historie

HSC-Code 2000 International code of safety for High-Speed Craft (MSC.97(73))
Geldigheid:01-07-2002 t/m Versie:vergelijk
Vergelijk versie 2 met:
Status: Geldig vandaag

Dit onderwerp bevat de volgende rubrieken.

Adoption of the international code of safety for High-Speed Craft, 2000 (2000 (HSC Code)

THE MARITIME SAFETY COMMITTEE,

RECALLING Article 28(b) of the Convention on the International Maritime Organization concerning the functions of the Committee,

NOTING the International Code for the Safety of High-Speed Craft (1994 HSC Code) and chapter X of the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS), 1974 (hereinafter referred to as "the Convention"), which made the 1994 HSC Code mandatory under the Convention,

RECOGNIZING that development of novel types and sizes of high-speed craft and improvements of maritime safety standards since the adoption of the 1994 HSC Code necessitate the revision of the provisions for the design, construction, equipment and operation of high-speed craft in order to maintain the highest practical level of safety,

NOTING ALSO resolution MSC.99(73) by which it adopted amendments to chapter X of the Convention to make the provisions of the International Code for the Safety of High-Speed Craft, 2000 (2000 HSC Code) mandatory under the Convention for high-speed craft constructed on or after 1 July 2002,

HAVING CONSIDERED, at its seventy-third session, the text of the draft 2000 HSC Code which has been developed following a thorough revision of the 1994 HSC Code,

  1. ADOPTS the International Code of Safety for High-Speed Craft, 2000 (2000 HSC Code), the text of which is set out in the Annex to the present resolution;

  2. INVITES Contracting Governments to the Convention to note that the 2000 HSC Code will take effect on 1 July 2002 upon entry into force of the amendments to chapter X of the Convention;

  3. REQUESTS the Secretary-General to transmit certified copies of the present resolution and the text of the 2000 HSC Code contained in the Annex to all Contracting Governments to the Convention;

  4. FURTHER REQUESTS the Secretary-General to transmit copies of this resolution and the Annex to all Members of the Organization which are not Contracting Governments to the Convention.

Chapter 01 General comment and requirements

01.01 General comments

This Code shall be applied as a complete set of comprehensive requirements. It contains requirements for the design and construction of high-speed craft engaged on international voyages, the equipment which shall be provided and the conditions for their operation and maintenance. The basic aim of the Code is to set levels of safety which are equivalent to those of conventional ships required by the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea, 1974, as amended, (SOLAS Convention) and the International Convention on Load Lines, 1966, (Load Line Convention) by the application of constructional and equipment standards in conjunction with strict operational controls.1

 


1  Refer to MSC/Circ.652 on Application of the 1966 LL Convention to high-speed craft.

01.02 General requirements

The application of the provisions of this Code is subject to the following general requirements that:

  1. the Code will be applied in its entirety;
     
  2. the management of the company operating the craft exercises strict control over its operation and maintenance by a quality-management system2 ;
     
  3. the management ensures that only persons qualified to operate the specific type of craft used on the intended route are employed;
     
  4. the distances covered and the worst intended conditions in which high-speed craft operations are permitted will be restricted by the imposition of operational limits;
     
  5. the craft will at all times be in reasonable proximity to a place of refuge, having due regard to the provisions of 1.3.4;
     
  6. adequate communications facilities, weather forecasts and maintenance facilities are available within the area of craft operation;
     
  7. in the intended area of operation suitable rescue facilities will be readily available;
     
  8. areas of high fire risk such as machinery spaces and special category spaces are protected with fire-resistant materials and fire-extinguishing systems to ensure, as far as is practicable, containment and rapid extinguishing of fire;
     
  9. efficient facilities are provided for the rapid and safe evacuation of all persons into survival craft;
  10. all passengers and crew are provided with seats;
     
  11. no enclosed sleeping berths for passengers are provided.

 


2 Refer to the International Safety Management (ISM) Code adopted by the Organization by resolution A.741(18), as may be amended.

01.03 Application

1.3.1 This Code applies to high speed craft as specified in 1.3.4 engaged in international voyages the keels of which are laid or which are at a similar stage of construction on or after I July 2002.

1.3.2 For the purpose of this Code, the term "a similar stage of construction" means the stage at which:

  1. construction identifiable with a specific craft begins; and
     
  2. assembly of that craft has commenced comprising at least 50 tonnes or three per cent of the estimated mass of all material used in the structure, including superstructure and deckhouse, whichever is less.
     

1.3.3 For the purpose of this Code :

  1. the expression "craft constructed" means craft the keels of which are laid or which are at a similar stage of construction; and
     
  2. a cargo craft, whenever built, which is converted to a passenger craft shall be treated as a passenger craft constructed on the date on which such a conversion commences.
     

1.3.4 This Code applies to:

  1. passenger craft which do not proceed in the course of their voyage more than four hours at operational speed from a place of refuge; and
     
  2. cargo craft of 500 gross tonnage and upwards which do not proceed in the course of their voyage more than 8 h at operational speed from a place of refuge when fully laden.
     

1.3.5 This Code, unless expressly provided otherwise, does not apply to:

  1. craft of war and troopcraft;
     
  2. craft not propelled by mechanical means;
     
  3. wooden craft of primitive build;
     
  4. pleasure craft not engaged in trade; and
     
  5. fishing craft.
     

1.3.6 This Code does not apply to craft solely navigating the Great Lakes of North America and the River St. Lawrence as far east as a straight line drawn from Cap des Rosiers to West Point, Anticosti Island and, on the north side of Anticosti Island, the 63rd meridian.

1.3.7 The application of this Code shall be verified by the Administration and be acceptable to the Governments of the States to which the craft will be operating.

01.04 Definitions

For the purpose of this Code, unless expressly provided otherwise, the terms used therein have the meanings defined in the following paragraphs. Additional definitions are given in the general parts of the various chapters.

1.4.1 "Administration" means the Government of the State whose flag the craft is entitled to fly.

1.4.2 "Air-cushion vehicle (ACV)" is a craft such that the whole or a significant part of its weight can be supported, whether at rest or in motion, by a continuously generated cushion of air dependent for its effectiveness on the proximity of the surface over which the craft operates.

1.4.3 "Anniversary date" means the day and the month of each year which will correspond to the date of expiry of the relevant certificate.

1.4.4 "Assembly station" is an area where passengers can be gathered in the event of an emergency, given instructions and prepared to abandon the craft, if necessary. The passenger spaces may serve as assembly stations if all passengers can be instructed there and prepared to abandon the craft.

1.4.5 "Auxiliary machinery spaces" are spaces containing internal combustion engines of power output up to and including 110 kW driving generators, sprinkler, drencher or fire pumps, bilge pumps, etc., oil filling stations, switchboards of aggregate capacity exceeding 800 kW, similar spaces and trunks to such spaces.

1.4.6 "Auxiliary machinery spaces having little or no fire risk" are spaces such as refrigerating, stabilizing, ventilation and air conditioning machinery, switchboards of aggregate capacity 800 kW or less, similar spaces and trunks to such spaces.

1.4.7 "Base port" is a specific port identified in the route operational manual and provided with:

  1. appropriate facilities providing continuous radio communications with the craft at all times while in ports and at sea;
     
  2. means for obtaining a reliable weather forecast for the corresponding region and its due transmission to all craft in operation;
     
  3. for a category A craft, access to facilities provided with appropriate rescue and survival equipment; and
     
  4. access to craft maintenance services with appropriate equipment.
     

1.4.8 "Base port State" means the State in which the base port is located.

1.4.9 "Breadth (B)" means breath of the broadest part of the moulded watertight envelope of the rigid hull, excluding appendages, at or below the design waterline in the displacement mode with no lift or propulsion machinery active.

1.4.10 "Cargo craft" is any high-speed craft other than passenger craft, and which is capable of maintaining the main functions and safety systems of unaffected spaces, after damage in any one compartment on board.

1.4.11 "Cargo spaces" are all spaces other than special category spaces and ro-ro spaces used for cargo and trunks to such spaces. For the purposes of Chapter 7, part D, "cargo spaces" include ro-ro spaces, special category spaces and open deck spaces.

1.4.12 "Category A craft" is any high-speed passenger craft:

  1. operating on a route where it has been demonstrated to the satisfaction of the flag and port States that there is a high probability that in the event of an evacuation at any point of the route, all passengers and crew can be rescued safely within the least of:
     
  • the time to prevent persons in survival craft from exposure causing hypothermia in the worst intended conditions,
     
  • the time appropriate with respect to environmental conditions and geographical features of the route, or
     
  • 4 hours; and
     
  • carrying not more than 450 passengers.
     

1.4.13 "Category B craft" is any high-speed passenger craft other than a category A craft, with machinery and safety systems arranged such that, in the event of any essential machinery and safety systems in any one compartment being disabled, the craft retains the capability to navigate safely. The damage scenarios considered in chapter 2 should not be inferred in this respect.

1.4.14 "Company" means the company as defined in chapter IX of the Convention.

1.4.15 "Continuously manned control station" is a control station which is continuously manned by a responsible member of the crew while the craft is in normal service.

1.4.16 "Control stations" are those spaces in which the craft's radio or navigating equipment or the emergency source of power and emergency switchboard are located, or where the fire recording or fire control equipment is centralized, or where other functions essential to the safe operation of the craft such as propulsion control, public address, stabilization systems, etc., are located.

1.4.17 "Convention" means the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea, 1974, as amended.

1.4.18 "Crew accommodation" are those spaces allocated for the use of the crew, and include cabins, sick bays, offices, lavatories, lounges and similar spaces.

1.4.19 "Critical design conditions" means the limiting specified conditions, chosen for design purposes, which the craft shall keep in displacement mode. Such conditions shall be more severe than the "worst intended conditions" by a suitable margin to provide for adequate safety in the survival condition.

1.4.20 "Datum" means a watertight deck or equivalent structure of a non-watertight deck covered by a weathertight structure of adequate strength to maintain the weathertight integrity and fitted with weathertight closing appliances.

1.4.21 "Design waterline" means the waterline corresponding to the maximum operational weight of the craft with no lift or propulsion machinery active and is limited by the requirements of chapters 2 and 3.

1.4.22 "Displacement mode" means the regime, whether at rest or in motion, where the weight of the craft is fully or predominantly supported by hydrostatic forces.

1.4.23 "Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA)" is an examination, in accordance with annex 4, of the craft's system and equipment to determine whether any reasonably probable failure or improper operation can result in a hazardous or catastrophic effect.

1.4.24 "Fire Test Procedures Code (FTP Code)" means the International Code for Application of Fire Test Procedures as defined in chapter II-2 of the Convention.

1.4.25 "Flap" means an element formed as integrated part of, or an extension of, a foil, used to adjust the hydrodynamic or aerodynamic lift of the foil.

1.4.26 "Flashpoint" means a flashpoint determined by a test using the closed-cup apparatus referenced in the International Maritime Dangerous Goods (IMDG) Code.

1.4.27 "Foil" means a profiled plate or three dimensional construction at which hydrodynamic lift is generated when the craft is under way.

1.4.28 "Fully submerged foil" means a foil having no lift components piercing the surface of the water in the foil-borne mode.

1.4.29 "Galleys" are those enclosed spaces containing cooking facilities with exposed heating surfaces, or which have any cooking or heating appliances each having a power of more than 5 kW.

1.4.30 "High-speed craft" is a craft capable of maximum speed, in metres per second (m/s), equal to or exceeding:

excluding craft the hull of which is supported completely clear above the water surface in non-displacement mode by aerodynamic forces generated by ground effect.

1.4.31 "Hydrofoil craft" is a craft the hull of which is supported completely clear above the water surface in non-displacement mode by hydrodynamic forces generated on foils.

1.4.32 "Length (L)" means the overall length of the underwater watertight envelope of the rigid hull, excluding appendages, at or below the design waterline in the displacement mode with no lift or propulsion machinery active.

1.4.33 "Lightweight" is the displacement of the craft in tonnes without cargo, fuel, lubricating oil, ballast water, fresh water and feedwater in tanks, consumable stores, passengers and crew and their effects.

1.4.34 "Life-saving Appliance Code (LSA Code)" means the International Life-Saving Appliance Code as defined in chapter III of the Convention.

1.4.35 "Machinery spaces" are spaces containing internal combustion engines with aggregate total power output of more than 110 kW, generators, oil fuel units, propulsion machinery, major electrical machinery and similar spaces and trunks to such spaces.

1.4.36 "Maximum operational weight" means the overall weight up to which operation in the intended mode is permitted by the Administration.

1.4.37 "Maximum speed" is the speed achieved at the maximum continuous propulsion power for which the craft is certified at maximum operational weight and in smooth water.

1.4.38 "Non-displacement mode" means the normal operational regime of a craft when non -hydrostatic forces substantially or predominantly support the weight of the craft.

1.4.39 "Oil fuel unit" includes any equipment for the preparation of oil fuel and delivery of oil fuel, heated or not, to boilers and engines (including gas turbines) at a pressure of more than 0,18 N/mm2.

1.4.40 "Open ro-ro spaces" are those ro-ro spaces:

  1. to which any passengers carried have access; and
     
  2. either:

    .2.1 are open at both ends; or


    .2.2 have an opening at one end and are provided with permanent openings distributed in the side plating or deckhead or from above, having a total area of at least 10% of the total area of the space sides.
     

1.4.41 "Operating limitations" means the craft limitations in respect of handling, controllability and performance and the craft operational procedures within which the craft is to operate.

1.4.42 "Operating compartment" means the enclosed area from which the navigation and control of the craft is exercised.

1.4.43 "Operating station" means a confined area of the operating compartment equipped with necessary means for navigation, manoeuvring and communication, and from where the functions of navigating, manoeuvring, communication, commanding, conning and lookout are carried out.

1.4.44 "Operational speed" is 90% of maximum speed.

1.4.45 "Organization" means the International Maritime Organization.

1.4.46 "Passenger" is every person other than:

  1. the master and members of the crew or other persons employed or engaged in any capacity on board a craft on the business of that craft; and
     
  2. a child under one year of age.
     

1.4.47 "Passenger craft" is a craft which carries more than twelve passengers.

1.4.48 "Place of refuge" is any naturally or artificially sheltered area which may be used as a shelter by a craft under conditions likely to endanger its safety.

1.4.49 "Public spaces" are those spaces allocated for the passengers and include bars, refreshment kiosks, smoke rooms, main seating areas, lounges, dining rooms, recreation rooms, lobbies, lavatories and similar spaces, and may include sales shops.

1.4.50 "Refreshment kiosks" are those spaces which are not enclosed, serving refreshments and containing food warming equipment having a total power of 5 kW or less and with an exposed heating surface temperature not above 150º.

1.4.51 "Ro-ro craft" is a craft fitted with one or more ro-ro spaces.

1.4.52 "Ro-ro spaces" are spaces not normally subdivided in any way and normally extending to either a substantial length or the entire length of the craft in which motor vehicles with fuel in their tanks for their own propulsion and/or goods (packaged or in bulk, in or on rail or road cars, vehicles (including road or rail tankers), trailers, containers, pallets, demountable tanks or in or on similar stowage units or other receptacles) can be loaded and unloaded, normally in a horizontal direction.

1.4.53 "Service spaces" are those enclosed spaces used for pantries containing food warming equipment but no cooking facilities with exposed heating surfaces, lockers, sales shops, store-rooms and enclosed baggage rooms.

1.4.54 "Significant wave height" is the average height of the one third highest observed wave heights over a given period.

1.4.55 "Special category spaces" are those enclosed ro-ro spaces to which passengers have access. Special category spaces may be accommodated on more than one deck provided that the total overall clear height for vehicles does not exceed 10 m.

1.4.56 "Surface-effect ship" (SES) is an air-cushion vehicle whose cushion is totally or partially retained by permanently immersed hard structures.

1.4.57 "Transitional mode" means the regime between displacement and non-displacement modes.

1.4.58 "Watertight" in relation to a structure means capable of preventing the passage of water through the structure in any direction under the head of water likely to occur in the intact or damaged condition.

1.4.59 "Weather deck" is a deck which is completely exposed to the weather from above and from at least two sides.

1.4.60 "Weathertight" means that water will not penetrate into the craft in any wind and wave conditions up to those specified as critical design conditions.

1.4.61 "Worst intended conditions" means the specified environmental conditions within which the intentional operation of the craft is provided for in the certification of the craft. This shall take into account parameters such as the worst conditions of wind force allowable, significant wave height (including unfavourable combinations of length and direction of waves), minimum air temperature, visibility and depth of water for safe operation and such other parameters as the Administration may require in considering the type of craft in the area of operation.

01.05 Surveys

1.5.1 Each craft shall be subject to the surveys specified below:
.1 an initial survey before the craft is put in service or before the Certificate is issued for the first time;
.2 a renewal survey at intervals specified by the Administration but not exceeding 5 years except where 1.8.5 or 1.8.10 is applicable;
.3 a periodical survey within three months before or after each anniversary date of the Certificate; and
.4 an additional survey as the occasion arises.

1.5.2 The surveys referred to in 1.5.1 shall be carried out as follows:
.1 the initial survey shall include:
.1.1 an appraisal of the assumptions made and limitations proposed in relation to loadings, environment, speed and maneuverability;
.1.2 an appraisal of the data supporting the safety of the design, obtained, as appropriate, from calculations, tests and trials;
.1.3 a failure mode and effect analysis as required by this Code;
.1.4 an investigation into the adequacy of the various manuals to be supplied with the craft; and
.1.5 a complete inspection of the structure, safety equipment, radio installations and other equipment, fittings, arrangements and materials to ensure that they comply with the requirements of the Code, are in satisfactory condition and are fit for the service for which the craft is intended;

.2 the renewal and periodical surveys shall include a complete inspection of the structure, including the outside of the craft's bottom and related items, safety equipment, radio installations and other equipment as referred to in 1.5.2.1 to ensure that they comply with the requirements of the Code, are in satisfactory condition and are fit for the service for which the craft is intended. The inspection of the craft's bottom shall be conducted with the craft out of the water under suitable conditions for close-up examination of any damaged or problem areas; and

.3 an additional survey, either general or partial according to the circumstances, shall be made after a repair resulting from investigations prescribed in 1.7.3, or wherever any important repairs or renewals are made. The survey shall be such as to ensure that the necessary repairs or renewals have been effectively made, that the material and workmanship of such repairs or renewals are in all respects satisfactory, and that the craft complies in all respects with the requirements of the Code.

1.5.3 The periodical surveys referred to in 1.5.1.3 shall be endorsed on the High-Speed Craft Safety Certificate.

1.5.4 The inspection and survey of the craft, so far as regards the enforcement of the provisions of the Code, shall be carried out by officers of the Administration. The Administration may, however, entrust the inspections and surveys either to surveyors nominated for the purpose or to organizations recognized by it.

1.5.5 An Administration nominating surveyors or recognizing organizations to conduct inspections and surveys as set forth in 1.5.4 shall, as a minimum, empower any nominated surveyor or recognized organization to: .1 require repairs to a craft; and
.2 carry out inspections and surveys if requested by the appropriate authorities of a port State. The Administration shall notify the Organization of the specific responsibilities and conditions of the authority delegated to nominated surveyors or recognized organizations.

1.5.6 When an nominated surveyor or recognized organization determines that the condition of the craft or its equipment does not correspond substantially with the particulars of the Certificate or is such that the craft is not fit to operate without danger to the craft or persons on board, such surveyor or organization shall immediately ensure that corrective action is taken and shall, in due course, notify the Administration. If such corrective action is not taken the Certificate shall be withdrawn and the Administration shall be notified immediately; and, if the craft is in an area under the jurisdiction of another Government, the appropriate authorities of the port State shall be notified immediately. When an officer of the Administration, a nominated surveyor or a recognized organization has notified the appropriate authorities of the port State, the Government of the port Sate concerned shall give such officer, surveyor or organization any necessary assistance to carry out their obligations under this section. When applicable, the Government of the port State concerned shall ensure that the craft shall not continue to operate until it can do so without danger to the craft or the persons on board.

1.5.7 In every case, the Administration shall fully guarantee the completeness and efficiency of the inspection and survey, and shall undertake to ensure the necessary arrangements to satisfy this obligation.

01.06 Approvals

The owner of a craft shall accept the obligation to supply sufficient information to enable the Administration to fully assess the features of the design. It is strongly recommended that the Company and the Administration and, where appropriate, the port State or States shall commence discussions at the earliest possible stage so that the Administration may fully evaluate the design in determining what additional or alternative requirements shall be applied to the craft, to achieve the required level of safety.

01.07 Maintenance of conditions after survey

1.7.1 The condition of the craft and its equipment shall be maintained to conform with the provisions of this Code to ensure that the craft in all respects will remain fit to operate without danger to the craft or the persons on board.

1.7.2 After any survey of the craft under section 1.5 has been completed, no change shall be made to structure, equipment, fittings, arrangements and materials covered by the survey, without the sanction of the Administration.

1.7.3 Whenever an accident occurs to a craft or a defect is discovered, either of which affects the safety of the craft or the efficiency or completeness of structure, equipment, fittings, arrangements and materials, the person in charge or owner of the craft shall report at the earliest opportunity to the Administration, the nominated surveyor or recognized organization responsible, who shall cause investigations to be initiated to determine whether a survey, as required by section 1.5, is necessary. If the craft is in an area under the jurisdiction of another Government, the person in charge or the owner shall also report immediately to the appropriate authorities of the port State and the nominated surveyor or recognized organization shall ascertain that such a report has been made.

01.08 High-Speed Craft Safety Certificate

1.8.1 A Certificate called a High-Speed Craft Safety Certificate is issued after completion of an initial or renewal survey to a craft which complies with the requirements of the Code. The Certificate shall be issued or endorsed either by the Administration or by any person or organization recognized by it. In every case, that Administration assumes full responsibility for the Certificate.

1.8.2 A Contracting Government to the Convention may, at the request of the Administration, cause a craft to be surveyed and, if satisfied that the requirements of the Code are compiled with, shall issue or authorize the issue of a Certificate to the craft and, where appropriate, endorse or authorize the endorsement of a Certificate on the craft in accordance with the Code. Any Certificate so issued shall contain a statement to the effect that it has been issued at the request of the Government of the State the flag of which the craft is entitled to fly, and it shall have the same force and receive the same recognition as a Certificate issued under 1.8.1.

1.8.3 The Certificate shall be that of the model given in the annex 1 to the Code. If the language used is not English, French or Spanish, the text shall include a translation into one of these languages.

1.8.4 The High-Speed Craft Safety Certificate shall be issued for a period specified by the Administration which shall not exceed 5 years.

1.8.5 Notwithstanding the requirements of 1.8.4, when the renewal survey is completed within three months before the expiry date of the existing Certificate, the new Certificate shall be valid from the date of completion of the renewal survey to a date not exceeding 5 years from the date of expiry of the existing Certificate.

1.8.6 When the renewal survey is completed after the expiry date of the existing Certificate, the new Certificate shall be valid from the date of completion of the renewal survey to a date not exceeding 5 years from the date of expiry of the existing Certificate.

1.8.7 When the renewal survey is completed more than 3 months before the expiry date of the existing Certificate, the new Certificate shall be valid from the date of completion of the renewal survey to a date not exceeding 5 years from the date of completion of the renewal survey.

1.8.8 If a Certificate is issued for a period of less than 5 years, the Administration may extend the validity of the Certificate beyond the expiry date to the maximum period specified in 1.8.4, provided that the surveys when a Certificate is issued for a period of 5 years are carried out.

1.8.9 If a renewal survey has been completed and a new Certificate cannot be issued or placed on board the craft before the expiry date of the existing Certificate, the person or organization authorized by the Administration may endorse the existing Certificate and such a Certificate shall be accepted as valid for a further period which shall not exceed 5 months from the expiry date.

1.8.10 If a craft, at the time when a Certificate expires, is not in the place in which it is to be surveyed, the Administration may extend the period of validity of the Certificate but this extension shall be granted only for the purpose of allowing the craft to proceed to the place in which it is to be surveyed, and then only in cases where it appears proper and reasonable to do so. No Certificate shall be extended for a period longer than one month, and a craft to which an extension is granted shall not, on its arrival in the place in which it is to be surveyed, be entitled by virtue of such extension to leave that place without having a new Certificate. When the renewal survey is completed, the new Certificate shall be valid to a date not exceeding 5 years from the date of expiry of the existing Certificate before the extension was granted.

1.8.11 In special circumstances, as determined by the Administration, a new Certificate need not be dated from the date of expiry of the existing Certificate as required by 1.8.6 or 1.8.10. In these circumstances, the new Certificate shall be valid to a date not exceeding 5 years from the date of completion of the renewal survey.

1.8.12 If a periodical survey is completed before the period specified in section 1.5 then:

  1. the anniversary date shown on the relevant Certificate shall be amended by endorsement to a date which shall not be more than 3 months later than the date on which the survey was completed;
     
  2. the subsequent periodical survey required by section 1.5 shall be completed at the intervals prescribed by 1.5 using the new anniversary date; and
     
  3. the expiry date may remain unchanged provided one or more periodical surveys are carried out so that the maximum intervals between the surveys prescribed by 1.5.1.3 are not exceeded;
     

1.8.13 A Certificate issued under 1.8.1 or 1.8.2 shall cease to be valid in any of the following cases:

  1. if the relevant surveys are not completed with the periods specified in 1.5.1;
     
  2. if the Certificate is not endorsed in accordance with 1.5.3;
     
  3. upon transfer of the craft to the flag of another State. A new Certificate shall only be issued when the Government issuing the new Certificate is fully satisfied that the craft is in compliance with the requirements of 1.7.1 and 1.7.2. In the case of a transfer between Governments that are Contracting Governments to the Convention if requested within 3 months after the transfer has taken place, the Government of the State whose flag the craft was formerly entitled to fly shall, as soon as possible, transmit to the Administration a copy of the Certificate carried by the craft before the transfer and, if available, copies of the relevant survey reports.
     

1.8.14 The privileges of the Code may not be claimed in favour of any craft unless it holds a valid Certificate.

01.09 Permit to Operate High-Speed Craft

1.9.1 The craft shall not operate commercially unless a Permit to Operate High-Speed Craft is issued and valid in addition to the High-Speed Craft Safety Certificate. Transit voyage without passengers or cargo may be undertaken without the Permit to Operate High-Speed Craft.

1.9.2 The Permit to Operate High-Speed Craft shall be issued by the Administration to certify compliance with 1.2.2 to 1.2.7 and stipulate conditions of the operation of the craft and drawn up on the basis of the information contained in the route operational manual specified in chapter 18 of this Code.

1.9.3 Before issuing the Permit to Operate, the Administration shall consult with each port State to obtain details of any operational conditions associated with operation of the craft in that State. Any such conditions imposed shall be shown by the Administration on the Permit to Operate and included in the route operational manual.

1.9.4 A port State may inspect the craft and audit its documentation for the sole purpose of verifying its compliance with the matters certified by and conditions associated with the Permit to Operate. Where deficiencies are shown by such an audit, the Permit to Operate ceases to be valid until such deficiencies are corrected or otherwise resolved.

1.9.5 The provisions of 1.8 shall apply to the issue and the period of validity of the Permit to Operate High-Speed Craft.

1.9.6 The Permit to Operate High-Speed Craft shall be that of the model given in annex 2 to this Code. If the language used is not English, French or Spanish,1 the text shall include a translation into one of these languages.

 


1  Suggested by the Secretariat in line with paragraph 1.8.3.

01.10 Control

1.10.1 The provisions of regulation I/19 of the Convention shall be applied to include the Permit to Operate High-Speed Craft in addition to the Certificate issued under 1.8.

01.11 Equivalents

1.11.1 Where this Code requires that a particular fitting, material, appliance or apparatus, or type thereof, shall be fitted or carried in a craft, or that any particular provision shall be made, the Administration may allow any other fitting, material, appliance or apparatus, or type thereof, to be fitted or carried, or any other provision to be made in the craft, if it is satisfied by trial thereof or otherwise that such fitting, material, appliance or apparatus, or type thereof, or provision, is at least as effective as that required by this Code.

1.11.2 Where compliance with any of the requirements of this Code would be impractical for the particular designs of the craft, the Administration may substitute those with alternative requirements provided that equivalent safety is achieved. The Administration which allows any such substitution shall communicate to the Organization Particulars of these substitutions and the reasons therefor, which the Organization shall circulate to its Member Governments for their information.

01.12 Information to be made available

1.12.1 The Administration shall ensure that the management of the company operating the craft has provided the craft with adequate information and guidance in the form of manuals to enable the craft to be operated and maintained safely. These manuals shall include a route operational manual, craft operating manual, maintenance manual and servicing schedule. Such information shall be updated as necessary.

1.12.2 The manuals shall contain at least the information specified in chapter 18, and shall be in a language understood by the crew. Where this language is not English, a translation into English shall be provided of at least the route operational manual and the craft operating manual.

01.13 Further developments

1.13.1 It is recognized that there is much ongoing research and development in the design of high-speed craft and that new types may emerge which have different geometry to that envisaged during the formulation of this Code. It is important that this Code does not restrict this progress and the development of new designs.

1.13.2 A design may be produced which cannot comply with the provisions of this Code. In such a case the Administration shall determine the extent to which the provisions of the Code are applicable to the design and, if necessary, develop additional or alternative requirements to provide an equivalent level of safety for the craft.

1.13.3 The foregoing shall be considered by the Administration when assessing the granting of equivalents under the Code.

01.14 Circulation of safety information

1.14.1 In the event that an Administration has cause to investigate an accident involving a craft to which this Code applies, that Administration shall provide a copy of the official report to the Organization, which will invite Member States to note the existence of the report and to obtain a copy.

1.14.2 In the event that operational experience reveals structural or equipment failures affecting the safety of a design, craft owners shall inform the Administration.

01.15 Review of the Code

1.15.1 The Code shall be reviewed by the Organization at intervals preferably not exceeding four years to consider revision of existing requirements to take account of new developments in design and technology.

1.15.2 Where a new development in design and technology has been found acceptable to an Administration, that Administration may submit particulars of such development to the Organization for consideration for incorporation into the Code during periodical review.

Chapter 02 Buoyancy, stability and subdivision

Part A General

2.1 General

2.1.1 A craft shall be provided with:

.1 stability characteristics and stabilization systems adequate for safety when the craft is

operated in the non-displacement mode and during the transitional mode;

.2 buoyancy and stability characteristics adequate for safety where the craft is operated

in the displacement mode, both in the intact condition and the damaged condition; and

.3 stability characteristics in the non-displacement and transitional modes adequate to

transfer the craft safely to displacement mode in case of any system malfunction.

2.1.2 Account shall be taken of the effect of icing in the stability calculations. An example of

established practice for ice accretion allowances is given in annex 5 for the guidance of the

Administration.

2.1.3 For the purpose of this and other chapters, unless expressly defined otherwise, the following

definitions apply:

.1 "Downflooding point" means any opening through which flooding of the spaces

which comprise the reserve buoyancy could take place while the craft is in the intact

or damaged condition, and inclines to an angle past the angle of equilibrium.

.2 "Fully submerged foil" means a foil having no lift components piercing the surface of

the water in the foil-borne mode.

.3 "Monohull craft" means any craft which is not a multihull craft.

.4 "Multihull craft" means a craft which in any normally achievable operating trim or

heel angle, has a rigid hull structure which penetrates the surface of the sea over more

than one discrete area.

.5 "Permeability" of a space means the percentage of the volume of that space which can

be occupied by water.

.6 "Skirt" means a downwardly extending, flexible structure used to contain or divide an

air cushion.

2.1.4 Other means of demonstrating compliance with the requirements of any part of this Chapter

may be accepted, provided that the method chosen can be shown to provide an equivalent level of

safety. Such methods may include:

.1 mathematical simulation of dynamic behaviour;

.2 scale model testing; and

.3 full-scale trials.

2.1.5 Model or full-scale tests and/or calculations (as appropriate) shall also include consideration

of the following known stability hazards to which high-speed craft are known to be liable, according

to craft type:

.1 directional instability, which is often coupled to roll and pitch instabilities;

.2 broaching and bow diving in following seas at speeds near to wave speed, applicable

to most types;

.3 bow diving of planing monohulls and catamarans due to dynamic loss of longitudinal

stability in relatively calm seas;

.4 reduction in transverse stability with increasing speed of monohulls;

.5 porpoising of planing monohulls, being coupled pitch and heave oscillations, which

can become violent;

.6 chine tripping, being a phenomenon of planing monohulls occurring when the

immersion of a chine generates a strong capsizing moment;

.7 plough-in of air-cushion vehicles, either longitudinal or transverse, as a result of bow

or side skirt tuck-under or sudden colla pse of skirt geometry, which, in extreme cases,

can result in capsize;

.8 pitch instability of SWATH (small waterplane area twin hull) craft due to the

hydrodynamic moment developed as a result of the water flow over the submerged

lower hulls;

.9 reduction in effective metacentric height (roll stiffness) of surface effect ship (SES) in

high speed turns compared to that on a straight course, which can result in sudden

increases in heel angle and/or coupled roll and pitch oscillations; and

.10 resonant rolling of SES in beam seas, which, in extreme cases, can result in capsize.

2.1.6 Suitable calculations shall be carried out and/or tests conducted to demonstrate that, when

operating within approved operational limitations, the craft will, after a disturbance causing roll,

pitch, heave or heel due to turning or any combination thereof, return to the original attitude.

2.2 Intact buoyancy and watertight and weathertight integrity

2.2.1 Intact buoyancy

2.2.1.1 All craft shall have a sufficient reserve of buoyancy at the design waterline to meet the

intact and damage stability requirements of this chapter. The Administration may require a

larger reserve of buoyancy to permit the craft to operate in any of its intended modes. This

reserve of buoyancy shall be calculated by including only those compartments that are:

.1 watertight and situated below the datum, or

.2 watertight or weathertight and situated above the datum.

In considering the stability after damage, flooding shall be assumed to occur until limited by

watertight boundaries in the equilibrium condition, and weathertight boundaries in intermediate

stages of flooding and within the range of positive righting lever required to satisfy the residual

stability requirements.

Craft built in conformity with the requirements of organizations recognised by the

Administration, in accordance with regulation XI/1 of the Convention may be considered to

possess adequate strength and integrity.

2.2.1.2 Arrangements shall be provided for checking the watertight or weathertight integrity of

those compartments taken into account in 2.2.1.1, and the details incorporated in the Craft

Operating Manual required by 18.2.1.

2.2.2 Openings in watertight divisions

2.2.2.1 The number of openings in watertight bulkheads shall be reduced to the minimum compatible

with the design and proper working of the craft, and all such doors shall be closed prior to departure

of the craft from the berth.

2.2.2.2 Doors in watertight bulkheads may be hinged or sliding. They shall be shown by suitable

testing to be capable of maintaining the watertight integrity of the bulkhead. Such testing shall be

carried out for both sides of the door and shall apply a pressure head 10% greater than that

determined from the minimum permissible height of a downflooding opening. Testing may be carried

out either before or after the door is fitted into the craft but, where shore testing is adopted,

satisfactory installation in the craft shall be verified by inspection and hose testing.

2.2.2.3 Type approval may be accepted in lieu of testing individual doors, provided the approval

process includes pressure testing to a head equal to, or greater, than the required head (refer

to 2.2.2.2).

2.2.2.4 All watertight doors shall be capable of being operated when the craft is inclined up to 15°,

and shall be fitted with means of indication in the operating compartment showing whether they are

open or closed. All such doors shall be capable of being opened and closed locally from each side of

the bulkhead.

2.2.2.5 Watertight doors shall remain closed when the craft is at sea, except that they may be opened

for access. A notice shall be attached to each door to the effect that it is not to be left open.

2.2.2.6 Watertight doors shall be capable of being closed by remote control from the operating

compartment in not less than 20 s and not more than 40 s, and shall be provided with an audible

alarm, distinct from other alarms in the area, which will sound for at least 5 s but no more than 10 s

before the doors begin to move whenever the door is closed remotely by power, and continue

sounding until the door is completely closed. The power, control and indicators shall be operable in

the event of main power failure, as required by regulation II-1/15.7.3 of the Convention. In passenger

areas and areas where the ambient noise exceeds 85 dB(A) the audible alarm shall be supplemented

by an intermittent visual signal at the door. If the Administration is satisfied that such doors are

essential for the safe work of the craft, hinged watertight doors having only local control may be

permitted for areas to which crew only have access, provided they are fitted with remote indicators as

required by 2.2.2.4.

2.2.2.7 Where pipes, scuppers, electric cables, etc. are carried through watertight divisions, the

arrangements for creating a watertight penetration shall be of a type which has been prototype tested

under hydrostatic pressure equal to or greater than that required to be withstood for the actual

location in the craft in which they are to be installed. The test pressure shall be maintained for at

least 30 min and there must be no leakage through the penetration arrangement during this period.

The test pressure head shall be 10% greater than that determined from the minimum permissible

height of a downflooding opening. Watertight bulkhead penetrations which are effected by

continuous welding do not require prototype testing. Valves on scuppers from weathertight

compartments, included in the stability calculations, shall have arrangements for remote closing from

the operating station.

2.2.2.8 Where a ventilation trunk forms part of a watertight boundary, the trunk shall be capable of

withstanding the water pressure that may be present taking into account the maximum inclination

angle allowable during all stages of flooding.

2.2.3 Inner bow doors

2.2.3.1 Where ro-ro craft are fitted with bow loading openings, an inner bow door shall be fitted

abaft such openings, to restrict the extent of flooding in the event of failure of the outer closure. This

inner bow door, where fitted, shall be:

.1 weathertight to the deck above, which deck shall itself be weathertight forward to the

bow loading opening;

.2 so arranged as to preclude the possibility of a bow loading door causing damage to it

in the case of damage to, or detachment of, the bow loading door;

.3 forward of all positions on the vehicle deck in which vehicles are intended to be

carried; and

.4 part of a boundary designed to prevent flooding into the remainder of the craft.

2.2.3.2 A craft shall be exempted from the requirement for such an inner bow door where one of the

following applies:

.1 the vehicle loading deck at the inner bow door position is above the design waterline

by a height more than the significant wave height corresponding to the worst intended

conditions;

.2 it can be demonstrated using model tests or mathematical simulations that when the

craft is proceeding at a range of speeds up to the maximum attainable speed in the

loaded condition at all headings in long crested seas of the greatest significant wave

height corresponding to the worst intended conditions, either:

.1 the bow loading door is not reached by waves; or

.2 having been tested with the bow loading door open to determine the

maximum steady state volume of water which accumulates, it can be shown

by static analysis that, with the same volume of water on the vehicle deck(s)

the residual stability requirements of 2.6.11 and 2.13 or 2.15 are satisfied. If

the model tests or mathematical simulations are unable to show that the

volume of water accumulated reaches a steady state, the craft shall be

considered not to have satisfied the conditions of this exemption.

Where mathematical simulations are employed they shall already have been verified

against full-scale or model testing;

.3 bow loading openings lead to open ro-ro spaces provided with guard-rails or having

freeing ports complying with 2.2.3.2.4;

.4 the deck of the lowest ro-ro space above the design waterline is fitted on each side of

the deck with freeing ports evenly distributed along the sides of the compartment.

These shall either be proven to be acceptable using tests according to 2.2.3.2.2 above

or comply with the following:

.1 A > 0.3 l

where :

A = the total area of freeing ports on each side of the deck in m2;

and

l = the length of the compartment in m;

.2 the craft shall maintain a residual freeboard to the deck of the ro-ro space of at

least 1 m in the worst condition;

.3 such freeing ports shall be located within the height of 0.6 m above the deck

of the ro-ro space, and the lower edge of the ports shall be within 0.02 m

above the deck of the ro-ro space; and

.4 such freeing ports shall be fitted with closing devices or flaps to prevent water

entering the deck of the ro-ro space whilst allowing water which may

accumulate on the deck of the ro-ro space to drain.

2.2.4 Other provisions for ro-ro craft

2.2.4.1 All accesses in the ro-ro space that lead to spaces below the deck shall have a lowest point

which is not less than the height required from the tests conducted according to 2.2.3.2.2 or 3 m

above the design waterline.

2.2.4.2 Where vehicle ramps are installed to give access to spaces below the deck of the ro-ro space,

their openings shall be capable of being closed weathertight to prevent ingress of water below.

2.2.4.3 Accesses in the ro-ro space that lead to spaces below the ro-ro deck and having a lowest point

which is less than the height required from the tests conducted according to 2.2.3.2.2 or 3 m above

the design waterline may be permitted provided they are watertight and are closed before the craft

leaves the berth on any voyage and remain closed until the craft is at its next berth.

2.2.4.4 The accesses referred to in 2.2.4.2 and 2.2.4.3 above shall be fitted with alarm indicators in

the operating compartment.

2.2.4.5 Special category spaces and ro-ro spaces shall be patrolled or monitored by effective means,

such as television surveillance, so that any movement of vehicles in adverse weather conditions and

unauthorised access by passengers thereto can be detected whilst the craft is underway (refer

to 7.8.3.1).

2.2.5 Indicators and surveillance

2.2.5.1 Indicators

Indicators shall be provided in the operating compartment for all shell doors, loading doors and other

closing appliances which, if left open or not properly secured, could lead to major flooding in the

intact and damage conditions. The indicator system shall be designed on the fail-safe principle and

shall show by visual alarms if the door is not fully closed or if any of the securing arrangements are

not in place and fully locked, and by audible alarms if such door or closing appliance becomes open

or the securing arrangements become unsecured. The indicator panel in the operating compartment

shall be equipped with a mode selection function 'harbour/sea voyage' so arranged that an audible

alarm is given in the operating compartment if the craft leaves harbour with the bow doors, inner

doors, stern ramp or any other side shell doors not closed or any closing device not in the correct

position. The power supply for the indicator systems shall be independent of the power supply for

operating and securing the doors.

2.2.5.2 Television surveillance

Television surveillance and a water leakage detection system shall be arranged to provide an

indication to the operating compartment and to the engine control station of any leakage through

inner and outer bow doors, stern doors or any other shell doors which could lead to major flooding.

2.2.6 Integrity of superstructure

2.2.6.1 Where entry of water into structures above the datum would significantly influence the

stability and buoyancy of the craft, such structures shall be:

.1 of adequate strength to maintain the weathertight integrity and fitted with

weathertight closing appliances; or

.2 provided with adequate drainage arrangements; or

.3 an equivalent combination of both measures.

2.2.6.2 Weathertight superstructures and deckhouses located above the datum shall in the outside

boundaries have means of closing openings with sufficient strength such as to maintain weathertight

integrity in all damage conditions where the space in question is not damaged. Furthermore, the

means of closing shall be such as to maintain weathertight integrity in all operational conditions.

2.2.7 Doors, windows, etc., in boundaries of weathertight spaces

2.2.7.1 Doors, windows, etc., and any associated frames and mullions in weathertight superstructures

and deckhouses shall be weathertight and shall not leak or fail at a uniformly applied pressure less

than that at which adjacent structure would experience permanent set or fail. Conformity with the

requirements of organizations recognized by the Administration in accordance with regulation XI/1

of the Convention may be considered to possess adequate strength.

2.2.7.2 For doors in weathertight superstructures, hose tests shall be carried out with a water pressure

from the outside in accordance with specifications at least equivalent to those acceptable to the

Organization*.

2.2.7.3 The height above the deck of sills to doorways leading to exposed decks shall be as high

above the deck as is reasonable and practicable, particularly those located in exposed positions. Such

sill heights shall in general not be less than 100 mm for doors to weathertight spaces on decks above

the datum, and 250 mm elsewhere. For craft of 30 m in length and under, sill heights may be reduced

to the maximum which is consistent with the safe working of the craft.

2.2.7.4 Windows shall not be permitted in the boundaries of special category spaces or ro-ro spaces

or below the datum. If required by restrictions in the Permit to Operate, forward facing windows, or

windows which may be submerged at any stage of flooding shall be fitted with hinged or sliding

storm shutters ready for immediate use.

2.2.7.5 Side scuttles to spaces below the datum shall be fitted with efficient hinged deadlights

arranged inside so that they can be effectively closed and secured watertight.

2.2.7.6 No side scuttle shall be fitted in a position so that its sill is below a line drawn parallel to and

one metre above the design waterline.

2.2.8 Hatchways and other openings

2.2.8.1 Hatchways closed by weathertight covers

The construction and the means for securing the weathertightness of cargo and other hatchways shall

comply with the following:

.1 coaming heights shall in general not be less than 100 mm for hatches to weathertight

spaces on decks above the datum, and 250 mm elsewhere. For craft of 30 m in length

and under, coaming heights may be reduced to the maximum which is consistent with

the safe working of the craft;

.2 the height of these coamings may be reduced, or the coamings omitted entirely, on

condition that the Administration is satisfied that the safety of the ship is not thereby

impaired in any sea conditions up to the worst intended conditions. Where coamings

are provided, they shall be of substantial construction; and

.3 the arrangements for securing and maintaining weathertightness shall ensure that the

tightness can be maintained in any sea conditions up to the worst intended conditions.


* Refer to ISO 6042 - Ships and Marine Technology - Weathertight single-leaf steel doors, or a similar

standard.

2.3 Intact stability in the displacement mode

2.3.1 Hydrofoil craft fitted with surface-piercing  foils  and/or  fully  submerged  foils  shall 
have sufficient stability under all permitted cases of loading to  comply  with  the  relevant 
provisions  of annex 6 and specifically maintain a heel angle of less than 10º when subjected to
the greater of the heeling moments in 1.1.2 and 1.1.4 of that annex.

2.3.2    Subject to 2.3.4, multihull craft other than hydrofoil craft shall meet the relevant
requirements of annex 7 in all permitted cases of loading.

2.3.3     Subject   to   2.3.4,   monohull   craft   other   than   hydrofoil   craft   shall  
meet   the   relevant
requirements of annex 8 in all permitted conditions of loading.

2.3.4 Where the characteristics of multihull craft are inappropriate for application of annex 7 or the

characteristics of monohull craft are inappropriate for application of annex 8, the Administration may

accept alternative criteria equivalent to those stipulated, as appropriate to the type of craft and area of

operation. The requirements of annexes 7 and 8 may be applied as indicated in the table below.

 

 

2.4 Intact stability in the non-displacement mode

2.4.1 The requirements of this section and section 2.12 shall be applied on the assumption that any

stabilisation systems fitted are fully operational.

2.4.2 The roll and pitch stability on the first and/or any other craft of a series shall be qualitatively

assessed during operational safety trials as required by chapter 18 and annex 9. The results of such

trials may indicate the need to impose operational limitations.

2.4.3 Where craft are fitted with surface-piercing structure or appendages, precautions shall be

taken against dangerous attitudes or inclinations and loss of stability subsequent to a collision with a

submerged or floating object.

2.4.4 In designs where periodic use of cushion deformation is employed as a means of assisting

craft control, or periodic use of cushion air exhausting to atmosphere for purposes of craft

manoeuvring, the effects upon cushion-borne stability shall be determined, and the limitations on the

use by virtue of craft speed or attitude shall be established.

2.4.5 In the case of an air cushion vehicle fitted with flexible skirts, it shall be demonstrated that

the skirts remain stable under operational conditions.

 

2.5 Intact stability in the transitional mode

2.5.1 Under weather conditions up to the worst intended conditions, the time to pass from the

displacement mode to the non-displacement mode and vice versa shall be minimised unless it is

demonstrated that no substantial reduction of stability occurs during this transition.

2.5.2 Hydrofoil craft shall comply with the relevant provisions of annex 6.

2.6 Buoyancy and stability in the displacement mode following damage

2.6.1 The requirements of this section apply to all permitted conditions of loading.

2.6.2 For the purpose of making damage stability calculations, the volume and surface permeabilities shall be, in general, as follows:

Part B Requirements for passenger craft

Part C Requirements for cargo craft

2.15 Buoyancy and stability in the displacement mode following damage

Following any of the postulated damages detailed in 2.6.6 to 2.6.10, in addition to satisfying the requirements of 2.6.11 and 2.6.12, the craft in still water shall have sufficient buoyancy and positive stability to simultaneously ensure that the angle of inclination of the craft from the horizontal does not normally exceed 15º in any direction. However, where this is clearly impractical, angles of inclination up to 20º immediately after damage but reducing to 15º within 15 minutes may be permitted provided that efficient non-slip deck surfaces and suitable holding points are provided.

 

2.16 Inclining

Where it is satisfied by lightweight survey, weighing or other demonstration that the lightweight of a craft is closely similar to that of another craft of the series to which 2.7.1 has been applied, the Administration may waive the requirement of 2.7.1 for craft to be inclined. In this regard, a craft which lies within the parameters of 2.14.1, when compared with a craft of the series which has been inclined, shall be regarded as being closely similar to that craft.

Chapter 03 Structures

03.01 General


This chapter covers those elements of hull and superstructure which provide longitudinal and other primary and local strength of the craft as a whole and also other important components such as foils and skirts which are directly associated with the hull and superstructure.

03.02 Materials


Materials used for the hull and superstructure and the other features referred to in 3.1 shall be adequate for the intended use of the craft.

03.03 Structural strength


The structure shall be capable of withstanding the static and dynamic loads which can act on the craft under all operating conditions in which the craft is permitted to operate, without such loading resulting in inadmissible deformation and loss of watertightness or interfering with the safe operation of the craft.

03.04 Cyclic loads


Cyclic loads, including those from vibrations which can occur on the craft, shall not:

.1 impair the integrity of structure during the anticipated service life of the craft or the service life agreed with the Administration;

.2 hinder normal functioning of machinery and equipment; and

.3 impair the ability of the crew to carry out its duties.

03.05 Design criteria


The Administration shall be satisfied that the choice of design conditions, design loads and accepted safety factors corresponds to the intended operating conditions for which certification is sought.

03.06 Trials


If the Administration consider it necessary, it shall require full-scale trials to be undertaken in which loadings are determined. Cognisance shall be taken of the results where these indicate that loading assumptions of structural calculations have been inadequate.

Chapter 04 Accommodation and escape measures

04.01 General


4.1.1 Public spaces and crew accommodation shall be designed and arranged so as to protect the occupants from unfavourable environmental conditions and to minimize the risk of injury to occupants during normal and emergency conditions.

4.1.2 Spaces accessible to passengers shall not contain controls, electrical equipment, high-temperature parts and pipelines, rotating assemblies or other items, from which injury to passengers could result, unless such items are adequately shielded, isolated, or otherwise protected.

4.1.3 Public spaces shall not contain operating controls unless the operating controls are so protected and located that their operation by a crew member shall not be impeded by passengers during normal and emergency conditions.

4.1.4 Windows in passenger and crew accommodation shall be of adequate strength and suitable for the worst intended conditions specified in the Permit to Operate and be made of material which will not break into dangerous fragments if fractured.

4.1.5 The public spaces, crew accommodation and the equipment therein shall be designed so that each person making proper use of these facilities will not suffer injury during craft's normal and emergency start, stop and manoeuvring in normal cruise and in failure or maloperation conditions.

04.02 Public address and information system


4.2.1 A general emergency alarm system shall be provided. The alarm shall be audible throughout all the public spaces, corridors and stairways, crew accommodation and normal crew working spaces and open decks, and the sound pressure level shall be at least 10 dB(A) above ambient noise levels under way in normal cruise operation. The alarm shall continue to function after it has been triggered until it is normally turned off or is temporarily interrupted by a message on the public address system.

4.2.2 There shall be a public address system covering all areas where passengers and crew have access, escape routes, and places of embarkation into survival craft. The system shall be such that flooding or fire in any compartment does not render other parts of the system inoperable. The public address system and its performance standards shall be approved by the Administration having regard to the recommendations developed by the Organization *.
_____________________________
* Refer to the Recommendations on performance standards for public address systems on passenger ships, including cabling (MSC/Circ.808) and the Code on Alarms and Indicators, 1995 (resolution A.830(18)).

4.2.3 All passenger craft shall be equipped with illuminated or luminous notices or video information system(s) visible to all sitting passengers, in order to notify them of safety measures.

4.2.4 The master shall, by means of the public address system and the visual information system, be able to request passengers "please be seated" when found to be appropriate to safeguard passengers and always when the safety level 1 according to table 1 of annex 3 is exceeded.

04.03 Design acceleration levels

4.3 - Design acceleration levels

4.3.1 For passenger craft, superimposed vertical accelerations above 1.0g at longitudinal centre of gravity shall be avoided unless special precautions are taken with respect to passenger safety.

4.3.2 Passenger craft shall be designed for the collision design acceleration gcoll with respect to the safety in, and escape from, the public spaces, crew accommodation and escape routes, including in way of life-saving appliances and emergency source of power. The size and type of craft together with speed, displacement and building material shall be taken into consideration when the collision load is determined. The collision design condition shall be based on head-on impact at a defined collision speed.

4.3.3 Mounting of large masses such as main engines, auxiliary engines, lift fans, transmissions and electrical equipment shall be proved by calculation to withstand, without fracturing, the design acceleration given in table 4.3.3.

Types of craft
Direction

All HSC except
amphibious ACVs

Amphibious ACVs

Forward direction

gcoll

6

After direction

2 or gcoll if less

3

Transverse direction

2 or gcoll if less

3

Vertical direction

2 or gcoll if less

3


where:

gcoll=the collision design acceleration expressed as a multiple of the acceleration due to gravity (9.806 m/s2)


4.3.4 Collision design acceleration gcoll (for craft other than amphibious ACVs where gcoll = 6) shall be calculated as follows:


where the load P shall be taken as the lesser of P1 and P2, where:



where the hull material factor M shall be taken as:

M=1.3For high tensile steel
M=1.0for aluminium alloy
M=

0.95

for mild steel
M=0.8for fibre-reinforced plastics,

where the length factor CL of the craft is:



where the height factor CH = (80 - L)/45 but not greater than 0.75 or less than 0.3,
where the kinetic energy of the craft at speed Vimp is:



where the main particulars of the craft are:

L=craft length as defined in chapter 1 (m)
D=depth of the craft from the underside of keel to the top of the effective hull girder (m)
=craft displacement, being the mean of the lightweight and maximum operational weight (t)
Vimp=estimated impact speed (m/s) = two-thirds of operational speed as defined in chapter 1
g=acceleration due to gravity = 9.806 m/s2.

For hydrofoils, the collision design acceleration, gcoll shall be taken as the greater of either the gcoll as calculated above or:




where:

F=

failure load of bow foil assembly applied at the operational waterline (kN).

4.3.5 As an alternative to the requirements of 4.3.4, the collision design acceleration gcoll may be determined by carrying out a collision load analysis of the craft on a vertical rock having a maximum height of 2 m above the waterline and using the same assumption for displacement and impact speed Vimp as described in 4.3.4. This evaluation may be carried out as part of the safety analysis. If the collision design accelerations are determined by both 4.3.4 and the collision load analysis, the lower resulting value may be used as the collision design acceleration.

4.3.6 Compliance with the provisions of 4.1.5 and 4.3.1 shall be shown for the actual type of craft, as described in annex 9.

4.3.7 Limiting sea states for operation of the craft shall be given in normal operation condition and in the worst intended conditions, at operational speed and at reduced speed as necessary.

04.04 Accommodation design

4.4 - Accommodation design

4.4.1 The public spaces, control stations and crew accommodation of high-speed craft shall be located and designed to protect passengers and crew in the design collision condition. In this respect, these spaces shall not be located forward of a transverse plane (see figure 4.4.1) such that:

Abow=

0.0035 A m f V, but never less than 0.04 A,

 

where:

 

Abow=the plan projected area of craft energy absorbing structure forward of the transverse plane (m2)

m =

material factor =

 

M=

appropriate hull material factor as given in 4.3.4

 

Where materials are mixed, the material factor shall be taken as a weighted mean, weighted according to the mass of material in the area defined by Abow.

 

f=

framing factor as follows:

  • longitudinal deck and shell stiffening = 0.8
  • mixed longitudinal and transverse = 0.9
  • transverse deck and shell stiffening = 1.0
V=operational speed (m/s).

 


 


Figure 4.4.1: Plan view of two different craft styles



4.4.2 The public spaces and crew accommodation shall be designed based on the guidelines given in table 4.4.2 or by other methods which have been proven to give equal protective qualities.

4.4.3 Equipment and baggage in public spaces and in the operator's compartment shall be positioned and secured so that they remain in the stowed position when exposed to the collision design acceleration according to 4.3.4, 4.3.5 and table 4.3.3.

4.4.4 Seats, life-saving appliances and items of substantial mass and their supporting structure shall not deform or dislodge under any loads up to those specified in 4.3.4,

4.3.5 and table 4.3.3 in any manner that would impede subsequent rapid evacuation of passengers.

4.4.5 There shall be adequate handholds on both sides of any passage to enable passengers to steady themselves while moving about.

 

Table 4.4.2 - Overview general design guidelines1

Design level 1: gcoll less than 3
1Seat/seat belts
1.1Low or high seatback
1.2No restrictions on seating direction
1.3Sofas allowed
1.4No seat belts requirement
2Tables in general allowed
3Padding of projecting objects
4Kiosks, bars, etc., no special restrictions
5Baggage, no special requirements
6Large masses, restrainment and positioning
Design level 2: gcoll = 3 to 12
1Seat/seat belts
1.1High seatback with protective deformation and padding
1.2Forward or backward seating direction
1.3No sofas allowed as seat
1.4Lap belt in seats when no protective structure forward
2Tables with protective features allowed. Dynamic testing
3Padding of projecting objects
4Kiosks, bars, etc., on aft side of bulkheads, or other specially approved arrangements
5Baggage placed with protection forward
6Large masses, restrainment and positioning


1 Other arrangements may be employed if an equivalent level of safety is achieved.

04.05 Seating construction


4.5.1 A seat shall be provided for each passenger and crew member for which the craft is certified to carry. Such seats shall be arranged in enclosed spaces.

4.5.2 Seats fitted in addition to those required under 4.5.1 and which are not permitted to be used in hazardous navigational situations or potentially dangerous weather or sea conditions need not comply with 4.5 or 4.6. Such seats shall be secured according to 4.4.4 and clearly identified as not being able to be used in hazardous situations.

4.5.3 The installation of seats shall be such as to allow adequate access to any part of the accommodation space. In particular, they shall not obstruct access to, or use of, any essential emergency equipment or means of escape.

4.5.4 Seats and their attachments, and the structure in the proximity of the seats, shall be of a form and design, and so arranged, such as to minimize the possibility of injury and to avoid trapping of the passengers after the assumed damage in the collision design condition according to 4.4.1. Dangerous projections and hard edges shall be eliminated or padded.

4.5.5 Seats, seat belts, seat arrangements and adjacent parts such as tables shall be designed for the actual collision design acceleration as specified in 4.3.4.

4.5.6 All seats, their supports and their deck attachments shall have good energy-absorbing characteristics and shall meet the requirements of annex 10.

04.06 Safety belts

4.6 - Safety belts

4.6.1 One-hand-release safety belts of three-point type or with shoulder harness shall be provided for all seats from which the craft may be operated for all craft with the gcoll acceleration from the collision design acceleration exceeding 3g, as prescribed in 4.3.4.

4.6.2 Safety belts shall be provided on passenger seats and crew seats, if necessary, to obtain the protective performance measures described in annex 10.

04.07 Exits and means of escape

4.7 - Exits and means of escape

4.7.1 In order to ensure immediate assistance from the crew in an emergency situation, the crew accommodation, including any cabins, shall be located with due regard to easy, safe and quick access to the public spaces from inside the craft. For the same reason, easy, safe and quick access from the operating compartment to the public spaces shall be provided.

4.7.2 The design of the craft shall be such that all occupants may safely evacuate the craft into survival craft under all emergency conditions, by day or by night. The positions of all exits which may be used in an emergency, and of all life-saving appliances, the practicability of the evacuation procedure, and the evacuation time to evacuate all passengers and crew shall be demonstrated.

4.7.3 Public spaces, evacuation routes, exits, lifejacket stowage, survival craft stowage, and the embarkation stations shall be clearly and permanently marked and illuminated as required in chapter 12.

4.7.4 Each enclosed public space and similar permanently enclosed space allocated to passengers or crew shall be provided with at least two exits as widely separated as practical. All exits shall clearly indicate the directions to the evacuation station and safe areas. On category A craft and cargo craft, at least one exit shall give access to the evacuation station serving the persons in the enclosed space considered, and all other exits shall give access to a position on the open deck from which access to an evacuation station is provided. On category B craft, exits shall provide access to the alternative safe area required by 7.11.1; external routes may be accepted providing that the requirements of 4.7.3 and 4.7.11 are complied with.

4.7.5 Subdivision of public spaces to provide refuge in case of fire may be required in compliance with 7.4.4.1 and 7.11.1.

4.7.6 Exit doors shall be capable of being readily operated from inside and outside the craft in daylight and in darkness. The means of operation shall be obvious, rapid and of adequate strength. Doors along escape routes should, wherever appropriate, open in the direction of escape flow from the space served.

4.7.7 The closing, latching and locking arrangements for exits shall be such that it is readily apparent to the appropriate crew member when the doors are closed and in a safe operational condition, either in direct view or by an indicator. The design of external doors shall be such as to minimize the possibility of jamming by ice or debris.

4.7.8 The craft shall have a sufficient number of exits which are suitable to facilitate the quick and unimpeded escape of persons wearing approved lifejackets in emergency conditions, such as collision damage or fire.

4.7.9 Sufficient space for a crew member shall be provided adjacent to exits for ensuring the rapid evacuation of passengers.

4.7.10 All exits, together with their means of opening, shall be adequately marked for the guidance of passengers. Adequate marking shall also be provided for the guidance of rescue personnel outside the craft.

4.7.11 Footholds, ladders, etc., provided to give access from the inside to exits shall be of rigid construction and permanently fixed in position. Permanent handholds shall be provided whenever necessary to assist persons using exits, and shall be suitable for conditions when the craft has developed any possible angles of list or trim.

4.7.12 At least two unobstructed evacuation paths shall be available for the use of each person. Evacuation paths shall be disposed such that adequate evacuation facilities will be available in the event of any likely damage or emergency conditions, and evacuation paths shall have adequate lighting supplied from the main and emergency sources of power.

4.7.13 The width of corridors, doorways and stairways which form part of the evacuation paths shall be not less than 900 mm for passenger craft and 700 mm for cargo craft. This width may be reduced to 600 mm for corridors, doorways and stairways serving spaces where persons are not normally employed. There shall be no protrusions in evacuation paths which could cause injury, ensnare clothing, damage lifejackets or restrict evacuation of disabled persons.

4.7.14 Adequate notices shall be provided to direct passengers to exits.

4.7.15 Provision shall be made on board for embarkation stations to be properly equipped for evacuation of passengers into life-saving appliances. Such provision shall include handholds, anti-skid treatment of the embarkation deck, and adequate space which is clear of cleats, bollards and similar fittings.

4.7.16 Main propulsion machinery spaces and ro-ro spaces shall be provided with two means of escape leading to a position outside the spaces from which a safe route to the evacuation stations is available. One means of escape from the main propulsion machinery spaces shall avoid direct access to any ro-ro space. Main propulsion machinery spaces having a length of less than 5 m and not being routinely entered or continuously manned, may be provided with a single means of escape.

04.08 Evacuation time

4.8 -Evacuation time

4.8.1 The provisions for evacuation shall be designed such that the craft can be evacuated under controlled conditions in a time of one third of the structural fire protection time (SFP) provided in 7.4.2 for areas of major fire hazard areas after subtracting a period of 7 min for initial detection and extinguishing action.



4.8.2 An evacuation procedure, including an evacuation analysis carried out taking into account the guidelines developed by the Organization1 shall be developed for the information of the Administration in connection with the approval of fire insulation plans and for assisting the owners and builders in planning the evacuation demonstration required in 4.8.3. The evacuation procedures shall include:

  1. the emergency announcement made by the master;

  2. contact with base port;

  3. the donning of lifejackets;

  4. manning of survival craft and emergency stations;

  5. the shutting down of machinery and oil fuel supply lines;

  6. the order to evacuate;

  7. the deployment of survival craft and marine escape systems and rescue boats;

  8. the bowsing in of survival craft;

  9. the supervision of passengers;

  10. the orderly evacuation of passengers under supervision;

  11. crew checking that all passengers have left the craft;

  12. the evacuation of crew;

  13. releasing the survival craft from the craft; and

  14. the marshalling of survival craft by the rescue boat, where provided.

4.8.3 Achievement of the required evacuation time (as ascertained in accordance with 4.8.1) shall be verified by a practical demonstration conducted under controlled conditions in the presence of the Administration, and shall be fully documented and verified for passenger craft by the Administration.

4.8.4 Evacuation demonstrations shall be carried out with due concern for the problems of mass movement or panic acceleration likely to arise in an emergency situation when rapid evacuation is necessary. The evacuation demonstrations shall be dry shod with the survival craft initially in their stowed positions and be conducted as follows:

  1. The evacuation time on a category A craft shall be the time elapsed from the moment the first abandon craft announcement is given, with any passengers distributed in a normal voyage configuration, until the last person has embarked in a survival craft, and shall include the time for passengers and crew to don lifejackets.

  2. The evacuation time on a category B craft and cargo craft shall be the time elapsed from the moment the order to abandon the craft is given until the last person has embarked in a survival craft. Passengers and crew may be wearing lifejackets and prepared for evacuation, and they may be distributed among assembly stations.

  3. For all craft the evacuation time shall include the time necessary to launch, inflate and secure the survival craft alongside ready for embarkation.

4.8.5 The evacuation time shall be verified by an evacuation demonstration which shall be performed using the survival craft and exits on one side, for which the evacuation analysis indicates the greatest evacuation time, with the passengers and crew allocated to them.

4.8.6 On craft where a half trial is impracticable, the Administration may consider a partial evacuation trial using a route which the evacuation analysis shows to be the most critical.

4.8.7 The demonstration shall be carried out in controlled conditions in the following manner in compliance with the evacuation plan.

  1. The demonstration shall commence with the craft afloat in harbour, in reasonably calm conditions, with all machinery and equipment operating in the normal seagoing condition.

  2. All exits and doors inside the craft shall be in the same position as they are under normal seagoing condition.

  3. Safety belts, if required, shall be fastened.

  4. The evacuation routes for all passengers and crew shall be such that no person need enter the water during the evacuation.

4.8.8 For passenger craft, a representative composition of persons with normal health, height and weight shall be used in the demonstration, and shall consist of different sexes and ages so far as it is practicable and reasonable.

4.8.9 The persons, other than the crew selected for the demonstration, shall not have been specially drilled for such a demonstration.

4.8.10 An emergency evacuation demonstration shall be carried out for all new designs of high-speed craft and for other craft where evacuation arrangements differ substantially from those previously tested.

4.8.11 The specific evacuation procedure followed during the craft's initial demonstration on which certification is based shall be included in the craft operating manual together with the other evacuation procedures contained in 4.8.2. During the demonstration, video recordings shall be made, both inside and outside the craft, which shall form an integral part of the training manual required by 18.2.


1 Refer to the Guidelines to be developed by the Organization.

04.09 Baggage stores, shops and cargo compartments


4.9.1 Provision shall be made to prevent shifting of baggage, stores and cargo compartment contents, having due regard to occupied compartments and accelerations likely to arise. If safeguarding by positioning is not practicable, adequate means of restraint for baggage, stores and cargo shall be provided. Shelves and overhead shelves for storage of carry-on baggage in public spaces shall be provided with adequate means to prevent the luggage from falling out in any conditions that may occur.

4.9.2 Controls, electric equipment, high-temperature parts, pipelines or other items, the damage or failure of which could affect the safe operation of the craft or which may require access by crew members during a voyage, shall not be located in baggage, store and cargo compartments unless such items are adequately protected so that they cannot be damaged or, where applicable, operated inadvertently by loading, by unloading or by movement of the contents of the compartment.

4.9.3 Loading limits, if necessary, shall be durably marked in those compartments.

4.9.4 Having regard to the purpose of the craft, the closures of the exterior openings of the luggage and cargo compartments as well as special-category spaces shall be appropriately weathertight.

04.10 Noise levels


4.10.1 The noise level in public spaces and crew accommodation shall be kept as low as possible to enable the public address system to be heard, and shall not in general exceed 75 dB(A).

4.10.2 The maximum noise level in the operating compartment shall not in general exceed 65 dB(A) to facilitate communication within the compartment and external radiocommunications.

04.11 Protection of the crew and passengers


4.11.1 Efficient guard rails or bulwarks shall be fitted on all exposed parts of decks to which crew or passengers have access. Alternative arrangements such as safety harnesses and jack-stays may be accepted if they provide an equivalent level of safety. The height of the bulwarks or guard rails shall be at least 1 m from the deck, provided that where this height would interfere with the normal operation of the craft, a lesser height may be approved.

4.11.2 The opening below the lowest course of the guard rails shall not exceed 230 mm. The other courses shall be not more than 380 mm apart. In the case of craft with rounded gunwales the guard rail supports shall be placed on the flat of the deck.

4.11.3 Satisfactory means (in the form of guard rails, life lines, gangways or underdeck passages, etc.) shall be provided for the protection of the crew in getting to and from their quarters, the machinery space and all other parts used in the necessary work of the craft.

4.11.4 Deck cargo carrie d on any craft shall be so stowed that any opening which is in way of the cargo and which gives access to and from the crew's quarters, the machinery space and all other parts used in the necessary work of the craft, can be properly closed and secured against the admission of water. Effective protection for the crew in the form of guard rails or life lines shall be provided above the deck cargo if there is no convenient passage on or below the deck of the craft.

Chapter 05 Directional control systems

05.01 General


5.1.1 Craft shall be provided with means for directional control of adequate strength and suitable design to enable the craft's heading and direction of travel to be effectively controlled to the maximum extent possible in the prevailing conditions and craft speed without undue physical effort at all speeds and in all conditions for which the craft is to be certificated. The performance shall be verified in accordance with annex 9.

5.1.2 Directional control may be achieved by means of air or water rudders, foils, flaps, steerable propellers or jets, yaw control ports or side thrusters, differential propulsive thrust, variable geometry of the craft or its lift-system components or by a combination of these devices.

5.1.3 For the purpose of this chapter, a directional control system includes any steering device or devices, any mechanical linkages and all power or manual devices, controls and actuating systems.

5.1.4 Attention is drawn to the possibility of interaction between directional control systems and stabilisation systems. Where such interaction occurs or where dual-purpose components are fitted, the requirements of 12.5 and Chapters 16 and 17 are also to be complied with, as applicable.

05.02 Reliability


5.2.1 The probability of total failure of all directional control systems shall be extremely remote when the craft is operating normally, i.e., excluding emergency situations such as grounding, collision or a major fire.

5.2.2 A design incorporating a power drive or an actuation system employing powered components for normal directional control shall provide a secondary means of actuating the device unless an alternative system is provided.

5.2.3 The secondary means of actuating the directional control device may be manually driven when the Administration is satisfied that this is adequate, bearing in mind the craft's size and design and any limitations of speed or other parameters that may be necessary.

5.2.4 The directional control systems shall be constructed so that a single failure in one drive or system, as appropriate, will not render any other one inoperable or unable to bring the craft to a safe situation. The Administration may allow a short period of time to permit the connection of a secondary control device when the design of the craft is such that such delay will not, in their opinion, hazard the craft.

5.2.5 A failure mode and effect analysis shall include the directional control system.

5.2.6 If necessary to bring the craft to a safe condition, power drives for directional control devices, including those required to direct thrust forward or astern, shall become operative automatically, and respond correctly, within 5 s of power or other failure. Back-up electrical systems may be required for the starting-up time of an auxiliary diesel according to 12.2 or an emergency diesel generator according to 12.3.6.

5.2.7 Directional control devices involving variable geometry of the craft or its lift system components shall, so far as is practicable, be so constructed that any failure of the drive linkage or actuating system will not significantly hazard the craft.

05.03 Demonstrations


5.3.1 The limits of safe use of any of the control system devices, shall be based on demonstrations and a verification process in accordance with annex 9.

5.3.2 Demonstration in accordance with annex 9 shall determine any adverse effects upon safe operation of the craft in the event of an uncontrollable total deflection of any one control device. Any limitation on the operation of the craft as may be necessary to ensure that the redundancy or safeguards in the systems provide equivalent safety shall be included in the craft operating manual.

05.04 Control position


5.4.1 All directional control systems shall normally be operated from the craft's operating station.

5.4.2 If directional control systems can also be operated from other positions, then two-way communication shall be arranged between the operating station and these other positions.

5.4.3 Adequate indications shall be provided at the operating station and these other positions to provide the person controlling the craft with verification of the correct response of the directional control device to this demand, and also to indicate any abnormal responses or malfunction. The indications of steering response or rudder angle indicator shall be independent of the system for directional control. The logic of such feedback and indications shall be consistent with the other alarms and indications so that in an emergency operators are unlikely to be confused.

Chapter 06 Anchoring, towing and berthing

06.01 General

6.1 - General

6.1.1 A primary assumption made in this chapter is that high-speed craft will only need an anchor for emergency purposes.

6.1.2 The arrangements for anchoring, towing and berthing and the local craft structure, the design of the anchor, towing and berthing arrangements and the local craft structure shall be such that risks to persons carrying out anchoring, towing or berthing procedures are kept to a minimum.

6.1.3 All anchoring equipment, towing bitts, mooring bollards, fairleads, cleats and eyebolts shall be so constructed and attached to the hull that, in use up to design loads, the watertight integrity of the craft will not be impaired. Design loads and any directional limitations assumed shall be listed in the craft operating manual.

06.02 Anchoring


6.2.1 High-speed craft shall be provided with at least one anchor with its associated cable or cable and warp and means of recovery. Every craft shall be provided with adequate and safe means for releasing the anchor and its cable and warp.

6.2.2 Good engineering practice shall be followed in the design of any enclosed space containing the anchor-recovery equipment to ensure that persons using the equipment are not put at risk. Particular care shall be taken with the means of access to such spaces, the walkways, the illumination and protection from the cable and the recovery machinery.

6.2.3 Adequate arrangements shall be provided for two-way voice communication between the operating compartment and persons engaged in dropping, weighing or releasing the anchor.

6.2.4 The anchoring arrangements shall be such that any surfaces against which the cable may chafe (for example, hawse pipes and hull obstructions) are designed to prevent the cable from being damaged and fouled. Adequate arrangements shall be provided to secure the anchor under all operational conditions.

6.2.5 The craft shall be protected so as to minimize the possibility of the anchor and cable damaging the structure during normal operation.

06.03 Towing


6.3.1 Adequate arrangements shall be provided to enable the craft to be towed in the worst intended conditions. Where towage is to be from more than one point, a suitable bridle shall be provided.

6.3.2 The towing arrangements shall be such that any surface against which the towing cable may chafe (for example, fairleads) is of sufficient radius to prevent the cable being damaged when under load.

6.3.3 The maximum permissible speed at which the craft may be towed shall be included in the operating manual.

06.04 Berthing


6.4.1 Where necessary, suitable fairleads, bitts and mooring ropes shall be provided.

6.4.2 Adequate storage space for mooring lines shall be provided such that they are readily available and secured against the high relative wind speeds and accelerations which may be experienced.

Chapter 07 Fire safety

Part A General

Part A - General

Part B Requirements for passenger craft

Part B - Requirements for passenger craft

Part C Requirements for cargo craft

Part C - Requirements for cargo craft

Part D Requirements for craft and cargo spaces intended for the carriage of dangerous goods

Part D - Requirements for craft and cargo spaces intended for the carriage of dangerous goods1


1* Refer to the International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code (IMDG Code), adopted by the Organization by resolution A.716(17), as amended, and the Code of Safe Practice for Solid Bulk Cargoes, adopted by resolution A.434(XI), as amended.

Chapter 08 Life-saving appliances and arrangements

08.01 General and definitions


8.1.1 Life-saving appliances and arrangements shall enable abandonment of the craft in accordance with the requirements of 4.7 and 4.8.

8.1.2 Except where otherwise provided in this Code, the life-saving appliances and arrangements required by this chapter shall meet the detailed specifications set out in chapter III of the Convention and the LSA Code and be approved by the Administration.

8.1.3 Before giving approval to life-saving appliances and arrangements, the Administration shall ensure that such life-saving appliances and arrangements:
.1 are tested to confirm that they comply with the requirements of this chapter, in accordance with the recommendations of the Organization* ; or
.2 have successfully undergone, to the satisfaction of the Administration, tests which are substantially equivalent to those specified in those recommendations.

8.1.4 Before giving approval to novel life-saving appliances or arrangements, the Administration shall ensure that such appliances or arrangements:
.1 provide safety standards at least equivalent to the requirements of this chapter and have been evaluated and tested in accordance with the recommendations of the Organization** ; or
.2 have successfully undergone, to the satisfaction of the Administration, evaluation and tests which are substantially equivalent to those recommendations.

8.1.5 Before accepting life-saving appliances and arrangements that have not been previously approved by the Administration, the Administration shall be satisfied that life-saving appliances and arrangements comply with the requirements of this chapter.

8.1.6 Except where otherwise provided in this Code, life-saving appliances required by this chapter for which detailed specifications are not included in the LSA Code shall be to the satisfaction of the Administration.

8.1.7 The Administration shall require life-saving appliances to be subjected to such production tests as are necessary to ensure that the life-saving appliances are manufactured to the same standard as the approved prototype.

8.1.8 Procedures adopted by the Administration for approval shall also include the conditions whereby approval would continue or would be withdrawn.

8.1.9 The Administration shall determine the period of acceptability of life-saving appliances which are subject to deterioration with age. Such life-saving appliances shall be marked with a means for determining their age or the date by which they shall be replaced.

8.1.10 For the purposes of this chapter, unless expressly provided otherwise:
.1 "Detection" is the determination of the location of survivors or survival craft.
.2 "Embarkation ladder" is the ladder provided at survival craft embarkation stations to permit safe access to survival craft after launching.
.3 "Embarkation station" is the place from which a survival craft is boarded. An embarkation station may also serve as an assembly station, provided there is sufficient room, and the assembly station activities can safely take place there.
.4 "Float-free launching" is that method of launching a survival craft whereby the craft is automatically released from a sinking craft and is ready for use.
.5 "Free-fall launching" is that method of launching a survival craft whereby the craft with its complement of persons and equipment on board is released and allowed to fall into the sea without any restraining apparatus.
.6 "Immersion suit" is a protective suit which reduces the body heat-loss of a person wearing it in cold water.
.7 "Inflatable appliance" is an appliance which depends upon non-rigid, gas-filled chambers for buoyancy and which is normally kept uninflated until ready for use.
.8 "Inflated appliance" is an appliance which depends upon non-rigid, gas-filled chambers for buoyancy and which is normally kept inflated and ready for use at all times.
.9 "Launching appliance or arrangement" is a means of transferring a survival craft or rescue boat from its stowed position safely to the water.
.10 "Marine evacuation system (MES)" is an appliance designed to rapidly transfer a large number of persons from an embarkation station by means of a passage to a floating platform for subsequent embarkation into associated survival craft or directly into associated survival craft.
.11 "Novel life-saving appliance or arrangement" is a life-saving appliance or arrangement which embodies new features not fully covered by the provisions of this chapter but which provides an equal or higher standard of safety.
.12 "Rescue boat" is a boat designed to assist and rescue persons in distress and to marshal survival craft.
.13 "Retrieval" is the safe recovery of survivors.
.14 "Retro-reflective material" is a material which reflects in the opposite direction a beam of light directed on it.
.15 "Survival craft" is a craft capable of sustaining the lives of persons in distress from the time of abandoning the craft.
.16 "Thermal protective aid" is a bag or suit of waterproof material with low thermal conductance.
* Refer to the Revised Recommendation on Testing of Life-Saving Appliances, adopted by the Organization by resolution MSC.81(70).
** Refer to the Code of Practice for the Evaluation, Testing and Acceptance of Prototype Novel Life-Saving Appliances and Arrangements, adopted by the Organization by resolution A.520(13).

08.02 Communications

8.2 - Communications

8.2.1 Craft shall be provided with the following radio life-saving appliances:

  1. at least three two-way VHF radiotelephone apparatus shall be provided on every passenger high-speed craft and on every cargo high-speed craft of 500 gross tonnage and upwards. Such apparatus shall conform to performance standards not inferior to those adopted by the Organization1;

  2. at least one radar transponder shall be carried on each side of every passenger high-speed craft and of every cargo high-speed craft of 500 gross tonnage and upwards. Such radar transponders shall conform to performance standards not inferior to those adopted by the Organization2. The radar transponders shall be stowed in such locations that they can be rapidly placed in any one of the liferafts. Alternatively, one radar transponder shall be stowed in each survival craft.

8.2.2 Craft shall be provided with the following on-board communications and alarm systems:

  1. an emergency means comprising either fixed or portable equipment or both for two-way communications between emergency control stations, assembly and embarkation stations and strategic positions on board;

  2. a general emergency alarm system complying with the requirements of paragraph 7.2.1 of the LSA Code to be used for summoning passengers and crew to assembly stations and to initiate the actions included in the muster list. The system shall be supplemented by a public address system complying with the requirements of paragraph 7.2.2 of the LSA Code, or by other suitable means of communication. The systems shall be operable from the operating compartment.

8.2.3 Signalling equipment

8.2.3.1 All craft shall be provided wit h a portable daylight signalling lamp which is available for use in the operating compartment at all times and which is not dependent on the craft's main source of electrical power.

8.2.3.2 Craft shall be provided with not less than 12 rocket parachute flares, complying with the requirements of paragraph 3.1 of the LSA Code, stowed in or near the operating compartment.


1 Refer to the Recommendation on Performance Standards for Survival Craft Portable Two-Way VHF Radiotelephone Apparatus, adopted by the Organization by resolution A.809(19).

2 Refer to the Recommendation on Performance Standards for Survival Craft Radar Transponders for Use in Search and Rescue Operations, adopted by the Organization by resolution A.802(19).

08.03 Personal life-saving appliances


8.3.1 Where passengers or crew have access to exposed decks under normal operating conditions, at least one lifebuoy on each side of the craft capable of quick release from the control compartment and from a position at or near where it is stowed, shall be provided with a self-igniting light and a self-activating smoke signal. The positioning and securing arrangements of the self-activating smoke signal shall be such that it cannot be released or activated solely by the accelerations produced by collisions or groundings.

8.3.2 At least one lifebuoy shall be provided adjacent to each normal exit from the craft and on each open deck to which passengers and crew have access, subject to a minimum of two being installed.

8.3.3 Lifebuoys fitted adjacent to each normal exit from the craft shall be fitted with buoyant lines of at least 30 m in length.

8.3.4 Not less than half the total number of lifebuoys shall be fitted with self-igniting lights. However, the lifebuoys provided with self-igniting lights shall not include those provided with lines in accordance with 8.3.3.

8.3.5 A lifejacket complying with the requirements of paragraph 2.2.1 or 2.2.2 of the LSA Code be provided for every person on board the craft and, in addition:
.1 a number of lifejackets suitable for children equal to at least 10% of the number of passengers on board shall be provided or such greater number as may be required to provide a lifejacket for each child;
.2 every passenger craft shall carry lifejackets for not less than 5% of the total number of persons on board. These lifejackets shall be stowed in conspicuous places on deck or at assembly stations;
.3 a sufficient number of lifejackets shall be carried for persons on watch and for use at remotely located survival craft and rescue boat stations; and
.4 all lifejackets shall be fitted with a light, which complies with the requirements of paragraph 2.2.3 of the LSA Code.

8.3.6 Lifejackets shall be so placed as to be readily accessible and their positions shall be clearly indicated.

8.3.7 An immersion suit, of an appropriate size, complying with the requirements of paragraph 2.3 of the LSA Code shall be provided for every person assigned to crew the rescue boat.

8.3.8 An immersion suit or anti-exposure suit shall be provided for each member of the crew assigned, in the muster list, to duties in an MES party for embarking passengers into survival craft. These immersion suits or anti-exposure suits need not be required if the craft is constantly engaged on voyages in warm climates where, in the opinion of the Administration, such suits are unnecessary.

08.04 Muster list, emergency instructions and manuals


8.4.1 Clear instructions to be followed in the event of an emergency shall be provided for each person on board.*

8.4.2 Muster lists complying with the requirements of regulation III/37 of the Convention shall be exhibited in conspicuous places throughout the craft including the control compartment, engine-room and crew accommodation spaces.

8.4.3 Illustrations and instructions in appropriate languages shall be posted in public spaces and be conspicuously displayed at assembly stations, at other passenger spaces and near each seat to inform passengers of:
.1 their assembly station;
.2 the essential actions they must take in an emergency;
.3 the method of donning lifejackets.

8.4.4 Every passenger craft shall have passenger assembly stations:
.1 in the vicinity of, and which provide ready access for all the passengers to, the embarkation stations unless in the same location; and
.2 which have ample room for the marshalling and instruction of passengers.

8.4.5 A training manual complying with the requirements of 18.2.3 shall be provided in each crew messroom and recreation room.

08.05 Operating instructions


8.5.1 Poster or signs shall be provided on or in the vicinity of survival craft and their launching controls and shall:
.1 illustrate the purpose of controls and the procedures for operating the appliance and give relevant instructions and warnings:
.2 be easily seen under emergency lighting conditions;
.3 use symbols in accordance with the recommendations of the Organization** .
____________________________________
* Refer to the Guidelines for passenger safety instructions on ro-ro passenger ships (MSC/ Circ.681).

** Refer to Symbols related to Life-Saving Appliances and Arrangements, adopted by the Organization by resolution A.760(18), as amended by resolution MSC.82(70).

08.06 Survival craft stowage


8.6.1 Survival craft shall be securely stowed outside and as close as possible to the passenger accommodation and embarkation stations. The stowage shall be such that each survival craft can be safely launched in a simple manner and remain secured to the craft during and subsequent to the launching procedure. The length of the securing lines and the arrangements of the bowsing lines shall be such as to maintain the survival craft suitably positioned for embarkation. The Administrations may permit the use of adjustable securing and/or bowsing lines at exits where more than one survival craft is used. The securing arrangements for all securing and bowsing lines shall be of sufficient strength to hold the survival craft in position during the evacuation process.

8.6.2 Survival craft shall be so stowed as to permit release from their securing arrangements at or near to their stowage position on the craft and from a position at or near to the operating compartment.

8.6.3 So far as is practicable, survival craft shall be distributed in such a manner that there is an equal capacity on both sides of the craft.

8.6.4 The launching procedure for inflatable liferafts shall, where practicable, initiate inflation. Where it is not practicable to provide automatic inflation of liferafts (for example, when the liferafts are associated with an MES), the arrangement shall be such that the craft can be evacuated within the time specified in 4.8.1.

8.6.5 Survival craft shall be capable of being launched and then boarded from the designated embarkation stations in all operational conditions and also in all conditions of flooding after receiving damage to the extent prescribed in chapter 2.

8.6.6 Survival craft launching stations shall be in such positions as to ensure safe launching having particular regard to clearance from the propeller or waterjet and steeply overhanging portions of the hull.

8.6.7 During preparation and launching, the survival craft and the area of water into which it is to be launched shall be adequately illuminated by the lighting supplied from the main and emergency sources of electrical power required by chapter 12.

8.6.8 Means shall be available to prevent any discharge of water on to survival craft when launched.

8.6.9 Each survival craft shall be stowed:
.1 so that neither the survival craft nor its stowage arrangements will interfere with the operation of any other survival craft or rescue boat at any other launching station;
.2 in a state of continuous readiness;
.3 fully equipped; and
.4 as far as practicable, in a secure and sheltered position and protected from damage by fire and explosion.

8.6.10 Every liferaft shall be stowed with its painter permanently attached to the craft and with a float free arrangement complying with the requirements of paragraph 4.1.6 of the LSA Code so that, as far as practicable, the liferaft floats free and, if inflatable, inflates automatically should the high speed craft sink.

8.6.11 Rescue boats shall be stowed:
.1 in a state of continuous readiness for launching in not more than 5 min;
.2 in a position suitable for launching and recovery; and
.3 so that neither the rescue boat nor its stowage arrangements will interfere with the operation of survival craft at any other launching station.

8.6.12 Rescue boats and survival craft shall be secured and fastened to the deck so that they at least withstand the loads likely to arise due to a defined horizontal collision load for the actual craft and the vertical design load at the stowage position.

08.07 Survival craft and rescue boat embarkation and recovery arrangements

8.7 - Survival craft and rescue boat embarkation and recovery arrangements

8.7.1 Embarkation stations shall be readily accessible from accommodation and work areas. If the designated assembly stations are other than the passenger spaces, the assembly stations shall be readily accessible from the passenger spaces, and the embarkation stations shall be readily accessible from the assembly stations.

8.7.2 Evacuation routes, exits and embarkation points shall comply with the requirements of 4.7.

8.7.3 Alleyways, stairways and exits giving access to the assembly and embarkation stations shall be adequately illuminated by lighting supplied from the main and emergency source of electrical power required by chapter 12.

8.7.4 Where davit-launched survival craft are not fitted, MES or equivalent means of evacuation shall be provided in order to avoid persons entering the water to board survival craft. Such MES or equivalent means of evacuation shall be so designed as to enable persons to board survival craft in all operational conditions and also in all conditions of flooding after receiving damage to the extent prescribed in chapter 2.

8.7.5 Subject to survival craft and rescue boat embarkation arrangements being effective within the environmental conditions in which the craft is permitted to operate and in all undamaged and prescribed damage conditions of trim and heel, where the freeboard between the intended embarkation position and the waterline is not more than 1.5 m, the Administration may accept a system where persons board liferafts directly.

8.7.6 Rescue boat embarkation arrangements shall be such that the rescue boat can be boarded and launched directly from the stowed position and recovered rapidly when loaded with its full complement of persons and equipment.

8.7.7 Launching systems for rescue boats on category B craft may be based on power supply from the craft's power supply under the following conditions:

  1. the davit or crane shall be supplied with power from 2 sources in each independent engine room;

  2. the davit or crane shall comply with the required launching, lowering and hoisting speeds when using only one power source; and

  3. the davit or crane is not required to be activated from a position within the rescue boat.

8.7.8 On multihull craft with a small HL1 angle of heel and trim, the design angles in paragraph 6.1 of the LSA Code may be changed from 20°/10°to the maximum angles calculated in accordance with annex 7, including heeling lever HL2, HTL, HL3 or HL4.

8.7.9 Rescue boat davits or cranes may be designed for launching and recovering the boat with 3 persons only on the condition that an additional boarding arrangement is available on each side complying with 8.7.5.

8.7.10 A safety knife shall be provided at each MES embarkation station.

08.08 Line-throwing appliance


A line-throwing appliance complying with the requirements of paragraph 7.1 of the LSA Code shall be provided.

08.09 Operational readiness, maintenance and inspections

8.9 - Operational readiness, maintenance and inspections

8.9.1 Operational readiness
Before the craft leaves port and at all times during the voyage, all life-saving appliances shall be in working order and ready for immediate use.

8.9.2 Maintenance

  1. Instructions for on-board maintenance of life-saving appliances complying with the requirements of regulation III/36 of the Convention shall be provided and maintenance shall be carried out accordingly.

  2. The Administration may accept, in lieu of the instructions required by .1, a shipboard planned maintenance programme which includes the requirements of regulation III/36 of the Convention.

8.9.3 Maintenance of falls

8.9.3.1 Falls used in launching shall be turned end for end at intervals of not more than 30 months and be renewed when necessary due to deterioration of the falls or at intervals of not more than five years, whichever is the earlier.

8.9.3.2 The Administration may accept in lieu of "end for ending" required in paragraph 8.9.3.1, periodic inspection of the falls and their renewal whenever necessary due to deterioration or at intervals of not more than four years, whichever is the earlier.

8.9.4 Spares and repair equipment
Spares and repair equipment shall be provided for life-saving appliances and their components which are subject to excessive wear or consumption and need to be replaced regularly.

8.9.5 Weekly inspection
The following tests and inspections shall be carried out weekly:

  1. all survival craft, rescue boats and launching appliances shall be visually inspected to ensure that they are ready for use;

  2. all engines in rescue boats shall be run ahead and astern for a total period of not less than 3 min provided the ambient temperature is above the minimum temperature required for starting and running the engine. During this period of time, it should be demonstrated that the gearbox and gearbox train are engaging satisfactorily. If the special characteristics of an outboard motor fitted to a rescue boat would not allow it to be run other than with its propeller submerged for a period of 3 min, it should be run for such period as prescribed in the manufacturer's handbook.; and

  3. the general emergency alarm system shall be tested.

8.9.6 Monthly inspections
Inspection of the life-saving appliances, including survival craft equipment shall be carried out monthly using the checklist required by regulation III/36.1 of the Convention to ensure that they are complete and in good order. A report of the inspection shall be entered in the log-book.

8.9.7 Servicing of inflatable liferafts, inflatable lifejackets, marine evacuation systems and inflated rescue boats

8.9.7.1 Every inflatable liferaft, inflatable lifejacket and MES shall be serviced:

  1. at intervals not exceeding 12 months, provided where in any case this is impracticable, the Administration may extend this period by one month;

  2. at an approved servicing station which is competent to service them, maintains proper servicing facilities and uses only properly trained personnel1.

8.9.8 Rotational deployment of marine evacuation systems
In addition to or in conjunction with the servicing intervals of marine evacuation systems required by paragraph 8.9.7.1, each marine evacuation system shall be deployed from the craft on a rotational basis at intervals to be agreed by the Administration provided that each system is to be deployed at least once every six years.

8.9.9 An Administration which approves new and novel inflatable liferaft arrangements pursuant to 8.1 may allow for extended service intervals under the following conditions:

8.9.9.1 The new and novel liferaft arrangement shall maintain the same standard, as required by testing procedure, throughout the extended service intervals.

8.9.9.2 The liferaft system shall be checked on board by certified personnel according to paragraph 8.9.7.1.

8.9.9.3 Service at intervals not exceeding five years shall be carried out in accordance with recommendations of the Organization

8.9.10 All repairs and maintenance of inflated rescue boats shall be carried out in accordance with the manufacturers instructions. Emergency repairs may be carried out on board the craft, however, permanent repairs shall be effected at an approved servicing station.

8.9.11An Administration which permits extension of liferaft service intervals in accordance with paragraph 8.9.9 shall notify the Organization of such action in accordance with regulation I/5(b) of the Convention.

8.9.12 Periodic servicing of hydrostatic release units
Hydrostatic release units shall be serviced:

  1. at intervals not exceeding 12 months, provided where in any case this is impracticable, the Administration may extend this period by one month;

  2. at a servicing station which is competent to service them, maintains proper servicing facilities and uses only properly trained personnel.

8.9.13 Marking of stowage locations
Containers, brackets, racks and other similar stowage locations for life-saving equipment, shall be marked with symbols in accordance with the recommendations of the Organization, indicating the devices stowed in that location for that purpose. If more than one device is stowed in that location, the number of devices shall also be indicated.

8.9.14 Periodic servicing of launching appliances.

8.9.14.1 Launching appliances:

  1. shall be serviced at recommended intervals in accordance with instructions for on-board maintenance as required by regulation III/36 of the Convention;

  2. shall be subjected to a thorough examination at intervals not exceeding 5 years; and

  3. shall upon completion of the examination in .2 be subjected to a dynamic test of the winch brake in accordance with paragraph 6.1.2.5.2 of the LSA Code.


1* Refer to the Recommendation on Conditions for the Approval of Servicing Stations for Inflatable Liferafts, adopted by the Organization by resolution A.761(18), as amended by resolution MSC.55(66).

08.10 Survival craft and rescue boats


8.10.1 All craft shall carry:
.1 survival craft with sufficient capacity as will accommodate not less than 100% of the total number of persons the craft is certified to carry, subject to a minimum of two such survival craft being carried;
.2 in addition, survival craft with sufficient aggregate capacity to accommodate not less than 10% of the total number of persons the craft is certified to carry;
.3 sufficient survival craft to accommodate the total number of persons the craft is certified to carry even, in the event that all the survival craft to one side of the craft centerline and within the longitudinal extent of damage defined in 2.6.7.1 are considered lost or rendered unserviceable, ;
.4 at least one rescue boat for retrieving persons from the water, but not less than one such boat on each side when the craft is certified to carry more than 450 passengers;
.5 craft of less than 30 m in length may be exempted from carrying a rescue boat, provided the craft meets all of the following requirements:
.5.1 the craft is arranged to allow a helpless person to be recovered from the water;
.5.2 recovery of the helpless person can be observed from the navigating bridge; and
.5.3 the craft is sufficiently manoeuvrable to close in and recover persons in the worst intended conditions.
.6 notwithstanding the provisions of .4 and .5 above, craft shall carry sufficient rescue boats to ensure that, in providing for abandonment by the total number of persons the craft is certified to carry:
.6.1 not more than nine of the liferafts provided in accordance with 8.10.1.1 are marshalled by each rescue boat; or
.6.2 if the Administration is satisfied that the rescue boats are capable of towing a pair of such liferafts simultaneously, not more than 12 of the liferafts provided in accordance with 8.10.1.1 are marshalled by each rescue boat; and .6.3 the craft can be evacuated within the time specified in 4.8.

8.10.2 Where the Administration considers it appropriate, in view of the sheltered nature of the voyages and the suitable climatic conditions of the intended area of operations, the Administration may permit the use of open reversible inflatable liferafts complying with annex 11 on category A craft as an alternative to liferafts complying with paragraph 4.2 or 4.3 of the LSA Code.

08.11 Helicopter pick-up areas


8.11.1 Craft operating on voyages having a duration of 2 h or more between each port of call shall be provided with a helicopter pick-up area approved by the Administration having regard to the recommendations adopted by the Organization*.
_____________________________
* Refer to the Merchant ship search and rescue manual (MERSAR), adopted by the Organization by resolution A.229(VII), as amended.

Chapter 09 Machinery

Part A General

Part B Requirements for passenger craft

Part C Requirements for cargo craft

Chapter 10 Auxiliary systems

Part A General

Part B Requirements for passenger craft

Part C Requirements for cargo craft

Chapter 11 Remote control, alarm and safety systems

11.01 Definitions


11.1.1 "Remote control systems" comprise all equipment necessary to operate units from a control position where the operator cannot directly observe the effect of his actions.

11.1.2 "Back-up control systems" comprise all equipment necessary to maintain control of essential functions required for the craft's safe operation when the main control systems have failed or malfunctioned.

11.02 General


11.2.1 Failure of any remote or automatic control systems shall initiate an audible and visual alarm and shall not prevent normal manual control.

11.2.2 Manoeuvring and emergency controls shall permit the operating crew to perform the duties for which they are responsible in correct manner without difficulty, fatigue or excessive concentration.

11.2.3 Where control of propulsion or manoeuvring is provided at stations adjacent to but outside the operating compartment, the transfer of control shall only be effected from the station which takes charge of control. Two-way voice communication shall be provided between all stations from which control functions may be exercised and between each such station and the look-out position. Failure of the operating control system or of transfer of control shall bring the craft to low speed without hazarding passengers or the craft.

11.2.4 For category B and cargo craft, remote control systems for propulsion machinery and directional control shall be equipped with back-up systems controllable from the operating compartment. For cargo craft, instead of a back-up system described above, a back-up system controllable from an engine control space such as an engine control room outside the operating compartment, is acceptable.

11.03 Emergency controls

11.3 - Emergency controls

11.3.1 In all craft, the station or stations in the operating compartment from which control of craft manoeuvring and/or of its main machinery is exercised shall be provided, within easy reach of the crew member at that station, with controls for use in an emergency to:

  1. activate fixed fire-extinguishing systems;

  2. close ventilation openings and stop ventilating machinery supplying spaces covered by fixed fire-extinguishing systems, if not incorporated in .1;

  3. shut off fuel supplies to machinery in main and auxiliary machinery spaces;.

  4. disconnect all electrical power sources from the normal power distribution system (the operating control shall be guarded to reduce the risk of inadvertent or careless operation); and

  5. stop main engine(s) and auxiliary machinery.

11.3.2 Where control of propulsion and manoeuvring is provided at stations outside the operating compartment, such stations shall have direct communication with the operating compartment which shall be a continuously manned control station.

11.3.3 In addition, for category B craft control of propulsion and manoeuvring as well as emergency functions referred to in 11.3.1 shall be provided in a station outside the operating compartment. Such stations shall have direct communication with the operating compartment which shall be a continuously manned control station.

11.04 Alarm system

11.4 - Alarm system

11.4.1 Alarm systems shall be provided which announce at the craft's control position, by visual and audible means, malfunctions or unsafe conditions. Alarms shall be maintained until they are accepted and the visual indications of individual alarms shall remain until the fault has been corrected, when the alarm shall automatically reset to the normal operating condition. If an alarm has been accepted and a second fault occurs before the first is rectified, the audible and visual alarms shall operate again. Alarm systems shall incorporate a test facility.

11.4.1.1 Emergency alarms giving indication of conditions requiring immediate action shall be distinctive and in full view of crew members in the operating compartment, and shall be provided for the following:

  1. activation of a fire-detection system;

  2. total loss of normal electrical supply;

  3. overspeed of main engines;

  4. thermal runaway of any permanently installed nickel-cadmium battery.

11.4.1.2 Alarms with a visual display distinct from that of alarms referred to in 11.4.1.1 shall indicate conditions requiring action to prevent degradation to an unsafe condition. These shall be provided for at least the following:

  1. exceeding the limiting value of any craft, machinery or system parameter other than engine overspeed;

  2. failure of normal power supply to powered directional or trim control devices;

  3. operation of any automatic bilge pump;

  4. failure of compass system;

  5. low level of a fuel tank contents;

  6. fuel oil tank overflow;

  7. extinction of side, masthead or stern navigation lights;

  8. low level of contents of any fluid reservoir the contents of which are essential for normal craft operation;

  9. failure of any connected electrical power source;

  10. failure of any ventilation fan installed for ventilating spaces in which inflammable vapours may accumulate; and

  11. diesel engine fuel line failure as required by 9.4.2.

11.4.1.3 All warnings required by 11.4.1.1 and 11.4.1.2 shall be provided at all stations at which control functions may be exercised.

11.4.2 The alarm system shall meet appropriate constructional and operational requirements for required alarms.1

11.4.3 Equipment monitoring the passenger, cargo and machinery spaces for fire and flooding shall, so far as is practicable, form an integrated sub-centre incorporating monitoring and activation control for all emergency situations. This sub-centre may require feedback instrumentation to indicate that actions initiated have been fully implemented.


1  Refer to the Code on Alarms and Indicators, 1995, adopted by the Organization by resolution A.830(19).

11.05 Safety system


11.5.1 Where arrangements are fitted for overriding any automatic shutdown system for the main propulsion machinery in accordance with 9.2.2, they shall be such as to preclude inadvertent operation. When a shutdown system is activated, an audible and visual alarm shall be given at the control station and means shall be provided to override the automatic shutdown except in cases where there is a risk of complete breakdown or explosion.
_____________________________
* Refer to the Code on Alarms and Indicators, 1995, adopted by the Organization by resolution A.830(19).

Chapter 12 Electrical installations

Part A General

Part B Requirements for passenger craft

Part C Requirements for cargo craft

Chapter 13 Navigational equipment

013.01 Navigation (general)


13.1.1 This chapter covers items of equipment which relate to the navigation of the craft as distinct from the safe functioning of the craft. The following paragraphs set out the minimum requirements.

13.1.2 The equipment and its installation shall be to the satisfaction of the Administration. The Administration shall determine to what extent the provisions of this chapter do not apply to craft below 150 gross tonnage.

13.1.3 The information provided by navigation systems and equipment shall be so displayed that the probability of misreading is reduced to a minimum. navigational systems and equipment shall be capable of giving readings to an optimum accuracy.

013.02 Compasses


13.2.1 Craft shall be provided with a magnetic compass which is capable of operating without electrical supply, and which may be used for steering purposes. This compass shall be mounted in a suitable binnacle containing the required correcting devices and shall be suitable for the speed and motion characteristics of the craft.

13.2.2 The compass card or repeater shall be capable of being easily read from the position at which the craft is normally controlled.

13.2.3 Each magnetic compass shall be properly adjusted and its table or curve of residual deviations shall be available at all times.

13.2.4 Care shall be taken in siting a magnetic compass or magnetic sensing element so that magnetic interference is eliminated or minimized as far as is practicable.

13.2.5 Passenger craft certified to carry 100 passengers or less shall, in addition to the compass required by 13.2.1, be provided with a properly adjusted transmitting heading device, suitable for the speed and motion characteristics and area of operation of the craft, capable of transmitting a true heading reference to other equipment.

13.2.6 Passenger craft certified to carry more than 100 passengers and cargo craft shall, in addition to the compass required in 13.2.1, be provided with a gyro-compass which shall be suitable for the speed and motion characteristics and area of operation of the craft.

013.03 Speed and distance measurement


13.3.1 Craft shall be provided with a device capable of indicating speed and distance.

13.3.2 Speed- and distance-measuring devices on craft fitted with an automatic radar plotting aid (ARPA) or automatic tracking aid (ATA) shall be capable of measuring speed and distance through the water.

013.04 Echo-sounding device


13.4.1 Non-amphibious craft shall be provided with an echo-sounding device which will give an indication of depth of water to a sufficient degree of accuracy for use when the craft is in the displacement mode.

013.05 Radar installations


13.5.1 Craft shall be provided with at least one azimuth-stabilized radar operating on 9 GHz.

13.5.2 Craft of 500 gross tonnage and upwards or craft certified to carry more than 450 passengers shall also be provided with a 3 GHz radar or where considered appropriate by the Administration a second 9 GHz radar, or other means to determine and display the range and bearing of other surface craft, obstructions, buoys, shorelines and navigational marks to assist in navigation and in collision avoidance, which are functionally independent of those referred to in paragraph 13.5.1.

13.5.3 At least one radar shall be provided with facilities for an ARPA or ATA suitable for the motion and speed of the craft.

13.5.4 Adequate communication facilities shall be provided between the radar observer and the person in immediate charge of the craft.

13.5.5 Each radar installation provided shall be suitable for the intended craft speed, motion characteristics and commonly encountered environmental conditions.

13.5.6 Each radar installation shall be mounted so as to be as free as practicable from vibration.

013.06 Electronic positioning systems


Craft shall be provided with a receiver for a global navigation satellite system or a terrestrial radio navigation system, or other means, suitable for use at all times throughout the intended voyage to establish and update the craft's position by automatic means.

013.07 Rate-of-turn indicator and rudder angle indicator


13.7.1 Craft of 500 gross tonnage or upwards shall be provided with a rate-of-turn indicator. A rate-of-turn indicator shall be provided in craft of less than 500 gross tonnage if the test according to annex 9 shows that the turn rate can exceed safety level 1.

13.7.2 Craft shall be provided with an indicator showing the rudder angle. In craft without a rudder, the indicator shall show the direction of steering thrust.

013.08 Other navigational aids

13.8 - Other navigational aids

13.8.1 The craft shall be provided with nautical charts and nautical publications to plan and display the ship's route for the intended voyage and to plot and monitor positions throughout the voyage; an electrical chart display and information system (ECDIS) may be accepted as meeting the chart carriage requirements of this paragraph.

13.8.3 Back-up arrangements shall be provided to meet the functional requirements of paragraph 13.8.1, if this function is partly or fully fulfilled by electronic means.

013.09 Searchlight


13.9.1 Craft shall be provided with at least one adequate searchlight, which shall be controllable from the operating station.

13.9.2 One portable daylight signalling lamp shall be provided and maintained ready for use in the operating compartment at all times.

13.10 Night vision equipment


13.10.1 When operational conditions justify the provision of night vision equipment, such equipment shall be provided.

13.11 Steering arrangement and propulsion indicators


13.11.1 The steering arrangement shall be so designed that the craft turns in the same direction as that of the wheel, tiller, joystick or control lever.

13.11.2 Craft shall be provided with means to show the mode of the propulsion system(s).

13.11.3 Craft with emergency steering positions shall be provided with arrangements for supplying visual compass readings to the emergency steering position.

13.12 Automatic steering aid (automatic pilot equipment)


13.12.1 Craft shall be provided with an automatic steering aid (automatic pilot).

13.12.2 Provision shall be made to change from the automatic to manual mode by a manual override.

13.13 Performance standards


If practicable, craft of 150 gross tonnage or below shall be provided with a radar reflector, or other means, to assist detection by ship navigating by radar at both 9 and 3 GHz.

13.14 Sound reception system


When the craft’s bridge is totally enclosed and unless the Administration determines otherwise, craft shall be provided with a sound reception system, or other means, to enable the officer in charge of the navigational watch to hear sound signals and determine their direction.

13.15 Automatic identification system


13.15.1 Craft shall be provided with an automatic identification system (AIS).

13.15.2 AIS shall:
.1 provide automatically to appropriately equipped shore stations, other vessels and aircraft information, including the craft’s identity, type, position, course, speed, navigational status and other safety-related information;
.2 receive automatically such information from similarly fitted vessels;
.3 monitor and track vessels; and
.4 exchange data with shore based facilities.

13.15.3 The requirements of 13.15.2 shall not apply where international agreements, rules or standards provide for the protection of navigational information.

13.15.4 AIS shall be operated taking into account the guidelines adopted by the Organization.

13.16 Voyage data recorder


13.16.1 To assist in casualty investigations, passenger craft irrespective of size and cargo craft of 3,000 gross tonnage and upwards shall be provided with a voyage data recorder (VDR).

13.16.2 The voyage data recorder system, including all sensors, shall be subjected to an annual performance test. The test shall be conducted by an approved testing or servicing facility to verify the accuracy, duration and recoverability of the recorded data. In addition, tests and inspections shall be conducted to determine the serviceability of all protective enclosures and devices fitted to aid location. A copy of the certificate of compliance issued by the testing facility, stating the date of compliance and the applicable performance standards, shall be retained on board the craft.

13.17 Approval of systems and equipment, and performance standards


13.17.1 All equipment to which this chapter applies shall be of a type approved by the Administration. Such equipment shall conform to performance standards not inferior to those adopted by the Organization.

13.17.2 The Administration shall require that manufacturers have a quality control system audited by a competent authority to ensure continuous compliance with the type approval conditions. Alternatively, the Administration may use final product verification procedures where compliance with the type approval certificate is verified by a competent authority before the product is installed on board craft.

13.17.3 Before giving approval to navigational systems or equipment embodying new features not covered by this chapter, the Administration shall ensure that such features support functions at least as effective as those required by this chapter.

13.17.4 When equipment, for which performance standards have been developed by the Organization, is carried on craft in addition to those items of equipment required by this chapter, such additional equipment shall be subject to approval and shall, as far as practicable, comply with performance standards not inferior to those adopted by the Organization*.


Recommendation on performance standards for magnetic compasses resolution A.382X;
Recommendation on performance standards for marine transmitting magnetic heading devices TMHDs
resolution MSC.8670, annex 2;
Recommendation on performance standards for Gyro-compasses for high-speed craft resolution
A.82119;
Recommendation on performance standards for devices to indicate speed and distance resolution
A.82419, as amended by resolution MSC.9672;
Recommendation on performance standards for echo-sounding equipment resolution A.224VII as amended by MSC.7469, annex 2;
Recommendation on performance standards for navigational radar equipment for high-speed craft
resolution A.82019;
Recommendation on performance standards for Äuto Tracking"resolution MSC.6467, annex 4,
appendix 1;
Recommendation on performance standards for shipborne Decca navigator receivers resolution
A.81619;
Recommendation on performance standards for shipborne Loran-C and Chayka receivers resolution
A.81819;
Recommendation on performance standards for shipborne global positioning system receiver equipment
resolution A.81919;
Recommendation on performance standards for shipborne GLONASS receiver equipment resolution
MSC.5366;
Recommendation on performance standards for shipborne DGPS and DGLONASS maritime radio beacon
receiver equipment resolution MSC.6467, annex 2;
Recommendation on performance standards for combined GPS/GLONASS receiver equipment resolution
MSC.7469, annex 1;
Performance standards for rate-of-turn indicators resolution A.52613;
Recommendation on performance standards for night vision equipment for high-speed craft resolution
MSC.9472;
Recommendation on performance standards for daylight signalling lamps resolution MSC.9572; and
Recommendation on performance standards for automatic steering aids automatic pilots for high-speed
craft resolution A.82219.

Chapter 14 Radiocommunications

14.01 Application


14.1.1 Unless expressly provided otherwise, this chapter applies to all craft specified in 1.3.1 and 1.3.2.

14.1.2 This chapter does not apply to craft to which this Code would otherwise apply while such craft are being navigated within the Great Lakes of North America and their connecting and tributary waters as far east as the lower exit of the St. Lambert Lock at Montreal in the Province of Quebec, Canada*.
_____________________________
* Such craft are subject to special requirements relative to radio for safety purposes, as contained in the relevant agreement between Canada and the United States.

14.1.3 No provision in this chapter shall prevent the use by any craft, survival craft or person in distress of any means at their disposal to attract attention, make known their position and obtain help.

14.02 Terms and definitions


14.2.1 For the purpose of this chapter, the following terms shall have the meanings defined below:
.1 "Bridge-to-bridge communications" means safety communications between craft and ships from the position from which the craft is normally navigated.
.2 "Continuous watch" means that the radio watch concerned shall not be interrupted other than for brief intervals when the craft's receiving capability is impaired or blocked by its own communications or when the facilities are under periodical maintenance or checks.
.3 "Digital selective calling (DSC)" means a technique using digital codes which enables a radio station to establish contact with, and transfer information to, another station or group of stations, and complying with the relevant recommendations of the International Telecommunication Union Radiocommunication Sector (ITU-R).
.4 "Direct-printing" telegraphy means automated telegraphy techniques which comply with the relevant recommendations of the International Telecommunication Union Radiocommunication Sector (ITU-R).
.5 "General radiocommunications" means operational and public correspondence traffic other than distress, urgency and safety messages, conducted by radio.
.6 "Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS) Identities" means maritime mobile services identity, the craft's call sign, Inmarsat identities and serial number identity which may be transmitted by the craft's equipment and used to identify the craft.
.7 "Inmarsat" means the Organization established by the Convention on the International Maritime Satellite Organization (Inmarsat) adopted on 3 September 1976.
.8 "International NAVTEX" service means the co-ordinated broadcast and automatic reception on 518 kHz of maritime safety information by means of narrow-band direct-printing telegraphy using the English language.*
.9 "Locating" means the finding of the ships, craft, aircraft, units or persons in distress.
.10 "Maritime safety information" means navigational and meteorological warnings, meteorological forecasts and other urgent safety-related messages broadcast to ships and craft.
.11 "Polar orbiting satellite service" means a service which is based on polar orbiting satellites which receive and relay distress alerts from satellite EPIRBs and which provides their position.
.12 "Radio Regulations" mean the Radio Regulations annexed to, or regarded as being annexed to, the most recent International Telecommunication Convention which is in force at any time.
.13 "Sea area A1" means an area within the radiotelephone coverage of at least one VHF coast station in which continuous DSC alerting is available, as may be defined by a Contracting Government to the Convention.**
.14 "Sea area A2" means an area, excluding sea area Al, within the radiotelephone coverage of at least one MF coast station in which continuous DSC alerting is available, as may be defined by a Contracting Government to the Convention.**
.15 "Sea area A3" means an area, excluding sea areas A1 and A2, within the coverage of an Inmarsat geostationary satellite in which continuous alerting is available.
.16 "Sea area A4" means an area outside sea areas Al, A2 and A3.

14.2.2 All other terms and abbreviations which are used in this chapter and which are defined in the Radio Regulations and in the International Convention on Maritime Search and Rescue (SAR), 1979, as it may be amended, shall have the meanings as defined in those Regulations and the SAR Convention.

* Refer to the NAVTEX Manual approved by the Organization.

** Refer to the Provision of radio services for the global maritime distress and safety system GMDSS, adopted by the Organization by resolution A.80119.

14.03 Exemptions


14.3.1 It is considered highly desirable not to deviate from the requirements of this chapter; nevertheless the Administration, in conjunction with the base port State, may grant partial or conditional exemptions to individual craft from the requirements of 14.7 to 14.11 provided:
.1 such craft comply with the functional requirements of 14.5; and
.2 the Administration has taken into account the effect such exemptions may have upon the general efficiency of the service for the safety of all ships and craft.

14.3.2 An exemption may be granted under 14.3.1 only:
.1 if the conditions affecting safety are such as to render the full application of 14.7 to

14.11 unreasonable or unnecessary; or
.2 in exceptional circumstances, for a single voyage outside the sea area or sea areas for which the craft is equipped.

14.3.3 Each Administration shall submit to the Organization, as soon as possible after the first of January in each year, a report showing all exemptions granted under 14.3.1 and 14.3.2 during the previous calendar year and giving the reasons for granting such exemptions.

14.04 Global Maritime Distress and Safety Identities


14.4.1 This section applies to all craft on all voyages.

14.4.2 Each Administration undertakes to ensure that suitable arrangements are made for registering Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS) Identities and for making information on these identities available to Rescue Co-ordination Centres on a 24-hour basis. Where appropriate, international organizations maintaining a registry of these identities shall be notified by the Administration of these assignments.

14.05 Functional requirements


14.5.1 Every craft, while at sea, shall be capable:

.1 except as provided in 14.8.1.1 and 14.10.1.4.3, of transmitting ship-to-shore distress alerts by at least two separate and independent means, each using a different radiocommunication service;

.2 of receiving shore-to-ship distress alerts;

.3 of transmitting and receiving ship-to-ship distress alerts;

.4 of transmitting and receiving search and rescue co-ordinating communications;

.5 of transmitting and receiving on-scene communications;

.6 of transmitting and, as required by 13.5, receiving signals for locating*;

.7 of transmitting and receiving** maritime safety information;

.8 of transmitting and receiving general radiocommunications to and from shore-based radio systems or networks subject to 14.15.8; and

.9 of transmitting and receiving bridge-to-bridge communications.
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* Refer to resolution A.614(15) on carriage of radar operating in the frequency band 9,300 - 9,500 MHz, adopted by the Organization.

** It should be noted that craft may have a need for reception of certain maritime safety information while in port.

14.06 Radio installations


14.6.1 Every craft shall be provided with radio installations capable of complying with the functional requirements prescribed by 14.5 throughout its intended voyage and, unless exempted under 14.3, complying with the requirements of 14.7 and, as appropriate for the sea area or areas through which it will pass during its intended voyage, the requirements of either 14.8, 14.9, 14.10 or 14.11.

14.6.2 Every radio installation shall:
.1 be so located that no harmful interference of mechanical, electrical or other origin affects its proper use, and so as to ensure electromagnetic compatibility and avoidance of harmful interaction with other equipment and systems;
.2 be so located as to ensure the greatest possible degree of safety and operational availability;
.3 be protected against harmful effects of water, extremes of temperature and other adverse environmental conditions;
.4 be provided with reliable, permanently arranged electrical lighting, independent of the main sources of electrical power, for the adequate illumination of the radio controls for operating the radio installation; and
.5 be clearly marked with the call sign, the ship station identity and other codes as applicable for the use of the radio installation.

14.6.3 Control of the VHF radiotelephone channels, required for navigational safety, shall be immediately available on the navigating bridge convenient to the conning position, and, where necessary, facilities shall be available to permit radiocommunications from the wings of the navigating bridge. Portable VHF equipment may be used to meet the latter provision.

14.6.4 In passenger craft, a distress panel shall be installed at the conning position. This panel shall contain either one single button which, when pressed, initiates a distress alert using all radiocommunication installations required on board for that purpose or one button for each individual installation. The panel shall clearly and visually indicate whenever any button or buttons have been pressed. Means shall be provided to prevent inadvertent activation of the button or buttons. If the satellite EPIRB is used as the secondary means of distress alerting and is not remotely activated, it shall be acceptable to have an additional EPIRB installed in the wheelhouse near the conning position.

14.6.5 In passenger craft, information on the craft's position shall be continuously and automatically provided to all relevant radiocommunication equipment to be included in the initial distress alert when the button or buttons on the distress panel is pressed.

14.6.6 In passenger craft, a distress alert panel shall be installed at the conning position. The distress alarm panel shall provide visual and aural indication of any distress alert or alerts received onboard and shall also indicate through which radiocommunication service the distress alerts have been received.

14.07 Radio equipment: general

14.7 - Radio equipment: general

14.7.1 Every craft shall be provided with:

  1. a VHF radio installation capable of transmitting and receiving:


    .1.1 DSC on the frequency 156.525 MHz (channel 70). It shall be possible to initiate the transmission of distress alerts on channel 70 from the position from which the craft is normally navigated; and


    .1.2 radiotelephony on the frequencies 156.300 MHz (channel 6), 156.650 MHz (channel 13) and 156.800 MHz (channel 16);

  2. a radio installation capable of maintaining a continuous DSC watch on VHF channel 70 which may be separate from, or combined with, that required by 14.7.1.1.1;

  3. a radar transponder capable of operating in the 9 GHz band, which:


    .3.1 shall be so stowed that it can be easily utilized; and


    .3.2 may be one of those required by 8.2.1.2 for a survival craft;

  4. a receiver capable of receiving International NAVTEX service broadcasts if the craft is engaged on voyages in any area in which an International NAVTEX service is provided;

  5. a radio facility for reception of maritime safety information by the Inmarsat enhanced group calling system* if the craft is engaged on voyages in any area of Inmarsat coverage but in which an International NAVTEX service is not provided. However, craft engaged exclusively on voyages in areas where a HF direct printing telegraphy maritime safety information service is provided and fitted with equipment capable of receiving such service may be exempt from this requirements.**

  6. subject to the provisions of 14.8.3, a satellite emergency position indicating radio beacon (satellite EPIRB)*** which shall be:


    .6.1 capable of transmitting a distress alert either through the polar orbiting satellite service operating in the 406 MHz band or, if the craft is engaged only on voyages within Inmarsat coverage, through the Inmarsat geostationary satellite service operating in the 1.6 GHz band;


    .6.2 installed in an easily accessible position;


    .6.3 ready to be manually released and capable of being carried by one person into a survival craft;


    .6.4 capable of floating free if the craft sinks and of being automatically activated when afloat; and


    .6.5 capable of being activated manually.

14.7.2 Every passenger craft shall be provided with means for two-way on-scene radiocommunications for search and rescue purposes using the aeronautical frequencies 121.5 MHz and 123.1 MHz from the position from which the craft is normally navigated.


1 Refer to resolution A.701(17) concerning carriage of Inmarsat enhanced group call SafetyNET receivers under the GMDSS, adopted by the Organization.
2 Refer to the Recommendation on Promulgation of Maritime Safety Information, adopted by the Organization by resolution A.705(17).
3 Refer to resolution A.616(15) concerning search and rescue homing capability, adopted by the Organization.

14.08 Radio equipment: sea area A1


14.8.1 In addition to meeting the requirements of 14.7, every craft engaged on voyages exclusively in sea area A1 shall be provided with a radio installation capable of initiating the transmission of ship-to-shore distress alerts from the position from which the craft is normally navigated, operating either:
.1 on VHF using DSC; this requirement may be fulfilled by the EPIRB prescribed by 14.8.3 either by installing the EPIRB close to, or by remote activation from, the position from which the craft is normally navigated; or
.2 through the polar orbiting satellite service on 406 MHz; this requirement may be fulfilled by the satellite EPIRB, required by 14.7.1.6, either by installing the satellite EPIRB close to, or by remote activation from, the position from which the craft is normally navigated; or
.3 if the craft is on voyages within coverage of MF coast stations equipped with DSC on MF using DSC; or
.4 on HF using DSC; or
.5 through the Inmarsat geostationary satellite service; this requirement may be fulfilled by:
.5.1 an Inmarsat ship earth station* ; or
.5.2 the satellite EPIRB, required by 14.7.1.6, either by installing the satellite EPIRB close to, or by remote activation from, the position from which the craft is normally navigated.

14.8.2 The VHF radio installation, required by 14.71.1, shall also be capable of transmitting and receiving general radiocommunications using radiotelephony.
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* This requirement can be met by Inmarsat ship earth stations capable of two-way communications, such as Inmarsat-A and -B (resolution A.808(19)) or Inmarsat-C (resolution A.807(19) and MSC.68(68), annex 4) ship earth stations. Unless otherwise specified, this footnote applies to all requirements for an Inmarsat ship earth station prescribed by this chapter.

14.8.3 Craft engaged on voyages exclusively in sea area A1 may carry, in lieu of the satellite EPIRB required by 14.7.1.6, an EPIRB which shall be:
.1 capable of transmitting a distress alert using DSC on VHF channel 70 and providing for locating by means of a radar transponder operating in the 9 GHz band;
.2 installed in an easily accessible position;
.3 ready to be manually released and capable of being carried by one person into a survival craft;
.4 capable of floating free if the craft sinks and of being automatically activated when afloat; and
.5 capable of being activated manually.

14.09 Radio equipment: sea areas A1 and A2


14.9.1 In addition to meeting the requirements of 14.7, every craft engaged on voyages beyond sea area A1, but remaining within sea area A2, shall be provided with:
.1 an MF radio installation capable of transmitting and receiving, for distress and safety purposes, on the frequencies:
.1.1 2,187.5 kHz using DSC; and
.1.2 2,182 kHz using radiotelephony;
.2 a radio installation capable of maintaining a continuous DSC watch on the frequency 2,187.5 kHz which may be separate from, or combined with, that required by 14.9.1.1.1; and
.3 means of initiating the transmission of ship-to-shore distress alerts by a radio service other than MF, operating either:
.3.1 through the polar orbiting satellite service on 406 MHz; this requirement may be fulfilled by the satellite EPIRB, required by 14.7.1.6, either by installing the satellite EPIRB close to, or by remote activation from, the position from which the craft is normally navigated; or
.3.2 on HF using DSC; or
.3.3 through the Inmarsat geostationary satellite service; this requirement may be fulfilled by:
.3.3.1 the equipment specified in 14.9.3.2; or
.3.3.2 the satellite EPIRB, required by 14.7.1.6, either by installing the satellite EPIRB close to, or by remote activation from, the position from which the craft is normally navigated.

14.9.2 It shall be possible to initiate transmission of distress alerts by the radio installations specified in 14.9.1.1 and 14.9.1.3 from the position from which the craft is normally navigated.

14.9.3 The craft shall, in addition, be capable of transmitting and receiving general radiocommunications using radiotelephony or direct-printing telegraphy by either:
.1 a radio installation operating on working frequencies in the bands between 1,605 kHz and 4,000 kHz or between 4,000 kHz and 27,500 kHz; this requirement may be fulfilled by the addition of this capability in the equipment required by 14.9.1.1; or
.2 an Inmarsat ship earth station.

14.10 Radio equipment: sea areas A1, A2 and A3


14.10.1 In addition to meeting the requirements of 14.7, every craft engaged on voyages beyond sea areas A1 and A2, but remaining within sea area A3, shall, if it does not comply with the requirements of 14.10.2, be provided with:
.1 an Inmarsat ship earth station capable of:
.1.1 transmitting and receiving distress and safety communications using direct-printing telegraphy;
.1.2 initiating and receiving distress priority calls;
.1.3 maintaining watch for shore-to-ship distress alerts, including those directed to specifically defined geographical areas; and
.1.4 transmitting and receiving general radiocommunications, using either radiotelephony or direct-printing telegraphy;
.2 an MF radio installation capable of transmitting and receiving, for distress and safety purposes, on the frequencies:
.2.1 2,187.5 kHz using DSC; and
.2.2 2,182 kHz using radiotelephony;
.3 a radio installation capable of maintaining a continuous DSC watch on the frequency 2,187.5 kHz which may be separate from, or combined with, that required by 14.10.1.2.1; and
.4 means of initiating the transmission of ship-to-shore distress alerts by a radio service operating either:
.4.1 through the polar orbiting service on 406 MHz; this requirement may be fulfilled by the satellite EPIRB, required by 14.7.1.6, either by installing the satellite EPIRB close to, or by remote activation from, the position from which the craft is normally navigated; or
.4.2 on HF using DSC; or
.4.3 through the Inmarsat geostationary satellite service, by an additional ship earth station or by the satellite EPIRB required by 14.7.1.6, either by installing the satellite EPIRB close to, or by remote activation from, the position from which the craft is normally navigated.

14.10.2 In addition to meeting the requirements of 14.7, every craft engaged on voyages beyond sea areas A1 and A2, but remaining within sea area A3, shall, if it does not comply with the requirements of 14.10.1, be provided with:
.1 an MF/HF radio installation capable of transmitting and receiving, for distress and safety purposes, on all distress and safety frequencies in the bands between 1,605 kHz and 4,000 kHz and between 4,000 kHz and 27,500 kHz:
.1.1 using DSC;
.1.2 using radiotelephony; and
.1.3 using direct-printing telegraphy;
.2 equipment capable of maintaining a DSC watch on 2,187.5 kHz, 8,414.5 kHz and on at least one of the distress and safety DSC frequencies 4,207.5 kHz, 6,312 kHz, 12,577 kHz or 1 6,804.5 kHz at any time, it shall be possible to select any of these DSC distress and safety frequencies. This equipment may be separate from, or combined with, the equipment required by 14.10.2.1;
.3 means of initiating the transmission of ship-to-shore distress alerts by a radiocommunication service other than HF operating either:
.3.1 through the polar orbiting satellite service on 406 MHz; this requirement may be fulfilled by the satellite EPIRB required by 14.7.1.6, either by installing the satellite EPIRB close to, or by remote activation from, the position from which the craft is normally navigated; or
.3.2 through the Inmarsat geostationary satellite service, this requirement may be fulfilled by:
.3.2.1 an Inmarsat ship earth station; or
.3.2.2 the satellite EPIRB, required by 14.7.1.6, either by installing the satellite EPIRB close to, or by remote activation from, the position from which the craft is normally navigated; and
.4 in addition, the craft shall be capable of transmitting and receiving general radiocommunications using radiotelephony or direct-printing telegraphy by an MF/HF radio installation operating on working frequencies in the bands between 1,605 kHz and 4,000 kHz and between 4,000 kHz and 27,500 kHz. This requirement may be fulfilled by the addition of this capability in the equipment required by 14.10.2.1.

14.10.3 It shall be possible to initiate transmission of distress alerts by the radio installations specified in 14.10.1.1, 14.10.1.2, 14.10.1.4, 14.10.2.1 and 14.10.2.3 from the position from which the craft is normally navigated.

14.11 Radio equipment: sea areas A1, A2, A3 and A4


14.11.1 In addition to meeting the requirements of 14.7, craft engaged on voyages in all sea areas shall be provided with the radio installations and equipment required by 14.10.2, except that the equipment required by 14.10.2.3.2 shall not be accepted as an alternative to that required by 14.10.2.3.1, which shall always be provided. In addition, craft engaged on voyages in all sea areas shall comply with the requirements of 14.10.3.

14.12 Watches


14.12.1 Every craft, while at sea, shall maintain a continuous watch:
.1 on VHF DSC channel 70, if the craft, in accordance with the requirements of 14.7.1.2, is fitted with a VHF radio installation;
.2 on the distress and safety DSC frequency 2,187.5 kHz, if the craft, in accordance with the requirements of 14.9.1.2 or 14.10.1.3, is fitted with an MF radio installation;
.3 on the distress and safety DSC frequencies 2,187.5 kHz and 8,414.5 kHz and also on at least one of the distress and safety DSC frequencies 4,207.5 kHz, 6,312 kHz, 12,577 kHz or 16,804.5 kHz, appropriate to the time of day and the geographical position of the craft, if the craft, in accordance with the requirements of 14.10.2.2 or 14.11.1, is fitted with an MF/HF radio installation. This watch may be kept by means of a scanning receiver; and
.4 for satellite shore-to-ship distress alerts, if the craft, in accordance with the requirements of 14.10.1.1, is fitted with an Inmarsat ship earth station.

14.12.2 Every craft, while at sea, shall maintain a radio watch for broadcasts of maritime safety information on the appropriate frequency or frequencies on which such information is broadcast for the area in which the craft is navigating.

14.12.3 Until 1 February 2005, every craft, while at sea shall continue to maintain, when practicable, a continuous listening watch on VHF channel 16. This watch shall be kept at the position from which the craft is normally navigated.

14.13 Sources of energy


14.13.1 There shall be available at all times, while the craft is at sea, a supply of electrical energy sufficient to operate the radio installations and to charge any batteries used as part of a reserve source of energy for the radio installations.

14.13.2 Reserve and emergency sources of energy shall be provided on every craft to supply radio installations, for the purpose of conducting distress and safety radiocommunications, in the event of failure of the craft's main and emergency sources of electrical power. The reserve source of energy shall be capable of simultaneously operating the VHF radio installation required by 14.7.1.1 and, as appropriate for the sea area or sea areas for which the craft is equipped, either the MF radio installation required by 14.9.1.1, the MF/HF radio installation required by 14.10.2.1 or 14.11.1 or the Inmarsat ship earth station required by 14.10.1.1 and any of the additional loads mentioned in 14.13.5 and 14.13.8 for a period of at least 1 h.

14.13.3 The reserve source of energy shall be independent of the propelling power of the craft and the craft's electrical system.

14.13.4 Where, in addition to the VHF radio installation, two or more of the other radio installations referred to in 14.13.2 can be connected to the reserve source or sources of energy, they shall be capable of simultaneously supplying, for the period specified in 14.13.2, the VHF radio installation and:
.1 all other radio installations which can be connected to the reserve source of energy at the same time; or
.2 whichever of the radio installations will consume the most power, if only one of the other radio installations can be connected to the reserve source of energy at the same time as the VHF radio installation.

14.13.5 The reserve source of energy may be used to supply the electrical lighting required by 14.6.2.4.

14.13.6 Where a reserve source of energy consists of a rechargeable accumulator battery or batteries:
.1 a means of automatically charging such batteries shall be provided which shall be capable of recharging them to minimum capacity requirements within 10 h; and
.2 the capacity of the battery or batteries shall be checked, using an appropriate method*, at intervals not exceeding 12 months, when the craft is not at sea.

14.13.7 The siting and installation of accumulator batteries which provide a reserve source of energy shall be such as to ensure:
.1 the highest degree of service;
.2 a reasonable lifetime;
.3 reasonable safety;
.4 that the battery temperatures remain within the manufacturer's specifications whether under charge or idle; and
.5 that when fully charged, the batteries will provide at least the minimum required hours of operation under all weather conditions.

14.13.8 If an uninterrupted input of information from the craft's navigational or other equipment to a radio installation required by this chapter is needed to ensure its proper performance, including the navigation receiver referred to in 14.18, means shall be provided to ensure the continuous supply of such information in the event of failure of the craft's main or emergency source of electrical power.
_____________________________
* One method of checking the capacity of an accumulator battery is to fully discharge and recharge the battery, using normal operating current and period (e.g. 10 h). Assessment of the charge condition can be made at any time, but it should be done without significant discharge of the battery when the craft is at sea.

14.14 Performance standards


14.14.1 All equipment to which this chapter applies shall be of a type approved by the Administration. Such equipment shall conform to appropriate performance standards not inferior to those adopted by the Organization*.


* Refer to the following resolutions adopted by the Organization:
.1 Resolution A.525(13): Performance Standards for Narrow-Band Direct-Printing Telegraph Equipment for the Reception of Navigational and Meteorological Warnings and Urgent Information to Ships.
.2 Resolution A.694(17): General Requirements for Shipborne Radio Equipment Forming Part of the Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS) and for Electronic Navigational Aids.
.3 Resolution A.808(19): Performance Standards for Ship Earth Stations Capable of Two-Way Communications, and resolution A.570(14), Type Approval of Ship Earth Stations.
.4 Resolutions A.803(19) and MSC.68(68), annex 1: Performance Standards for Shipborne VHF Radio installations Capable of Voice Communication and Digital Selective Calling.
.5 Resolutions A.804(19) and MSC.68(68), annex 2: Performance Standards for Shipborne MF Radio Installations Capable of Voice Communication and Digital Selective Calling.
.6 Resolutions A.806(19) and MSC.68(68), annex 3: Performance Standards for Shipborne MF/HF Radio Installations Capable of Voice Communication, Narrow-Band Direct Printing and Digital Selective Calling.
.7 Resolutions A.810(19) and MSC.56(66): Performance Standards for Float-Free Satellite Emergency Position-Indicating Radio Beacons (EPIRBs) Operating on 406 MHz (see also Assembly resolution A.696(17): Type Approval of Satellite Emergency Position-Indicating Radio Beacons (EPIRBs) Operating in the COSPAS-SARSAT System).
.8 Resolution A.802(19): Performance Standards for Survival Craft Radar Transponders for Use in Search and Rescue Operations.
.9 Resolution A.805(19): Performance Standards for Float-Free VHF Emergency Position-Indicating Radio Beacons.
.10 Resolutions A. 807(19) and MSC.68(68), annex 4: Performance Standards for Inmarsat Standard-C Ship Earth Stations Capable of Transmitting and Receiving Direct-Printing Communications, and resolution A.570(14), Type Approval of Ship Earth Stations.

14.15 Maintenance requirements

14.15 - Maintenance requirements

14.15.1 Equipment shall be so designed that the main units can be replaced readily without elaborate recalibration or readjustment.

14.15.2 Where applicable, equipment shall be so constructed and installed that it is readily accessible for inspection and on-board maintenance purposes.

14.15.3 Adequate information shall be provided to enable the equipment to be properly operated and maintained, taking into account the recommendations of the Organization.1

14.15.4 Adequate tools and spares shall be provided to enable equipment to be maintained.

14.15.5 The Administration shall ensure that radio equipment required by this chapter is maintained to provide the availability of the functional requirements specified in 14.5 and to meet the recommended performance standards of such equipment.

14.15.6 On craft engaged on voyages in sea areas Al and A2, the availability shall be ensured by using such methods as duplication of equipment, shore-based maintenance or at-sea electronic maintenance capability, or a combination of these, as may be approved by the Administration.

14.15.7 On craft engaged on voyages in sea areas A3 and A4, the availability shall be ensured by using a combination of at least two methods, such as duplication of equipment, shore-based maintenance or at-sea electronic maintenance capability, as may be approved by the Administration, taking into account the recommendations of the Organization.2

14.15.8 However, for craft operating solely between ports where adequate facilities for shore-based maintenance of the radio installations are available and provided no journey between two such ports exceeds six hours, then the Administration may exempt such craft from the requirement to use at least two maintenance methods. For such craft at least one maintenance method shall be used.

14.15.9 While all reasonable steps shall be taken to maintain the equipment in efficient working order to ensure compliance with all the functional requirements specified in 14.5, malfunction of the equipment for providing the general radiocommunications, required by 14.8, shall not be considered as making a craft unseaworthy or as a reason for delaying the craft in ports where repair facilities are not readily available, provided the craft is capable of performing all distress and safety functions.

14.15.10 Satellite EPIRBs shall be tested at intervals not exceeding 12 months for all aspects of operational efficiency with particular emphasis on frequency stability, signal strength and coding. However, in cases where it appears proper and reasonable, the Administration may extend this period to 17 months. The test may be conducted on board the ship or at an approved testing or servicing station.


1 Refer to the Recommendation on General Requirements for Shipborne Radio Equipment Forming Part of the Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS) and for Electronic Navigational Aids, adopted by the Organization by resolution A.694(17).
Administrations should take account of the Radio Maintenance Guidelines for the Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS) related to Sea Areas A3 and A4, adopted by the Organization by resolution A.702(17).

14.16 Radio personnel


14.16.1 Every craft shall carry personnel qualified for distress and safety radiocommunication purposes to the satisfaction of the Administration. The personnel shall be holders of certificates specified in the Radio Regulations as appropriate, any one of whom shall be designated to have primary responsibility for radiocommunications during distress incidents.

14.16.2 In passenger craft, at least one person qualified in accordance with sub-paragraph .1 shall be assigned to perform only radiocommunication duties during distress incidents.

14.17 Radio records


A record shall be kept, to the satisfaction of the Administration and as required by the Radio Regulations, of all incidents connected with the radiocommunication service which appear to be of importance to safety of life at sea.

14.18 Position-updating


All two-way communication equipment carried on board craft to which this chapter applies which is capable of automatically including the craft's position in the distress alert shall be automatically provided with this information from an internal or external navigation receiver, if either is installed. If such a receiver is not installed, the craft's position and the time that position was correct shall be manually updated at intervals not exceeding four hours, while the craft is underway, so that it is always ready for transmission by the equipment.

Chapter 15 Operating compartment layout

015.01 Definitions


15.1.1 "Operating area" is the operating compartment and those parts of the craft on both sides of, and close to, the operating compartment which extend to the craft's side.

15.1.2 "Workstation" is a position at which one or several tasks constituting a particular activity are carried out.

15.1.3 "Docking workstation" is a place equipped with necessary means for docking the craft.

15.1.4 "Primary controls" are all control equipment necessary for the safe operation of the craft when it is under way, including those required in an emergency situation.

015.02 General


The design and layout of the compartment from which the crew operate the craft shall be such as to permit operating crew members to perform their duties in a correct manner without unreasonable difficulty, fatigue or concentration, and to minimize the likelihood of injury to operating crew members in both normal and emergency conditions.

015.03 Field of vision from the operating compartment


15.3.1 The operating station shall be placed above all other superstructures so that the operating crew are able to gain a view all round the horizon from the navigating workstation. Where it is impractical to meet the requirements of this paragraph from a single navigating workstation, the operating station shall be designed so that an all-round view of the horizon is obtained by using two navigating workstations combined or by any other means to the satisfaction of the Administration.

15.3.2 Blind sectors shall be as few and as small as possible, and not adversely affect the keeping of a safe look-out from the operating station. If stiffeners between windows are to be covered, this shall not cause further obstruction inside the wheelhouse.

15.3.3 The total arc of blind sectors from right ahead to 22.5°abaft the beam on either side shall not exceed 20°. Each individual blind sector shall not exceed 5°. The clear sector between two blind sectors shall not be less than 10°.

15.3.4 Where it is considered necessary by the Administration, the field of vision from the navigating workstation shall permit the navigators from this position to utilize leading marks astern of the craft for track monitoring.

15.3.5 The view of the sea surface from the operating station, when the navigators are seated, shall not be obscured by more than one craft length forward of the bow to 90°on either side irrespective of the craft's draught, trim and deck cargo.

15.3.6 The field of vision from the docking workstation, if remote from the operating station, shall permit one navigator to safely manoeuvre the craft to a berth.

015.04 Operating compartment


15.4.1 The design and arrangement of the operating compartment, including location and layout of the individual workstations, shall ensure the required field of vision for each function.

15.4.2 The craft's operating compartment shall not be used for purposes other than navigation, communications and other functions essential to the safe operation of the craft, its engines, passengers and cargo.

15.4.3 The operating compartment shall be provided with an integrated operating station for command, navigation, manoeuvring and communication and so arranged that it can accommodate those persons required to navigate the craft safely.

15.4.4 The arrangement of equipment and means for navigation, manoeuvring, control, communication and other essential instruments shall be located sufficiently close together to enable both the officer in charge and any assisting officer to receive all necessary information and to use the equipment and controls, as required, while they are seated. If necessary, the equipment and means serving these functions shall be duplicated.

15.4.5 If a separate workstation for supervision of engine performance is placed in the operating compartment, the location and use of this workstation shall not interfere with the primary functions to be performed in the operating station.

15.4.6 The location of the radio equipment shall not interfere with the primary navigational functions in the operating station.

15.4.7 The design and layout of the compartment from which the crew operate the craft and the relative positions of the primary controls shall be assessed against the essential operational manning level. Where minimum manning levels are proposed, the design and layout of the primary and communication controls shall form an integrated operational and emergency control centre from which the craft can be controlled under all operational and emergency events by the operating crew without the necessity for any crew member to vacate the compartment.

15.4.8 The relative positions of the primary controls and the seats shall be such that each operating crew member, with the seat suitably adjusted and without prejudicing compliance with 15.2, can:
.1 without interference, produce full and unrestricted movement of each control both separately and with all practical combinations of movement of other controls; and
.2 at all workstations, exert adequate control forces for the operation to be performed.

15.4.9 When a seat at a station from which the craft may be operated has been adjusted so as to suit the occupant, subsequent change of seat position to operate any control shall not be acceptable.

15.4.10 In craft where the Administration considers the provision of a safety belt necessary for use by the operating crew, it shall be possible for those operating crew members, with their safety belts correctly worn, to comply with 15.4.4 except in respect of controls which it can be shown will only be required on very rare occasions and which are not associated with the need for safety restraint.

15.4.11 The integrated operating station shall contain equipment which provides relevant information to enable the officer in charge and any assisting officer to carry out navigational and safety functions safely and efficiently.

15.4.12 Adequate arrangements shall be made to prevent passengers from distracting the attention of the operating crew.

015.05 Instruments and chart table


15.5.1 Instruments, instrument panels and controls shall be permanently mounted in consoles or other appropriate places, taking into account operation, maintenance and environmental conditions. However, this shall not prevent the use of new control or display techniques, provided the facilities offered are not inferior to recognized standards.

15.5.2 All instruments shall be logically grouped according to their functions. in order to reduce to a minimum the risk of confusion, instruments shall not be rationalized by sharing functions or by inter-switching.

15.5.3 Instruments required for use by any member of the operating crew shall be plainly visible and easily read:
.1 with minimum practicable deviation from his normal seating position and line of vision; and
.2 with the minimum risk of confusion under all likely operating conditions.

15.5.4 Instruments essential for the safe operation of the craft shall be clearly marked with any limitation if this information is not otherwise clearly presented to the operating crew. The instrument panels forming the emergency control for the launching of liferafts and the monitoring of the fire-fighting systems shall be in separate and clearly defined positions within the operating area.

15.5.5 The instruments and controls shall be provided with means for screening and dimming in order to minimize glare and reflections and prevent them being obscured by strong light.

15.5.6 The surfaces of console tops and instruments shall have dark glare-free colours.

15.5.7 Instruments and displays providing visual information to more than one person shall be located for easy viewing by all users concurrently. If this is not possible, the instrument or display shall be duplicated.

15.5.8 If considered necessary by the Administration, the operating compartment shall be provided with a suitable table for chart work. There shall be facilities for lighting the chart. Chart-table lighting shall be screened.

015.06 Lighting


15.6.1 A satisfactory level of lighting shall be available to enable the operating personnel to adequately perform all their tasks both at sea and in port, by day and night. There shall be only a limited reduction in the illumination of essential instruments and controls under likely system fault conditions.

15.6.2 Care shall be taken to avoid glare and stray image reflection in the operating area environment. High contrast in brightness between work area and surroundings shall be avoided. Non-reflective or matt surfaces shall be used to reduce indirect glare to a minimum.

15.6.3 A satisfactory degree of flexibility within the lighting system shall be available to enable the operating personnel to adjust the lighting intensity and direction as required in the different areas of the operating compartment and at individual instruments and controls.

15.6.4 Red light shall be used to maintain dark adaptation whenever possible in areas or on items of equipment requiring illumination in the operational mode, other than the chart table.

15.6.5 During hours of darkness, it shall be possible to discern displayed information and control devices.

15.6.6 Reference is made to additional requirements on lighting in 12.7 and 12.8.

015.07 Windows


15.7.1 Divisions between windows, located in the front, on the sides and in the doors, shall be kept to a minimum. No division shall be installed immediately forward of the operating stations.

15.7.2 Administrations shall be satisfied that a clear view through the operating compartment windows is provided at all times regardless of weather conditions. The means provided for maintaining the windows in a clear condition shall be so arranged that no reasonably probable single failure can result in a reduction of the cleared field of vision such as to interfere seriously with the ability of the operating crew to continue the operation and bring the craft to rest.

15.7.3 Arrangements shall be provided so that the forward view from operating stations is not adversely affected by solar glare. Neither polarized nor tinted window glass shall be fitted.

15.7.4 Operating compartment windows shall be angled to reduce unwanted reflection.

15.7.5 The windows shall be made of material which will not break into dangerous fragments if fractured.

015.08 Communication facilities


15.8.1 Such means as are necessary shall be provided to enable the crew to communicate between, and have access to, each other and with other occupants of the craft in both normal and emergency conditions.

15.8.2 Means to communicate between the operating compartment and spaces containing essential machinery, including any emergency steering position, irrespective of whether the machinery is remotely or locally controlled, shall be provided.

15.8.3 Means for making public address and safety announcements from control stations to all areas to which passengers and crew have access shall be provided.

15.8.4 Provisions shall be made for means to monitor, receive and transmit radio safety messages at the operating compartment.

015.09 Temperature and ventilation


The operating compartment shall be equipped with adequate temperature and ventilation control systems.

15.10 Colours


The surface materials inside the operating compartment shall have a suitable colour and finish to avoid reflections.

15.11 Safety measures


The operating area shall be free of physical hazard to the operating personnel and have non-skid flooring in dry and wet conditions and adequate handrails. Doors shall be fitted with devices to prevent them moving, whether they are open or closed.

Chapter 16 Stabilization systems

16.01 Definitions


16.1.1 "Stabilization control system" is a system intended to stabilize the main parameters of the craft's attitude: heel, trim, course and height and control the craft's motions: roll, pitch, yaw and heave. This term excludes devices not associated with the safe operation of the craft, e.g. motion-reduction or ride-control systems. The main elements of a stabilization control system may include the following:
.1 devices such as rudders, foils, flaps, skirts, fans, water jets, tilting and steerable propellers, pumps for moving fluids;
.2 power drives actuating stabilization devices; and
.3 stabilization equipment for accumulating and processing data for making decisions and giving commands such as sensors, logic processors and automatic safety control.

16.1.2 "Self-stabilization" of the craft is stabilization ensured solely by the craft's inherent characteristics.

16.1.3 "Forced stabilization" of the craft is stabilization achieved by:
.1 an automatic control system; or
.2 a manually assisted control system; or
.3 a combined system incorporating elements of both automatic and manually assisted control systems.

16.1.4 "Augmented stabilization" is a combination of self-stabilization and forced stabilization.

16.1.5 "Stabilization device" means a device as enumerated in 16.1.1.1 with the aid of which forces for controlling the craft's position are generated.

16.1.6 "Automatic safety control" is a logic unit for processing data and making decisions to put the craft into the displacement or other safe mode if a condition impairing safety arises.

16.02 General requirements


16.2.1 Stabilization systems shall be so designed that, in case of failure or malfunctioning of any one of the stabilization devices or equipment, it would be possible either to ensure maintaining the main parameters of the craft's motion within safe limits with the aid of working stabilization devices or to put the craft into the displacement or other safe mode.

16.2.2 In case of failure of any automatic equipment or stabilization device, or of its power drive, the parameters of craft motion shall remain within safe limits.

16.2.3 Craft fitted with an automatic stabilization system shall be provided with an automatic safety control unless the redundancy in the system provides equivalent safety. Where an automatic safety control is fitted, provision shall be made to override it and to cancel the override from the main operating station.

16.2.4 The parameters and the levels at which any automatic safety control gives the command to decrease speed and put the craft safely in the displacement or other safe mode shall take account of the safe values of heel, trim, yaw and combination of trim and draught appropriate to the particular craft and service; also to the possible consequences of power failure for propulsion, lift or stabilization devices.

16.2.5 The parameters and the degree of stabilization of the craft provided by the automatic stabilization system shall be satisfactory, having regard to the purpose and service conditions of the craft.

16.2.6 Failure mode and effect analysis shall include the stabilization system.

16.03 Lateral and height control systems


16.3.1 Craft fitted with an automatic control system shall be provided with an automatic safety control. Probable malfunctions shall have only minor effects on automatic control system operation and shall be capable of being readily counteracted by the operating crew.

16.3.2 The parameters and levels at which any automatic control system gives the command to decrease speed and put the craft safely into the displacement or other safe mode shall take account of the safety levels as given in section 2.4 of annex 3 and of the safe values of motions appropriate to the particular craft and service.

16.04 Demonstrations


16.4.1 The limits of safe use of any of the stabilization control system devices shall be based on demonstrations and a verification process in accordance with annex 9.

16.4.2 Demonstration in accordance with annex 9 shall determine any adverse effects upon safe operation of the craft in the event of an uncontrollable total deflection of any one control device. Any limitation on the operation of the craft as may be necessary to ensure that the redundancy or safeguards in the systems provide equivalent safety shall be included in the craft operating manual.

Chapter 17 Handling, controllability and performance

017.01 General


17.1 General
The operational safety of the craft in normal service conditions and in equipment failure situations of a craft to which this Code applies shall be documented and verified by full-scale tests, supplemented by model tests where appropriate, of the prototype craft. The objective of tests is to determine information to be included in the craft operating manual in relation to:
.1 operating limitations;
.2 procedures for operation of the craft within the limitations;
.3 actions to be taken in the event of prescribed failure; and
.4 limitations to be observed for safe operation subsequent to prescribed failures.

Operational information shall be available on board for guidance, or the craft shall have an instrument system for on-line check of operational performance which shall be approved by the Administration taking into account the standards for the processing and presentation of measurements developed by the Organization. As a minimum, the system shall measure accelerations in three axes close to the craft longitudinal centre of gravity.

017.02 Proof of compliance


17.2.1 The information on controllability and maneuverability which shall be contained in the craft operating manual shall include the characteristics under 17.5 as applicable, the list of parameters of the worst intended conditions affecting the controllability and maneuverability according to 17.6, information on safe maximum speeds as described in 17.9 and the performance data verified in accordance with annex 9.

17.2.2 The information on operating limitations which shall be contained in the route operational manual shall include the characteristics under 17.2.1, 17.5.4.1 and 17.5.4.2.

017.03 Weight and centre of gravity


Compliance with each of the handling, controllability and performance requirements shall be established for all combinations of weight and centre of gravity position significant for the operational safety in the range of weights up to the maximum permissible weight.

017.04 Effect of failures


The effect of any likely failure in handling and control devices, services or components (e.g. power operation, power assistance, trimming and stability augmentation) shall be assessed in order that a safe level of craft operation can be maintained. Effects of failure identified as being critical according to annex 4 shall be verified in accordance with
annex 9.

017.05 Controllability and manoeuvrability


17.5.1 Instructions to crew members shall be provided in the craft operating manual regarding required actions and craft limitations subsequent to prescribed failures.

17.5.2 It is necessary to ensure that the effort required to operate the controls in the worst intended conditions is not such that the person at the control will be unduly fatigued or distracted by the effort necessary to maintain the safe operation of the craft.

17.5.3 The craft shall be controllable and be capable of performing those manoeuvres essential to its safe operation up to the critical design conditions.

17.5.4.1 When determining the operating limitations of a craft, particular attention shall be paid to the following aspects during normal operation and during failures and subsequent to failures:
.1 yawing;
.2 turning;
.3 automatic pilot and steering performance;
.4 stopping in normal and emergency conditions;
.5 stability in the non-displacement mode about three axes and in heave;
.6 trim;
.7 roll;
.8 plough in;
.9 lift power limitations;
.10 broaching;
.11 slamming; and
.12 bow diving.

17.5.4.2 The terms in 17.5.4.1.2, .6, .7 and .11 are defined as follows:
.1 "Turning" is the rate of change of direction of a craft at its normal maximum operating speed in specified wind and sea conditions.
.2 "Plough in" is an involuntary motion involving sustained increase in drag of an air-cushion vehicle at speed, usually associated with partial collapse of the cushion system.
.3 "Lift power limitations" are those limitations imposed upon the machinery and components which provide the lift.
.4 "Slamming" is the water impact on the underside of the hull in the bow area of the craft.

017.06 Change of operating surface and mode


There shall be no unsafe change in the stability, controllability or attitude of the craft during transition from one type of operating surface or mode to another. Information on change in the behaviour characteristics of the craft during transition shall be available to the master.

017.07 Surface irregularities


Factors which limit the ability of the craft to operate over sloping ground and steps or discontinuities shall be determined, as applicable, and made available to the master.

017.08 Acceleration and deceleration


The Administration shall be satisfied that the worst likely acceleration or deceleration of the craft, due to any likely failure, emergency stopping procedures or other likely causes, would not hazard the persons on the craft.

017.09 Speeds


Safe maximum speeds shall be determined, taking account of the limitations from 4.3.1, modes of operation, wind force and direction and the effects of possible failures of any one lift or propulsion system over calm water, rough water and over other surfaces, as appropriate to the craft.

17.10 Minimum depth of water


The minimum depth of water and other appropriate information required for operations in all modes shall be determined.

17.11 Hard structure clearance


For amphibious craft, when cushion-borne, clearance of the lowest point of the hard structure above a hard flat surface shall be determined.

17.12 Night operation


The schedule of tests shall include sufficient operation to evaluate the adequacy of internal and external lighting and visibility under conditions of normal and emergency electrical power supply during service, cruising and docking manoeuvres.

Chapter 18 Operational requirements

Part A General

Part B Requirements for passenger craft

Part C Requirements for cargo craft

Chapter 19 Inspection and maintenance requirements


19.1 The Administration shall be satisfied with the operator's organization or any organization on which he may call in the maintenance of his craft and shall specify the scope of the duties which any part of the organization may carry out, having regard to the number and competence of its staff, facilities available, arrangements for calling on specialist assistance should it be necessary, record-keeping, communication and allocation of responsibilities.

19.2 The craft and equipment shall be maintained to the satisfaction of the Administration; in particular:
.1 routine preventive inspection and maintenance shall be performed to a schedule approved by the Administration, which shall have regard at least in the first instance to the manufacturer's schedule;
.2 in the performance of maintenance tasks, due regard shall be paid to maintenance manuals, service bulletins acceptable to the Administration and to any additional instructions of the Administration in this respect;
.3 all modifications shall be recorded and their safety aspects investigated. Where it could have any effect on safety, the modification, together with its installation, shall be to the satisfaction of the Administration;
.4 appropriate arrangements shall be provided for informing the master of the serviceability state of his craft and its equipment;
.5 the duties of the operating crew in respect of maintenance and repairs and the procedure for obtaining assistance with repairs when the craft is away from the base port shall be clearly defined;
.6 the master shall report to the maintenance organization any defects and repairs which are known to have occurred during operations;
.7 records of defects and their correction shall be maintained and those defects of recurrent nature, or those which adversely affect craft or personal safety, shall be reported to the Administration.

19.3 The Administration shall be satisfied that arrangements are provided for ensuring adequate inspection, maintenance and recording of all life-saving appliances and distress signals carried.

Annex 01 Form of High-Speed Craft certificate and Record of equipment

Form of High-Speed Craft Safety Certificate
and Record of Equipment

 

HIGH-SPEED CRAFT SAFETY CERTIFICATE

 

This Certificate shall be supplemented by a Record of Equipment 

 

 

(Official seal)

 

 

(State)

  

 

            
 

Issued under the provisions of the

INTERNATIONAL CODE OF SAFETY FOR HIGH-SPEED CRAFT, 2000
(resolution MSC.97(73)

under the authority of the Government of

 

 
 

_________________________________________________________________

(full designation of the State)

 

 

 
by

________________________________________________________________

(full official designation of the competent person or
organization authorized by the Administration)

 

 

 

 

Particulars of craft1

 

Name of craft ..........................................

 

Manufacturer's model and hull number ..........................................

 

Distinctive number or letters ..........................................

 

IMO number2 ..........................................

 

Port of registry ..........................................

 

Gross tonnage ..........................................

 

Sea areas in which the craft is certified to operate (paragraph 14.2.1) ..........................................

 

Design waterline corresponding to a height of ........... below the reference line at the longitudinal centre of flotation, and draughts at the draught marks of ........... forward and ........... aft:

 

The upper edge of the reference line is……… at (……… mm below uppermost deck at side)3(………… mm above the underside of keel)3 at longitudinal centre of flotation.

 

Category

category A passenger craft/category B passenger craft/cargo craft3

 

Craft type

air-cushion vehicle/surface-effect ship/hydrofoil/monohull/multihull/other (give detail .................)3

 

 

Date on which keel was laid or craft was at a similar stage of construction or on which
a major conversion was commenced ..........................................

 

 

THIS IS TO CERTIFY

 

1

That the above-mentioned craft has been duly surveyed in accordance with the applicable provisions of the International Code of Safety for High-Speed Craft, 2000.

 

2

That the survey showed that the structure, equipment, fittings, radio station arrangements and materials of the craft and the condition thereof are in all respects satisfactory and that the craft complies with the relevant provisions of the Code.

 

3

That the life-saving appliances are provided for a total number of ..... persons and no more as follows:

..............................................................................................................................

..............................................................................................................................

 

4

That, in accordance with 1.11 of the Code, the following equivalents have been granted in respect of the craft:


 

paragraph.

.........................................

..........................................

 

  equivalent arrangement

..........................................

..........................................

This certificate is valid until4

....................................................................................

 

Issued at

....................................................................................
(Place of issue of certificate)

 

..........................................
(Date of issue)

....................................................................................
(Place of issue of certificate)

 

....................................................................................
(Seal or stamp of the issuing authority, as appropriate)

 

Endorsement for periodical surveys

 

THIS IS TO CERTIFY that, at a survey required by 1.5 of the Code, this craft was found to comply with the
relevant provisions of the Code.

 

Periodical survey:Signed:

 ......................................................................................................

  

(Signature of authorized official)

 

 Place:

 ......................................................................................................

 

 Date:

 ......................................................................................................

 

 

(Seal or stamp of the authority, as appropriate)

 

 

Periodical survey:Signed:

 ......................................................................................................

  

(Signature of authorized official)

 

 Place:

 ......................................................................................................

 

 Date:

 ......................................................................................................

 

 

(Seal or stamp of the authority, as appropriate)

 

Periodical survey:Signed:

 ......................................................................................................

  

(Signature of authorized official)

 

 Place:

 ......................................................................................................

 

 Date:

 ......................................................................................................

 

 

(Seal or stamp of the authority, as appropriate)

 

Periodical survey:Signed:

 ......................................................................................................

  

(Signature of authorized official)

 

 Place:

 ......................................................................................................

 

 Date:

 ......................................................................................................

 

 

(Seal or stamp of the authority, as appropriate)

 

 

Endorsement to extend the Certificate if valid for less than 5 years where 1.8.8 of the Code applies

 

This craft complies with the relevant requirements of the Code, and this Certificate shall, in accordance with 1.8.8 of the Code, be accepted as valid until .................................................................

 

Signed:

 ......................................................................................................

  

(Signature of authorized official)

 

 Place:

 ......................................................................................................

 

 Date:

 ......................................................................................................

 

 

(Seal or stamp of the authority, as appropriate)

 

Endorsement where the renewal survey has been completed and 1.8.9 of the Code applies

 

This craft complies with the relevant requirements of the Code, and this Certificate shall, in accordance with 1.8.9 of the Code, be accepted as valid until .................................................................

 

Signed:

 ......................................................................................................

  

(Signature of authorized official)

 

 Place:

 ......................................................................................................

 

 Date:

 ......................................................................................................

 

 

(Seal or stamp of the authority, as appropriate)

 

Endorsement to extend the validity of the Certificate until reaching the port of survey where 1.8.10 of the Code applies

 

This Certificate shall, in accordance with 1.8.10 of the Code, be accepted as valid until .................................................................

 

Signed:

 ......................................................................................................

  

(Signature of authorized official)

 

 Place:

 ......................................................................................................

 

 Date:

 ......................................................................................................

 

 

(Seal or stamp of the authority, as appropriate)

 

Endorsement for the advancement of the anniversary date where 1.8.12 of the Code applies

 

In accordance with 1.8.12 of the Code, the new anniversary date is until .................................................................

 

Signed:

 ......................................................................................................

  

(Signature of authorized official)

 

 Place:

 ......................................................................................................

 

 Date:

 ......................................................................................................

 

 

(Seal or stamp of the authority, as appropriate)


 

 

In accordance with 1.8.13 of the Code, the new anniversary date is .................................................................

 

Signed:

 ......................................................................................................

  

(Signature of authorized official)

 

 Place:

 ......................................................................................................

 

 Date:

 ......................................................................................................

 

 

(Seal or stamp of the authority, as appropriate)


1 Alternatively, the particulars of the craft may be placed horizontally in boxes.
2 In accordance with the IMO ship identification number scheme, adopted by the Organization byresolution A.600(15).
3Delete as appropriate.
4 Insert the date of expiry as specified by the Administration in accordance with 1.8.4 of the Code. The day and the month of this date correspond to the anniversary date as defined in 1.4.3 of the Code, unless amended in accordance with 1.8.12.1 of the Code.

 

 

 

 

Record of Equipment for High-Speed Safety Certificate 

 

This Record shall be permanently attached to the High-Speed Safety Certificate


RECORD OF EQUIPMENT FOR COMPLIANCE WITH
THE INTERNATIONAL CODE OF SAFETY
FOR HIGH-SPEED CRAFT, 2000



 

1

Particulars of craft

 

Name of craft ..........................................

 

Manufacturer's model and hull number ..........................................

 

Distinctive number or letters ..........................................

 

IMO number1 ..........................................

 

Category

category A passenger craft/category B passenger craft/cargo craft2

 

Craft type

air-cushion vehicle/surface-effect ship/hydrofoil/monohull/multihull/other (give detail .................)2

 

 

Date on which keel was laid or craft was at a similar stage of construction or on which
a major conversion was commenced ..........................................

 

2

 

Details of life-saving appliances

 

1

Total number of persons for which life-saving appliances are provided

.........................

 

2

Total number of lifeboats

.........................

2.1

Total number of persons accommodated by them

.........................

2.2

Number of partially enclosed lifeboats complying with section 4.5 of the LSA Code

.........................

2.3

Number of totally enclosed lifeboats complying with sections 4.6 and 4.7 of the LSA Code

.........................

2.4

Other lifeboats

.........................

2.4.1

Number

.........................

2.4.2

Type

.........................

 

3

Number of rescue boats

.........................

3.1

Number of rescue boats which are included in the total lifeboats shown above

.........................

 

4

Liferafts complying with sections 4.1 to 4.3 of the LSA Code for which suitable means of launching are provided

.........................

4.1

Number of liferafts

.........................

4.2

Number of persons accommodated by them

.........................

 

5

Open reversible liferafts (Annex 11 of the Code)

.........................

5.1

Number of liferafts

.........................

5.2

Number of persons accommodated by them

.........................

 

6

Number of Marine Evacuation System (MES)

.........................

6.1

Number of persons served by them

.........................

 

7

Number of lifebuoys

.........................

 

8

Number of lifejackets

.........................

8.1

Number suitable for adults

.........................

8.2

Number suitable for children

.........................

 

9

Immersion suits

.........................

9.1

Total number

.........................

9.2

Number of suits complying with the requirements for lifejackets

.........................

 

10

Number of anti-exposure suits

.........................

10.1

Total number

.........................

10.2

Number of suits complying with the requirements for lifejackets

.........................

 

11

Radio installations used in life-saving appliances

.........................

11.1

Number of radar transponders

.........................

11.2

Number of two-way VHF radiotelephone apparatus

.........................

 

3

Details of navigational systems and equipment

 

 

1.1

Magnetic compass

.........................

1.2

Transmitting heading device (THD)

.........................

1.3

Gyro-compass

.........................

 

2

Speed and distance measuring device

.........................

 

3

Echo-sounding device

.........................

 

4.1

9 GHz radar

.........................

4.2

Second radar (3 GHz/9 GHz*)

.........................

4.3

Automatic radar plotting aid (ARPA)/Automatic tracking aid (ATA)2

.........................

 

5

Receiver for global navigation satellite system/ Terrestrial navigation system/ Other means of position fixing2, 4

.........................

 

6.1

Rate of turn indicator

.........................

6.2

Rudder angle indicator/Direction of steering thrust indicator2

.........................

 

7.1

Nautical charts/Electronic Chart Display and Information System (ECDIS)2

.........................

7.2

Back-up arrangements for ECDIS

.........................

7.3

Nautical publications

.........................

7.4

Back-up arrangement for nautical publications

.........................

 

8

Search light

.........................

 

9

Daylight signalling lamp

.........................

 

10

Night vision equipment

.........................

 

11

Means to show the mode of the propulsion systems

.........................

 

12

Automatic steering aid (Automatic pilot)

.........................

 

13

Radar reflector/ Other means2, 4

.........................

 

14

Sound reception system

.........................

 

15

Automatic identification system (AIS)

.........................

 

16

Voyage data recorder (VDR)

.........................

 

 

4

Details of radio facilities

 

 

1

Primary systems

.........................

1.1

1.1 VHF radio installation:

.........................

1.1.1

DSC encoder

.........................

1.1.2

DSC watch receiver

........................

1.1.3

Radiotelephony

........................

1.2

MF radio installation:

........................

1.2.1

DSC encoder

........................

1.2.2

DSC watch receiver

........................

1.2.3

Radiotelephony

........................

1.3

MF/HF radio installation:

........................

1.3.1

DSC encoder

........................

1.3.2

DSC watch receiver

........................

1.3.3

Radiotelephony

........................

1.3.4

Direct-printing radiotelegraphy

........................

1.4

Inmarsat ship earth station

........................

 

2

Secondary means of alerting

........................

 

3

Facilities for reception of maritime safety information

........................

 

3.1

NAVTEX receiver

........................

3.2

EGC receiver

........................

3.3

HF direct-printing radiotelegraph receiver

........................

 

4

Satellite EPIRB

........................

4.1

COSPAS-SARSAT

........................

4.2

Inmarsat

........................

 

5

VHF EPIRB

........................

 

6

Ship's radar transponder

........................

 

5

Methods used to ensure availability of radio facilities
(paragraphs 14.15.6, 14.15.7 and 14.15.8 of the Code)

 

5.1

Duplication of equipment ......................................................................................................

 

5.2

Shore-based maintenance ......................................................................................................

 

5.3

At-sea maintenance capability ......................................................................................................

 

 

THIS IS TO CERTIFY that this Record is correct in all respects

 

Issued at  ......................................................................................................

(Place of issue of certificate)

..............................................

(Date of issue)
             


.......................................................................

(Signature of duly authorized official issuing the Record)

 

 

(Seal or stamp of the issuing authority, as appropriate)


1In accordance with the IMO ship identification number scheme adopted by the Organization by resolution A.600(15).
2Delete as appropriate.
3  In case of “other means” they shall be specified

Annex 01 Form of High-Speed Craft certificate and Record of equipment

Form of High-Speed Craft Safety Certificate
and Record of Equipment

 

HIGH-SPEED CRAFT SAFETY CERTIFICATE

 

This Certificate shall be supplemented by a Record of Equipment 

 

 

(Official seal)

 

 

(State)

  

 

            
 

Issued under the provisions of the

INTERNATIONAL CODE OF SAFETY FOR HIGH-SPEED CRAFT, 2000
(resolution MSC.97(73)

under the authority of the Government of

 

 
 

_________________________________________________________________

(full designation of the State)

 

 

 
by

________________________________________________________________

(full official designation of the competent person or
organization authorized by the Administration)

 

 

 

 

Particulars of craft1

 

Name of craft ..........................................

 

Manufacturer's model and hull number ..........................................

 

Distinctive number or letters ..........................................

 

IMO number2 ..........................................

 

Port of registry ..........................................

 

Gross tonnage ..........................................

 

Sea areas in which the craft is certified to operate (paragraph 14.2.1) ..........................................

 

Design waterline corresponding to a height of ........... below the reference line at the longitudinal centre of flotation, and draughts at the draught marks of ........... forward and ........... aft:

 

The upper edge of the reference line is……… at (……… mm below uppermost deck at side)3(………… mm above the underside of keel)3 at longitudinal centre of flotation.

 

Category

category A passenger craft/category B passenger craft/cargo craft3

 

Craft type

air-cushion vehicle/surface-effect ship/hydrofoil/monohull/multihull/other (give detail .................)3

 

 

Date on which keel was laid or craft was at a similar stage of construction or on which
a major conversion was commenced ..........................................

 

 

THIS IS TO CERTIFY

 

1

That the above-mentioned craft has been duly surveyed in accordance with the applicable provisions of the International Code of Safety for High-Speed Craft, 2000.

 

2

That the survey showed that the structure, equipment, fittings, radio station arrangements and materials of the craft and the condition thereof are in all respects satisfactory and that the craft complies with the relevant provisions of the Code.

 

3

That the life-saving appliances are provided for a total number of ..... persons and no more as follows:

..............................................................................................................................

..............................................................................................................................

 

4

That, in accordance with 1.11 of the Code, the following equivalents have been granted in respect of the craft:


 

paragraph.

.........................................

..........................................

 

  equivalent arrangement

..........................................

..........................................

This certificate is valid until4

....................................................................................

 

Issued at.

...................................................................................
(Place of issue of certificate)

 

Completion date of the survey on which this certificate is based:

..........................................
(dd/mm/yyyy)

 

.........................................
(Date of issue)

....................................................................................
(Place of issue of certificate)

 

....................................................................................
(Seal or stamp of the issuing authority, as appropriate)

 

 

Endorsement for periodical surveys

 

THIS IS TO CERTIFY that, at a survey required by 1.5 of the Code, this craft was found to comply with the
relevant provisions of the Code.

 

Periodical survey:Signed:

 ......................................................................................................

  

(Signature of authorized official)

 

 Place:

 ......................................................................................................

 

 Date:

 ......................................................................................................

 

 

(Seal or stamp of the authority, as appropriate)

 

 

Periodical survey:Signed:

 ......................................................................................................

  

(Signature of authorized official)

 

 Place:

 ......................................................................................................

 

 Date:

 ......................................................................................................

 

 

(Seal or stamp of the authority, as appropriate)

 

Periodical survey:Signed:

 ......................................................................................................

  

(Signature of authorized official)

 

 Place:

 ......................................................................................................

 

 Date:

 ......................................................................................................

 

 

(Seal or stamp of the authority, as appropriate)

 

Periodical survey:Signed:

 ......................................................................................................

  

(Signature of authorized official)

 

 Place:

 ......................................................................................................

 

 Date:

 ......................................................................................................

 

 

(Seal or stamp of the authority, as appropriate)

 

 

Endorsement to extend the Certificate if valid for less than 5 years where 1.8.8 of the Code applies

 

This craft complies with the relevant requirements of the Code, and this Certificate shall, in accordance with 1.8.8 of the Code, be accepted as valid until .................................................................

 

Signed:

 ......................................................................................................

  

(Signature of authorized official)

 

 Place:

 ......................................................................................................

 

 Date:

 ......................................................................................................

 

 

(Seal or stamp of the authority, as appropriate)

 

Endorsement where the renewal survey has been completed and 1.8.9 of the Code applies

 

This craft complies with the relevant requirements of the Code, and this Certificate shall, in accordance with 1.8.9 of the Code, be accepted as valid until .................................................................

 

Signed:

 ......................................................................................................

  

(Signature of authorized official)

 

 Place:

 ......................................................................................................

 

 Date:

 ......................................................................................................

 

 

(Seal or stamp of the authority, as appropriate)

 

Endorsement to extend the validity of the Certificate until reaching the port of survey where 1.8.10 of the Code applies

 

This Certificate shall, in accordance with 1.8.10 of the Code, be accepted as valid until .................................................................

 

Signed:

 ......................................................................................................

  

(Signature of authorized official)

 

 Place:

 ......................................................................................................

 

 Date:

 ......................................................................................................

 

 

(Seal or stamp of the authority, as appropriate)

 

Endorsement for the advancement of the anniversary date where 1.8.12 of the Code applies

 

In accordance with 1.8.12 of the Code, the new anniversary date is until .................................................................

 

Signed:

 ......................................................................................................

  

(Signature of authorized official)

 

 Place:

 ......................................................................................................

 

 Date:

 ......................................................................................................

 

 

(Seal or stamp of the authority, as appropriate)


 

 

In accordance with 1.8.13 of the Code, the new anniversary date is .................................................................

 

Signed:

 ......................................................................................................

  

(Signature of authorized official)

 

 Place:

 ......................................................................................................

 

 Date:

 ......................................................................................................

 

 

(Seal or stamp of the authority, as appropriate)


1 Alternatively, the particulars of the craft may be placed horizontally in boxes.
2 In accordance with the IMO ship identification number scheme, adopted by the Organization byresolution A.600(15).
3Delete as appropriate.
4 Insert the date of expiry as specified by the Administration in accordance with 1.8.4 of the Code. The day and the month of this date correspond to the anniversary date as defined in 1.4.3 of the Code, unless amended in accordance with 1.8.12.1 of the Code.

 

 

 

 

Record of Equipment for High-Speed Safety Certificate 

 

This Record shall be permanently attached to the High-Speed Safety Certificate


RECORD OF EQUIPMENT FOR COMPLIANCE WITH
THE INTERNATIONAL CODE OF SAFETY
FOR HIGH-SPEED CRAFT, 2000



 

1

Particulars of craft

 

Name of craft ..........................................

 

Manufacturer's model and hull number ..........................................

 

Distinctive number or letters ..........................................

 

IMO number1 ..........................................

 

Category

category A passenger craft/category B passenger craft/cargo craft2

 

Craft type

air-cushion vehicle/surface-effect ship/hydrofoil/monohull/multihull/other (give detail .................)2

 

 

Date on which keel was laid or craft was at a similar stage of construction or on which
a major conversion was commenced ..........................................

 

2

 

Details of life-saving appliances

 

1

Total number of persons for which life-saving appliances are provided

.........................

 

2

Total number of lifeboats

.........................

2.1

Total number of persons accommodated by them

.........................

2.2

Number of partially enclosed lifeboats complying with section 4.5 of the LSA Code

.........................

2.3

Number of totally enclosed lifeboats complying with sections 4.6 and 4.7 of the LSA Code

.........................

2.4

Other lifeboats

.........................

2.4.1

Number

.........................

2.4.2

Type

.........................

 

3

Number of rescue boats

.........................

3.1

Number of rescue boats which are included in the total lifeboats shown above

.........................

 

4

Liferafts complying with sections 4.1 to 4.3 of the LSA Code for which suitable means of launching are provided

.........................

4.1

Number of liferafts

.........................

4.2

Number of persons accommodated by them

.........................

 

5

Open reversible liferafts (Annex 11 of the Code)

.........................

5.1

Number of liferafts

.........................

5.2

Number of persons accommodated by them

.........................

 

6

Number of Marine Evacuation System (MES)

.........................

6.1

Number of persons served by them

.........................

 

7

Number of lifebuoys

.........................

 

8

Number of lifejackets

.........................

8.1

Number suitable for adults

.........................

8.2

Number suitable for children

.........................

 

9

Immersion suits

.........................

9.1

Total number

.........................

9.2

Number of suits complying with the requirements for lifejackets

.........................

 

10

Number of anti-exposure suits

.........................

10.1

Total number

.........................

10.2

Number of suits complying with the requirements for lifejackets

.........................

 

11

Radio installations used in life-saving appliances

.........................

11.1

Number of radar transponders

.........................

11.2

Number of two-way VHF radiotelephone apparatus

.........................

 

3

Details of navigational systems and equipment

 

 

1.1

Magnetic compass

.........................

1.2

Transmitting heading device (THD)

.........................

1.3

Gyro-compass

.........................

 

2

Speed and distance measuring device

.........................

 

3

Echo-sounding device

.........................

 

4.1

9 GHz radar

.........................

4.2

Second radar (3 GHz/9 GHz*)

.........................

4.3

Automatic radar plotting aid (ARPA)/Automatic tracking aid (ATA)2

.........................

 

5

Receiver for global navigation satellite system/ Terrestrial navigation system/ Other means of position fixing2, 4

.........................

 

6.1

Rate of turn indicator

.........................

6.2

Rudder angle indicator/Direction of steering thrust indicator2

.........................

 

7.1

Nautical charts/Electronic Chart Display and Information System (ECDIS)2

.........................

7.2

Back-up arrangements for ECDIS

.........................

7.3

Nautical publications

.........................

7.4

Back-up arrangement for nautical publications

.........................

 

8

Search light

.........................

 

9

Daylight signalling lamp

.........................

 

10

Night vision equipment

.........................

 

11

Means to show the mode of the propulsion systems

.........................

 

12

Automatic steering aid (Automatic pilot)

.........................

 

13

Radar reflector/ Other means2, 4

.........................

 

14

Sound reception system

.........................

 

15

Automatic identification system (AIS)

.........................

 

16

Voyage data recorder (VDR)

.........................

 

 

4

Details of radio facilities

 

 

1

Primary systems

.........................

1.1

1.1 VHF radio installation:

.........................

1.1.1

DSC encoder

.........................

1.1.2

DSC watch receiver

........................

1.1.3

Radiotelephony

........................

1.2

MF radio installation:

........................

1.2.1

DSC encoder

........................

1.2.2

DSC watch receiver

........................

1.2.3

Radiotelephony

........................

1.3

MF/HF radio installation:

........................

1.3.1

DSC encoder

........................

1.3.2

DSC watch receiver

........................

1.3.3

Radiotelephony

........................

1.3.4

Direct-printing radiotelegraphy

........................

1.4

Inmarsat ship earth station

........................

 

2

Secondary means of alerting

........................

 

3

Facilities for reception of maritime safety information

........................

 

3.1

NAVTEX receiver

........................

3.2

EGC receiver

........................

3.3

HF direct-printing radiotelegraph receiver

........................

 

4

Satellite EPIRB

........................

4.1

COSPAS-SARSAT

........................

4.2

Inmarsat

........................

 

5

VHF EPIRB

........................

 

6

Ship's radar transponder

........................

 

5

Methods used to ensure availability of radio facilities
(paragraphs 14.15.6, 14.15.7 and 14.15.8 of the Code)

 

5.1

Duplication of equipment ......................................................................................................

 

5.2

Shore-based maintenance ......................................................................................................

 

5.3

At-sea maintenance capability ......................................................................................................

 

 

THIS IS TO CERTIFY that this Record is correct in all respects

 

Issued at  ......................................................................................................

(Place of issue of certificate)

..............................................

(Date of issue)
             


.......................................................................

(Signature of duly authorized official issuing the Record)

 

 

(Seal or stamp of the issuing authority, as appropriate)


1In accordance with the IMO ship identification number scheme adopted by the Organization by resolution A.600(15).
2Delete as appropriate.
3  In case of “other means” they shall be specified

Annex 02 Form of permit to operate High-Speed Craft

 

Annex 03 Use of probability concept


1 General

1.1 Absolute safety cannot be achieved in any human activity. Naturally, this fact shall be taken into account in developing safety requirements, which means that requirements shall not imply that safety is absolute. In the case of traditional craft, it has frequently been possible to specify certain aspects of design or construction in some detail, in a way which was consistent with some level of risk which had over the years been intuitively accepted without having to be defined.

1.2 For high-speed craft, however, it would often be too restrictive to include engineering specifications into the Code. Requirements therefore need to be written (where this question arises) in the sense of "... the Administration shall be satisfied on the basis of tests, investigations and past experience that the probability of --- is (acceptably low)". Since different undesirable events may be regarded as having different general orders of acceptable probability (e.g. temporary impairment of propulsion as compared with an uncontrollable fire), it is convenient to agree on a series of standardized expressions which can be used to convey the relative acceptable probabilities of various incidents, i.e. to perform a qualitative ranking process. A vocabulary is given below which is intended to ensure consistency between various requirements, where it is necessary to describe the level of risk which shall not be exceeded.

2 Terms associated with probabilities
Different undesirable events may have different orders of acceptable probability. in connection with this, it is convenient to agree on standardized expressions to be used to convey the relatively acceptable probabilities of various occurrences, i.e. to perform a qualitative ranking process.

2.1 Occurrences

2.1.1 "Occurrence" is a condition involving a potential lowering of the level of safety.

2.1.2 "Failure" is an occurrence in which a part, or parts, of the craft fail or malfunction, e.g. runaway. A failure includes:
.1 a single failure;
.2 independent failures in combination within a system;
.3 independent failures in combinations involving more than one system, taking into account:
.3.1 any undetected failure that is already present;
.3.2 such further failures* as would be reasonably expected to follow the failure under consideration; and
.4 common cause failure (failure of more than one component or system due to the same cause).

2.1.3 "Event" is an occurrence which has its origin outside the craft (e.g. waves).

2.1.4 "Error" is an occurrence arising as a result of incorrect action by the operating crew or maintenance personnel.

2.2 Probability of occurrences

2.2.1 "Frequent" is one which is likely to occur often during the operational life of a particular craft.

2.2.2 "Reasonably probable" is one which is unlikely to occur often but which may occur several times during the total operational life of a particular craft.

2.2.3 "Recurrent" is a term embracing the total range of frequent and reasonably probable.

2.2.4 "Remote" is one which is unlikely to occur to every craft but may occur to a few craft of a type over the total operational life of a number of craft of the same type.

2.2.5 "Extremely remote" is one which is unlikely to occur when considering the total operational life of a number of craft of the type, but nevertheless shall be considered as being possible.

2.2.6 "Extremely improbable" is one which is so extremely remote that it shall not be considered as possible to occur.

2.3 Effects

2.3.1 "Effect" is a situation arising as a result of an occurrence.

2.3.2 "Minor effect" is an effect which may arise from a failure, an event, or an error, as defined in 2.1.2, 2.1.3, 2.1.4, which can be readily compensated for by the operating crew. It may involve:
.1 a small increase in the operational duties of the crew or in their difficulty in performing their duties; or
.2 a moderate degradation in handling characteristics; or
.3 slight modification of the permissible operating conditions.
___________________
* In assessing the further failures which follow, account shall be taken of any resulting more severe operating conditions for items that have not up to that time failed.

2.3.3 "Major effect" is an effect which produces:
.1 a significant increase in the operational duties of the crew or in their difficulty in performing their duties which by itself shall not be outside the capability of a competent crew provided that another major effect does not occur at the same time; or
.2 significant degradation in handling characteristics; or
.3 significant modification of the permissible operating conditions, but will not remove the capability to complete a safe journey without demanding more than normal skill on the part of the operating crew.

2.3.4 "Hazardous effect" is an effect which produces:
.1 a dangerous increase in the operational duties of the crew or in their difficulty in performing their duties of such magnitude that they cannot reasonably be expected to cope with them and will probably require outside assistance; or
.2 dangerous degradation of handling characteristics; or
.3 dangerous degradation of the strength of the craft; or
.4 marginal conditions for, or injury to, occupants; or
.5 an essential need for outside rescue operations.
2.3.5 "Catastrophic effect" is an effect which results in the loss of the craft and/or in fatalities.

2.4 Safety level
"Safety level" is a numerical value characterizing the relationship between craft performance represented as horizontal single-amplitude acceleration (g) and the severity of acceleration-load effects on standing and sitting humans. The safety levels and the corresponding severity of effects on passengers and safety criteria for craft performance shall be as defined in table 1.

3 Numerical values
Where numerical probabilities are used in assessing compliance with requirements using the terms similar to those given above, the following approximate values may be used as guidelines to assist in providing a common point of reference. The probabilities quoted shall be on an hourly or per-journey basis, depending on which is more appropriate to the assessment in question.


Note:Different occurrences may have different acceptable probabilities, according to the severity of their consequences (see table 2.)

____________________
1 The accelerometers used shall have an accuracy of at least 5% full scale and shall not have a frequency response of less than 20 Hz. The sampling frequency should not be less than 5 times the maximum frequency response. Anti-aliasing filters, if used, should have a passband equal to the frequency response.
2g = gravity acceleration (9.81 m/s2).

_________________________
1 United States Federal Aviation Regulations.
2 European Joint Airworthiness Regulations.

Annex 04 Procedures for failure mode and effects analysis


1 Introduction

1.1 In the case of traditional craft, it has been possible to specify certain aspects of design or construction in some level of detail, in a way which was consistent with some level of risk which had over the years been intuitively accepted without having to be defined.

1.2 With the development of large high-speed craft, this required experience has not been widely available. However, with the now broad acceptance of the probabilistic approach to safety assessments within industry as a whole, it is proposed that an analysis of failure performance may be used to assist in the assessment of the safety of operation of high-speed craft.

1.3 A practical, realistic and documented assessment of the failure characteristics of the craft and its component systems shall be undertaken with the aim of defining and studying the important failure conditions that may exist.

1.4 This annex describes a failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) and gives guidance as to how it may be applied by:
.1 explaining basic principles;
.2 providing the procedural steps necessary to perform an analysis;
.3 identifying appropriate terms, assumptions, measures and failure modes; and
4 providing examples of the necessary worksheets.

1.5 FMEA for high-speed craft is based on a single -failure concept under which each system at various levels of a system's functional hierarchy is assumed to fail by one probable cause at a time. The effects of the postulated failure are analysed and classified according to their severity. Such effects may include secondary failures (or multiple failures) at other level(s). Any failure mode which may cause a catastrophic effect to the craft shall be guarded against by system or equipment redundancy unless the probability of such failure is extremely improbable (refer to section 13). For failure modes causing hazardous effects, corrective measures may be accepted in lieu. A test programme shall be drawn to confirm the conclusions of FMEA.

1.6 Whilst FMEA is suggested as one of the most flexible analysis techniques, it is accepted that there are other methods which may be used and which in certain circumstances may offer an equally comprehensive insight into particular failure characteristics.

2 Objectives

2.1 The primary objective of FMEA is to provide a comprehensive, systematic and documented investigation which establishes the important failure conditions of the craft and assesses their significance with regard to the safety of the craft, its occupants and the environment.

2.2 The main aims of undertaking the analysis are to:
.1 provide the Administration with the results of a study into the craft's failure characteristics so as to assist in an assessment of the levels of safety proposed for the craft's operation;
.2 provide craft operators with data to generate comprehensive training, operational and maintenance programmes and documentation; and
.3 provide craft and system designers with data to audit their proposed designs.

3 Scope of application

3.1 FMEA shall be conducted for each high-speed craft, before its entry into service, in respect of the systems as required under the provisions of 5.2, 9.1.10, 12.1.1 and 16.2.6 of this Code.

3.2 For craft of the same design and having the same equipment, one FMEA on the lead craft will be sufficient, but each of the craft shall be subject to the same FMEA conclusion trials.

4 System failure mode and effects analysis

4.1 Before proceeding with a detailed FMEA into the effects of the failure of the system elements on the system functional output it is necessary to perform a functional failure analysis of the craft's important systems. In this way only systems which fail the functional failure analysis need to be investigated by a more detailed FMEA.

4.2 When conducting a system FMEA the following typical operational modes within the normal design environmental conditions of the craft shall be considered:
.1 normal seagoing conditions at full speed;
.2 maximum permitted operating speed in congested waters; and
.3 manoeuvring alongside.

4.3 The functional interdependence of these systems shall also be described in either block diagrams or fault-tree diagrams or in a narrative format to enable the failure effects to be understood. As far as applicable, each of the systems to be analysed is assumed to fail in the following failure modes:
.1 complete loss of function;
.2 rapid change to maximum or minimum output;
.3 uncontrolled or varying output;
.4 premature operation;
.5 failure to operate at a prescribed time; and
.6 failure to cease operation at a prescribed time.
Depending on the system under consideration, other failure modes may have to be taken into account.

4.4 If a system can fail without any hazardous or catastrophic effect, there is no need to conduct a detailed FMEA into the system architecture. For systems whose individual failure can cause hazardous or catastrophic effects and where a redundant system is not provided, a detailed FMEA as described in the following paragraphs shall be followed. Results of the system functional failure analysis shall be documented and confirmed by a practical test programme drawn up from the analysis.

4.5 Where a system, the failure of which may cause a hazardous or catastrophic effect, is provided with a redundant system, a detailed FMEA may not be required provided that:
.1 the redundant system can be put into operation or can take over the failed system within the time-limit dictated by the most onerous operational mode in 4.2 without hazarding the craft;
.2 the redundant system is completely independent from the system and does not share any common system element the failure of which would cause failure of both the system and the redundant system. Common system element may be acceptable if the probability of failure complies with section 13; and
.3 the redundant system may share the same power source as the system. in such case an alternative power source shall be readily available with regard to the requirement of .1.
The probability and effects of operator error to bring in the redundant system shall also be considered.

5 Equipment failure mode and effects analysis
The systems to be subject to a more detailed FMEA investigation at this stage shall include all those that have failed the system FMEA and may include those that have a very important influence on the safety of the craft and its occupants and which require an investigation at a deeper level than that undertaken in the system functional failure analysis. These systems are often those which have been specifically designed or adapted for the craft, such as the craft's electrical and hydraulic systems.

6 Procedures
The following steps are necessary to perform FMEA:
.1 to define the system to be analysed;
.2 to illustrate the interrelationships of functional elements of the system by means of block diagrams;
.3 to identify all potential failure modes and their causes;
.4 to evaluate the effects on the system of each failure mode;
.5 to identify failure detection methods;
.6 to identify corrective measures for failure modes;
.7 to assess the probability of failures causing hazardous or catastrophic effects, where applicable;
.8 to document the analysis;
.9 to develop a test programme;
.10 to prepare FMEA report.

7 System definition
The first step in an FMEA study is a detailed study of the system to be analysed through the use of drawings and equipment manuals. A narrative description of the system and its functional requirements shall be drawn up including the following information:
.1 general description of system operation and structure;
.2 functional relationship among the system elements;
.3 acceptable functional performance limits of the system and its constituent elements in each of the typical operational modes; and
.4 system constraints.

8 Development of system block diagrams

8.1 The next step is to develop block diagram(s) showing the functional flow sequence of the system, both for technical understanding of the functions and operation of the system and for the subsequent analysis. As a minimum the block diagram shall contain:
.1 breakdown of the system into major sub-systems or equipment;
.2 all appropriate labelled inputs and outputs and identification numbers by which each sub-system is consistently referenced; and
.3 all redundancies, alternative signal paths and other engineering features which provide "fail-safe" measures. An example of a system block diagram is given at appendix 1.

8.2 It may be necessary to have a different set of block diagrams prepared for each operational mode.

9 Identification of failure modes, causes and effects

9.1 Failure mode is the manner by which a failure is observed. It generally describes the way the failure occurs and its impact on the equipment or system. As an example, a list of failure modes is given in table 1. The failure modes listed in table 1 can describe the failure of any system element in sufficiently specific terms. When used in conjunction with performance specifications governing the inputs and outputs on the system block diagram, all potential failure modes can be thus identified and described. Thus, for example, a power supply may have a failure mode described as "loss of output" (29), and a failure cause "open (electrical)" (31).

9.2 A failure mode in a system element could also be the failure cause of a system failure. For example, the hydraulic line of a steering gear system might have a failure mode of "external leakage" (10). This failure mode of the hydraulic line could become a failure cause of the steering gear system's failure mode "loss of output" (29).

9.3 Each system shall be considered in a top-down approach, starting from the system's functional output, and failure shall be assumed by one possible cause at a time. Since a failure mode may have more than one cause, all potential independent causes for each failure mode shall be identified.

9.4 If major systems can fail without any adverse effect there is no need to consider them further unless the failure can go undetected by an operator. To decide that there is no adverse effect does not mean just the identification of system redundancy. The redundancy shall be shown to be immediately effective or brought on line with negligible time lag. In addition, if the sequence is: "failure - alarm - operator action - start of back up - back up in service", the effects of delay shall be considered.

10 Failure effects

10.1 The consequence of a failure mode on the operation, function, or status of an equipment or a system is called a 'failure effect'. Failure effects on a specific sub-system or equipment under consideration are called local failure effects". The evaluation of local failure effects will help to determine the effectiveness of any redundant equipment or corrective action at that system level. In certain instances, there may not be a local effect beyond the failure mode itself.

10.2 The impact of an equipment or sub-system failure on the system output (system function) is called an "end effect". End effects shall be evaluated and their severity classified in accordance with the following categories:
.1 catastrophic;
.2 hazardous;
.3 major; and
.4 minor.
The definitions of these four categories of failure effects are given in 2.3 of annex 3 of this Code.

10.3 If the end effect of a failure is classified as hazardous or catastrophic, back-up equipment is usually required to prevent or minimize such effect. For hazardous failure effects corrective operational procedures may be accepted.

11 Failure detection

11.1 The FMEA study in general only analyses failure effects based on a single failure in the system and therefore a failure detection means, such as visual or audible warning devices, automatic sensing devices, sensing instrumentation or other unique indications shall be identified.

11.2 Where the system element failure is non-detectable (i.e. a hidden fault or any failure which does not give any visual or audible indication to the operator) and the system can continue with its specific operation, the analysis shall be extended to determine the effects of a second failure, which in combination with the first undetectable failure may result in a more severe failure effect, e.g., hazardous or catastrophic effect.

12 Corrective measures

12.1 The response of any back-up equipment, or any corrective action initiated at a given system level to prevent or reduce the effect of the failure mode of a system element or equipment, shall also be identified and evaluated.

12.2 Provisions which are features of the design at any system level to nullify the effects of a malfunction or failure, such as controlling or deactivating system elements to halt generation or propagation of failure effects, or activating back-up or standby items or systems, shall be described. Corrective design provisions include:
.1 redundancies that allow continued and safe operation;
.2 safety devices, monitoring or alarm provisions, which permit restricted operation or limit damage; and
.3 alternative modes of operation.

12.3 Provisions which require operator action to circumvent or mitigate the effects of the postulated failure shall be described. The possibility and effect of operator error shall be considered, if the corrective action or the initiation of the redundancy requires operator input, when evaluating the means to eliminate the local failure effects.

12.4 It shall be noted that corrective responses acceptable in one operational mode may not be acceptable at another, e.g., a redundant system element with considerable time lag to be brought into line, while meeting the operational mode "normal seagoing conditions at full speed" may result in a catastrophic effect in another operational mode, e.g., "maximum permitted operating speed in congested water".

13 Use of probability concept

13.1 If corrective measures or redundancy as described in preceding paragraphs are not provided for any failure, as an alternative the probability of occurrence of such failure shall meet the following criteria of acceptance:
.1 a failure mode which results in a catastrophic effect shall be assessed to be extremely improbable;
.2 a failure mode assessed as extremely remote shall not result in worse than hazardous effects; and
.3 a failure mode assessed as either frequent or reasonably probable shall not result in worse than minor effects.

13.2 Numerical values for various levels of probabilities are laid down in section 3 of annex 3 of this Code. In areas where there are no data from craft to determine the level of probabilities of failure other sources can be used such as:
.1 workshop test, or
.2 history of reliability used in other areas under similar operating conditions, or
.3 mathematical model if applicable.

14 Documentation

14.1 It is helpful to perform FMEA on worksheet(s) as shown in appendix 2.

14.2 The worksheet(s) shall be organized to first display the highest system level and then proceed down through decreasing system levels.

15Test programme

15.1 An FMEA test programme shall be drawn up to prove the conclusions of FMEA. It is recommended that the test programme shall include all systems or system elements whose failure would lead to:
.1 major or more severe effects;
.2 restricted operations; and
.3 any other corrective action.
For equipment where failure cannot be easily simulated on the craft, the results of other tests can be used to determine the effects and influences on the systems and craft.

15.2 The trials shall also include investigations into:
.1 the layout of control stations with particular regard to the relative positioning of switches and other control devices to ensure a low potential for inadvertent and incorrect crew action, particularly during emergencies, and the provision of interlocks to prevent inadvertent operation for important system operation;
.2 the existence and quality of the craft's operational documentation with particular regard to the pre-voyage checklists. It is essential that these checks account for any unrevealed failure modes identified in the failure analysis; and
.3 the effects of the main failure modes as prescribed in the theoretical analysis.

15.3 The FMEA tests on board shall be conducted in conjunction with provisions specified in 5.3,

15.4 and 17.4 of this Code, before the craft enters into service.

16 FMEA Report
The FMEA report shall be a self-contained document with a full description of the craft, its systems and their functions and the proposed operation and environmental conditions for the failure modes, causes and effects to be understood without any need to refer to other plans and documents not in the report. The analysis assumptions and system block diagrams shall be included, where appropriate. The report shall contain a summary of conclusions and recommendations for each of the systems analysed in the system failure analysis and the equipment failure analysis. It shall also list all probable failures and their probability of failure, where applicable, the corrective actions or operational restrictions for each system in each of the operational modes under analysis. The report shall contain the test programme, reference any other test reports and the FMEA trials.

where:
EP - electric power
HP - hydraulic power
ES - electric signal
MS - mechanical signal


Refer to IEC Publication: IEC 812 (1985), Analysis techniques for system reliability - procedure for failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA).

Annex 05 Ice accretion applicable to all types of craft


1 Icing allowances

1.1 For craft operating in areas where ice accretion is likely to occur, the following icing allowance shall be made in the stability calculations.
.1 30 kg/m² on exposed weather decks and gangways;
.2 7.5 kg/m² for projected lateral area of each side of the craft above the waterplane;
.3 the projected lateral area of discontinuous surfaces of rail, sundry booms, spars (except masts) and rigging and the projected lateral area of other small objects shall be computed by increasing the total projected area of continuous surfaces by 5% and the static moments of this area by 10%;
.4 reduction of stability due to asymmetric ice accumulations in cross-structure.

1.2 For craft operating in areas where ice accretion may be expected:
.1 Within the areas defined in 2.1, 2.3, 2.4 and 2.5 known to have icing conditions significantly different from those in 1.1, ice accretion requirements of one half to twice the required allowance may be applied.
.2 Within the area defined in 2.2, where ice accretion in excess of twice the allowance required by 1.1 may be expected, more severe requirements than those given in 1.1 may be applied.

1.3 Information shall be provided in respect of the assumptions made in calculating the condition of the craft in each of the circumstances set out in this annex for the following:
.1 duration of the voyage in terms of the period spent in reaching the destination and returning to port; and
.2 consumption rates during the voyage for fuel, water, stores and other consumables.

2 Areas of icing conditions
In the application of 1, the following icing areas shall apply:
.1 The area north of latitude 65°30'N, between longitude 28°W and the west coast of Iceland; north of the north coast of Iceland; north of the rhumb line running from latitude 66°N, longitude 15°W to latitude 73°30' N, longitude 15°E, north of latitude 73°30' N between longitude 15°E and 35°E, and east of longitude 35°E, as well as north of latitude 56°N in the Baltic Sea.
.2 The area north of latitude 43°N bounded in the west by the North American coast and the east by the rhumb line running from latitude 43°N, longitude 48°W to latitude 63°N, longitude 28°W and thence along longitude 28°W.
.3 All sea areas north of the North Americ an continent, west of the areas defined in subparagraphs .1 and .2 of this paragraph.
.4 The Bering and Okhotsk Seas and the Tartary Strait during the icing season.
.5 South of latitude 60°S. A chart to illustrate the areas is attached.

3 Special requirements
Craft intended for operation in areas where ice accretion is known to occur shall be:
.1 designed to minimize the accretion of ice; and
.2 equipped with such means for removing ice as the Administration may require.

Annex 05 Ice accretion applicable to all types of craft

Annex 5 - Ice accretion applicable to all types of craft

1 - Icing allowances

1.1 For craft operating in areas where ice accretion is likely to occur, the following icing allowance shall be made in the stability calculations.

  1. 30 kg/m2 on exposed weather decks and gangways;

  2. 7.5 kg/m2 for projected lateral area of each side of the craft above the waterplane;

  3. the projected lateral area of discontinuous surfaces of rail, sundry booms, spars (except masts) and rigging and the projected lateral area of other small objects shall be computed by increasing the total projected area of continuous surfaces by 5% and the static moments of this area by 10%;

  4. reduction of stability due to asymmetric ice accumulations in cross-structure.

1.2 For craft operating in areas where ice accretion may be expected:

  1. Within the areas defined in 2.1, 2.3, 2.4 and 2.5 known to have icing conditions significantly different from those in 1.1, ice accretion requirements of one half to twice the required allowance may be applied.

  2. Within the area defined in 2.2, where ice accretion in excess of twice the allowance required by 1.1 may be expected, more severe requirements than those given in 1.1 may be applied.

1.3 Information shall be provided in respect of the assumptions made in calculating the condition of the craft in each of the circumstances set out in this annex for the following:

  1. duration of the voyage in terms of the period spent in reaching the destination and returning to port; and

  2. consumption rates during the voyage for fuel, water, stores and other consumables.

2 - Areas of icing conditions
In the application of 1, the following icing areas shall apply:

  1. The area north of latitude 65°30'N, between longitude 28°W and the west coast of Iceland; north of the north coast of Iceland; north of the rhumb line running from latitude 66°N, longitude 15°W to latitude 73°30' N, longitude 15°E, north of latitude 73°30' N between longitude 15°E and 35°E, and east of longitude 35°E, as well as north of latitude 56°N in the Baltic Sea.

  2. The area north of latitude 43°N bounded in the west by the North American coast and the east by the rhumb line running from latitude 43°N, longitude 48°W to latitude 63°N, longitude 28°W and thence along longitude 28°W.

  3. All sea areas north of the North Americ an continent, west of the areas defined in subparagraphs .1 and .2 of this paragraph.

  4. The Bering and Okhotsk Seas and the Tartary Strait during the icing season.

  5. South of latitude 60°S. A chart to illustrate the areas is attached.

3 - Special requirements
Craft intended for operation in areas where ice accretion is known to occur shall be:

  1. designed to minimize the accretion of ice; and

  2. equipped with such means for removing ice as the Administration may require.


 

Annex 06 Stability of hydrofoil craft

Annex 6 - Stability of hydrofoil craft

The stability of these craft shall be considered in the hull-borne, transitional and foil-borne modes. The stability investigation shall also take into account the effects of external forces. The following procedures are outlined for guidance in dealing with stability.

1 - Surface-piercing hydrofoils

1.1 Hull-borne mode

1.1.1 The stability shall be sufficient to satisfy the provisions of 2.3, 2.4 and 2.6 of this Code.

1.1.2 Heeling moment due to turning
The heeling moment developed during manoeuvring of the craft in the displacement mode may be derived from the following formula:

Where:

MR=moment of heeling;
Vo=speed of the craft in the turn (m/s);
=displacement (t);
L =length of the craft on the waterline (m);
KG=height of the centre of gravity above keel (m).

This formula is applicable when the ratio of the radius of the turning circle to the length of the craft is 2 to 4.

1.1.3 Relationship between the capsizing moment and heeling moment to satisfy the weather criterion The stability of a hydrofoil boat in the displacement mode can be checked for compliance with the weather criterion K as follows:


where: 

Mc= minimum capsizing moment as determined when account is taken of rolling;
Mv= dynamically applied heeling moment due to the wind pressure.

 

1.1.4 Heeling moment due to wind pressure
The heeling moment MV shall be taken as constant during the whole range of heel angles and calculated by the following expression:

Mv=0.001 Pv Ac Z          (kNm) 


where :

PV=wind pressure = 750 (VW / 26)² (N/m²)
AV=windage area including the projections of the lateral surfaces of the hull, superstructure and various structures above the waterline (m2)
Z=windage area lever (m) = the vertical distance to the geometrical centre of the windage area from the waterline
VW=the wind speed corresponding to the worst intended conditions (m/s).

 

1.1.5 Evaluation of the minimum capsizing moment Mc in the displacement mode
The minimum capsizing moment is determined from the static and dynamic stability curves taking rolling into account.

  1. When the static stability curve is used, Mc is determined by equating the areas under the curves of the capsizing and righting moments (or levers) taking rolling into account, as indicated by figure 1, where qz is the amplitude of roll and MK is a line drawn parallel to the abscissa axis such that the shaded areas S1 and S2 are equal.
    Mc=OM, if the scale of ordinates represents moments,
    Mc=OM x displacement, if the scale of ordinates represents levers.



  2. When the dynamic stability curve is used, first an auxiliary point A shall be determined. For this purpose the amplitude of heeling is plotted to the right along the abscissa axis and a point A' is found (see figure 2). A line AA' is drawn parallel to the abscissa axis equal to the double amplitude of heeling (AA' = 2) and the required auxiliary point A is found. A tangent AC to the dynamic stability curve is drawn. From the point A the line AB is drawn parallel to the abscissa axis and equal to 1 radian (57.3°). From the point B a perpendicular is drawn to intersect with the tangent in point E. The distance  is equal to the capsizing moment if measured along the ordinate axis of the dynamic stability curve. If, however, the dynamic stability levers are plotted along this axis, is then the capsizing lever, and in this case the capsizing moment Mc is determined by multiplication of ordinate (in metres) by the corresponding displacement in tonnes


    Mc=9.81     (kNm)

  3. The amplitude of rolling is determined by means of model and full-scale tests in irregular seas as a maximum amplitude of rolling of 50 oscillations of a craft travelling at 90° to the wave direction in sea state for the worst design condition. If such data are lacking the amplitude is assumed to be equal to 15°.

  4. The effectiveness of the stability curves shall be limited to the angle of flooding.

     

1.2 Transitional and foil-borne modes

1.2.1 The stability shall satisfy the provisions of 2.4 and 2.5 of this Code.

1.2.2.1 The stability in the transitional and foil-borne modes shall be checked for all cases of loading for the intended service of the craft.

1.2.2.2 The stability in the transitional and foil-borne modes may be determined either by calculation or on the basis of data obtained from model experiments and shall be verified by full-scale tests by imposition of a series of known heeling moments by off-centre ballast weights, and recording the heeling angles produced by these moments. When taken in the hull-borne, take-off, steady foil-borne and settling to hull-borne modes, these results will provide an indication of the values of the stability in the various situations of the craft during the transitional condition.

1.2.2.3 The angle of heel in the foil-borne mode caused by the concentration of passengers at one side shall not exceed 8°. During the transitional mode the angle of heel due to the concentration of passengers on one side shall not exceed 12°. The concentration of passengers shall be determined by the Administration, having regard to the guidance given at annex 7 to this Code.

1.2.3 One of the possible methods of assessing foil-borne metacentric height (GM) in the design stage for a particular foil configuration is given in figure 3.

where:

nB=percentage of hydrofoil load borne by front foil
nH=percentage of hydrofoil load borne by aft foil
LB=clearance width of front foil
LH=clearance width of aft foil
a=clearance between bottom of keel and water
g=height of centre of gravity above bottom of keel
IB=angle at which front foil is inclined to horizontal
IH=angle at which aft foil is inclined to horizontal
S=height of centre of gravity above water

 

2 - Fully submerged hydrofoils

2.1 Hull-borne mode

2.1.1 The stability in the hull-borne mode shall be sufficient to satisfy the provisions of 2.3 and 2.6 of this Code.

2.1.2 Paragraphs 1.1.2 to 1.1.5 of this annex are appropriate to this type of craft in the hull-borne mode.

2.2 Transitional mode

2.2.1 The stability shall be examined by the use of verified computer simulations to evaluate the craft's motions, behaviour and responses under the normal conditions and limits of operation and under the influence of any malfunction.

2.2.2 The stability conditions resulting from any potential failures in the systems or operational procedures during the transitional stage which could prove hazardous to the craft's watertight integrity and stability shall be examined.

2.3 Foil-borne mode
The stability of the craft in the foil-borne mode shall be in compliance with the provisions of 2.4 of this Code. The provisions of paragraph 2.2 of this annex shall also apply.

2.4 Paragraphs 1.2.2.1, 1.2.2.2 and 1.2.2.3 of this annex shall be applied to this type of craft as appropriate and any computer simulations or design calculations shall be verified by full-scale tests.

Annex 06 Stability of hydrofoil craft

Annex 6 - Stability of hydrofoil craft

The stability of these craft shall be considered in the hull-borne, transitional and foil-borne modes. The stability investigation shall also take into account the effects of external forces. The following procedures are outlined for guidance in dealing with stability.

As required by 2.3.1, the stability of hydrofoil craft shall be assessed under all permitted conditions of loading.

The term “hull-borne mode” has the same meaning as “displacement mode” defined in 1.4.22 of the Code.

The term “foil-borne mode” has the same meaning as “non-displacement mode” defined in 1.4.38 of the Code.

1 - Surface-piercing hydrofoils

1.1 Hull-borne mode

1.1.1 The stability shall be sufficient to satisfy the provisions of 2.3, 2.4 and 2.6 of this Code.

1.1.2 Heeling moment due to turning
The heeling moment developed during manoeuvring of the craft in the displacement mode may be derived from the following formula:

Where:

MR=moment of heeling;
Vo=speed of the craft in the turn (m/s);
=displacement (t);
L =length of the craft on the waterline (m);
KG=height of the centre of gravity above keel (m).

This formula is applicable when the ratio of the radius of the turning circle to the length of the craft is 2 to 4.

1.1.3 Relationship between the capsizing moment and heeling moment to satisfy the weather criterion The stability of a hydrofoil boat in the displacement mode can be checked for compliance with the weather criterion K as follows:


where: 

Mc= minimum capsizing moment as determined when account is taken of rolling;
Mv= dynamically applied heeling moment due to the wind pressure.

 

1.1.4 Heeling moment due to wind pressure
The heeling moment MV shall be taken as constant during the whole range of heel angles and calculated by the following expression:

Mv=0.001 Pv Ac Z          (kNm) 


where :

PV=wind pressure = 750 (VW / 26)² (N/m²)
AV=windage area including the projections of the lateral surfaces of the hull, superstructure and various structures above the waterline (m2)
Z=windage area lever (m) = the vertical distance to the geometrical centre of the windage area from the waterline
VW=the wind speed corresponding to the worst intended conditions (m/s).

 

1.1.5 Evaluation of the minimum capsizing moment Mc in the displacement mode
The minimum capsizing moment is determined from the static and dynamic stability curves taking rolling into account.

  1. When the static stability curve is used, Mc is determined by equating the areas under the curves of the capsizing and righting moments (or levers) taking rolling into account, as indicated by figure 1, where qz is the amplitude of roll and MK is a line drawn parallel to the abscissa axis such that the shaded areas S1 and S2 are equal.
    Mc=OM, if the scale of ordinates represents moments,
    Mc=OM x displacement, if the scale of ordinates represents levers.



  2. When the dynamic stability curve is used, first an auxiliary point A shall be determined. For this purpose the amplitude of heeling is plotted to the right along the abscissa axis and a point A' is found (see figure 2). A line AA' is drawn parallel to the abscissa axis equal to the double amplitude of heeling (AA' = 2) and the required auxiliary point A is found. A tangent AC to the dynamic stability curve is drawn. From the point A the line AB is drawn parallel to the abscissa axis and equal to 1 radian (57.3°). From the point B a perpendicular is drawn to intersect with the tangent in point E. The distance  is equal to the capsizing moment if measured along the ordinate axis of the dynamic stability curve. If, however, the dynamic stability levers are plotted along this axis, is then the capsizing lever, and in this case the capsizing moment Mc is determined by multiplication of ordinate (in metres) by the corresponding displacement in tonnes


    Mc=9.81     (kNm)

  3. The amplitude of rolling is determined by means of model and full-scale tests in irregular seas as a maximum amplitude of rolling of 50 oscillations of a craft travelling at 90° to the wave direction in sea state for the worst design condition. If such data are lacking the amplitude is assumed to be equal to 15°.

  4. The effectiveness of the stability curves shall be limited to the angle of flooding.

     

1.2 Transitional and foil-borne modes

1.2.1 The stability shall satisfy the provisions of 2.4 and 2.5 of this Code.

1.2.2.1 The stability in the transitional and foil-borne modes shall be checked for all cases of loading for the intended service of the craft.

1.2.2.2 The stability in the transitional and foil-borne modes may be determined either by calculation or on the basis of data obtained from model experiments and shall be verified by full-scale tests by imposition of a series of known heeling moments by off-centre ballast weights, and recording the heeling angles produced by these moments. When taken in the hull-borne, take-off, steady foil-borne and settling to hull-borne modes, these results will provide an indication of the values of the stability in the various situations of the craft during the transitional condition.

1.2.2.3 The angle of heel in the foil-borne mode caused by the concentration of passengers at one side shall not exceed 8°. During the transitional mode the angle of heel due to the concentration of passengers on one side shall not exceed 12°. The concentration of passengers shall be determined by the Administration, having regard to the guidance given at annex 7 to this Code.

1.2.3 One of the possible methods of assessing foil-borne metacentric height (GM) in the design stage for a particular foil configuration is given in figure 3.

where:

nB=percentage of hydrofoil load borne by front foil
nH=percentage of hydrofoil load borne by aft foil
LB=clearance width of front foil
LH=clearance width of aft foil
a=clearance between bottom of keel and water
g=height of centre of gravity above bottom of keel
IB=angle at which front foil is inclined to horizontal
IH=angle at which aft foil is inclined to horizontal
S=height of centre of gravity above water

 

2 - Fully submerged hydrofoils

2.1 Hull-borne mode

2.1.1 The stability in the hull-borne mode shall be sufficient to satisfy the provisions of 2.3 and 2.6 of this Code.

2.1.2 Paragraphs 1.1.2 to 1.1.5 of this annex are appropriate to this type of craft in the hull-borne mode.

2.2 Transitional mode

2.2.1 The stability shall be examined by the use of verified computer simulations to evaluate the craft's motions, behaviour and responses under the normal conditions and limits of operation and under the influence of any malfunction.

2.2.2 The stability conditions resulting from any potential failures in the systems or operational procedures during the transitional stage which could prove hazardous to the craft's watertight integrity and stability shall be examined.

2.3 Foil-borne mode
The stability of the craft in the foil-borne mode shall be in compliance with the provisions of 2.4 of this Code. The provisions of paragraph 2.2 of this annex shall also apply.

2.4 Paragraphs 1.2.2.1, 1.2.2.2 and 1.2.2.3 of this annex shall be applied to this type of craft as appropriate and any computer simulations or design calculations shall be verified by full-scale tests.

Annex 07 Stability of multi-hull craft

Annex 7 - Stability of multi-hull craft

1 - Stability criteria in the intact condition

A multihull craft, in the intact condition, shall have sufficient stability when rolling in a seaway to successfully withstand the effect of either passenger crowding or high-speed turning as described in 1.4. The craft's stability shall be considered to be sufficient provided compliance with this paragraph is achieved.

1.1 Area under the GZ curve

The area (A1) under the GZ curve up to an angle q shall be at least:

A1=0.055 x 30°/      (m.rad)

where q is the least of the following angles:

  1. the downflooding angle;

  2. the angle at which the maximum GZ occurs; and

  3. 30°

 

1.2 Maximum GZ
The maximum GZ value shall occur at an angle of at least 10°.

1.3 Heeling due to wind
The wind heeling lever shall be assumed constant at all angles of inclination and shall be calculated as follows:

Where:

P1=500(Vw / 26)2     (m.rad)

 

Where: 

Vw=

wind speed corresponding to the worst intended conditions (m/s)

 

A=

projected lateral area of the portion of the craft above the lightest service waterline (m2)

 

Z=

vertical distance from the centre of A to a point one half the lightest service draught (m)

 

=

displacement (t)

 

 

1.4 Heeling due to passenger crowding or high-speed turning
Heeling due to the crowding of passengers on one side of the craft or to high-speed turning, whichever is the greater, shall be applied in combination with the heeling lever due to wind (HL2).

1.4.1 Heeling due to passenger crowding
When calculating the magnitude of the heel due to passenger crowding, a passenger crowding lever shall be developed using the assumptions stipulated in 2.10 of this Code.

1.4.2 Heeling due to high-speed turning
When calculating the magnitude of the heel due to the effects of high-speed turning, a high-speed turning lever shall be developed using either the following formula or an equivalent method specifically developed for the type of craft under consideration, or trials or model test data:

Where:

TL

=

turning lever (m)

 

Vo=

speed of craft in the turn (m/s)

 

R=

turning radius (m)

 

KG=

height of vertical centre of gravity above keel (m)

 

d=

mean draught (m)

 

g=

acceleration due to gravity

 

1.5 Rolling in waves (figure 1)
The effect of rolling in a seaway upon the craft's stability shall be demonstrated mathematically. In doing so, the residual area under the GZ curve (A2), i.e. beyond the angle of heel (qh), shall be at least equal to 0.028 m.rad up to the angle of roll qr. In the absence of model test or other data qr shall be taken as 15° or an angle of (qd - qh), whichever is less.

2 - Criteria for residual stability after damage

2.1 The method of application of criteria to the residual stability curve is similar to that for intact
stability except that the craft in the final condition after damage shall be considered to have an
adequate standard of residual stability provided:

  1. the required area A2 shall be not less than 0.028 m.rad (figure 2 refers); and

  2. there is no requirement regarding the angle at which the maximum GZ value shall occur.

2.2 The wind heeling lever for application on the residual stability curve shall be assumed constant at all angles of inclination and shall be calculated as follows:

 

 

Where:

Pd

=

120 (Vw / 26)2      (N/m2)

 

VW=

wind speed corresponding to the worst intended conditions (m/s)

 

A=

projected lateral area of the portion of the ship above the lightest service waterline (m2)

 

Z=

vertical distance from the centre of A to a point one half of the lightest service draught (m)

 

=

displacement (t)

 

2.3 The same values of roll angle shall be used as for the intact stability.

2.4 The downflooding point is important and is regarded as terminating the residual stability curve. The area A2 shall therefore be truncated at the downflooding angle.

2.5 The stability of the craft in the final condition after damage shall be examined and shown to satisfy the criteria, when damaged as stipulated in 2.6 of this Code.

2.6 In the intermediate stages of flooding, the maximum righting lever shall be at least 0.05 m and the range of positive righting lever shall be at least 7°. In all cases, only one breach in the hull and only one free surface need to be assumed.

 

3 - Application of heeling levers

3.1 In applying the heeling levers to the intact and damaged curves, the following shall be considered:

3.1.1 for intact condition:

  1. wind heeling lever (including gusting effect) (HL2); and

  2. wind heeling lever (including gusting effect) plus either the passenger crowding or speed turning levers whichever is the greater (HTL).

3.1.2 for damage condition:

  1. wind heeling lever - steady wind (HL3); and

  2. wind heeling lever plus heeling lever due to passenger crowding (HL4)

3.2 Angles of heel due to steady wind

3.2.1 The angle of heel due to a wind gust when the heeling lever HL2, obtained as in 1.3, is applied to the intact stability curve shall not exceed 10°.

3.2.2 The angle of heel due to a steady wind when the heeling lever HL3, obtained as in 2.2, is applied to the residual stability curve after damage, shall not exceed 15° for passenger craft and 20° for cargo craft.

Figure 1 - Intact stability

 

Figure 2 - Damage stability

 

Abbreviations used in figures 1 and 2

HL2

=

Heeling lever due to wind + gusting

 

HTL=

Heeling lever due to wind + gusting + (passenger crowding or turning)

 

HL3=

Heeling lever due to wind

 

HL4=

Heeling lever due to wind + passenger crowding

 

m=

Angle of maximum GZ

 

d=

Angle of downflooding

 

r=

Angle of roll

 

e=

Angle of equilibrium, assuming no wind, passenger crowding or turning effects

 

h=

Angle of heel due to heeling lever HL2, HTL, HL3 or HL4

 

A1=

> Area required by 1.1

 

A2=

> 0.028 m.rad

Annex 07 Stability of multi-hull craft

Annex 7 - Stability of multi-hull craft

1 - Stability criteria in the intact condition

A multihull craft, in the intact condition, shall have sufficient stability when rolling in a seaway to successfully withstand the effect of either passenger crowding or high-speed turning as described in 1.4. The craft's stability shall be considered to be sufficient provided compliance with this paragraph is achieved.

1.1 Area under the GZ curve

The area (A1) under the GZ curve up to an angle q shall be at least:

A1=0.055 x 30°/      (m.rad)

where q is the least of the following angles:

  1. the downflooding angle;

  2. the angle at which the maximum GZ occurs; and

  3. 30°

 

1.2 Maximum GZ
The maximum GZ value shall occur at an angle of at least 10°.

1.3 Heeling due to wind
The wind heeling lever shall be assumed constant at all angles of inclination and shall be calculated as follows:

Where:

P1=500(Vw / 26)2     (m.rad)

 

Where: 

Vw=

wind speed corresponding to the worst intended conditions (m/s)

 

A=

projected lateral area of the portion of the craft above the lightest service waterline (m2)

 

Z=

vertical distance from the centre of A to a point one half the lightest service draught (m)

 

=

displacement (t)

 

 

1.4 Heeling due to passenger crowding or high-speed turning
Heeling due to the crowding of passengers on one side of the craft or to high-speed turning, whichever is the greater, shall be applied in combination with the heeling lever due to wind (HL2).

1.4.1 Heeling due to passenger crowding
When calculating the magnitude of the heel due to passenger crowding, a passenger crowding lever shall be developed using the assumptions stipulated in 2.10 of this Code.

1.4.2 Heeling due to high-speed turning
When calculating the magnitude of the heel due to the effects of high-speed turning, a high-speed turning lever shall be developed using either the following formula or an equivalent method specifically developed for the type of craft under consideration, or trials or model test data:

Where:

TL

=

turning lever (m)

 

Vo=

speed of craft in the turn (m/s)

 

R=

turning radius (m)

 

KG=

height of vertical centre of gravity above keel (m)

 

d=

mean draught (m)

 

g=

acceleration due to gravity

 

Alternatively, another method of assessment may be employed, as provided for in 2.1.4 of this Code.

1.5 Rolling in waves (figure 1)
The effect of rolling in a seaway upon the craft's stability shall be demonstrated mathematically. In doing so, the residual area under the GZ curve (A2), i.e. beyond the angle of heel (qh), shall be at least equal to 0.028 m.rad up to the angle of roll qr. In the absence of model test or other data qr shall be taken as 15° or an angle of (qd - qh), whichever is less.
The determination of r using model test or other data shall be made using the method for determining Z in 1.1.5.3 of annex 6.

 

2 - Criteria for residual stability after damage

2.1 The method of application of criteria to the residual stability curve is similar to that for intact
stability except that the craft in the final condition after damage shall be considered to have an
adequate standard of residual stability provided:

  1. the required area A2 shall be not less than 0.028 m.rad (figure 2 refers); and

  2. there is no requirement regarding the angle at which the maximum GZ value shall occur.

2.2 The wind heeling lever for application on the residual stability curve shall be assumed constant at all angles of inclination and shall be calculated as follows:

 

 

Where:

Pd

=

120 (Vw / 26)2      (N/m2)

 

VW=

wind speed corresponding to the worst intended conditions (m/s)

 

A=

projected lateral area of the portion of the ship above the lightest service waterline (m2)

 

Z=

vertical distance from the centre of A to a point one half of the lightest service draught (m)

 

=

displacement (t)

 

2.3 The same values of roll angle shall be used as for the intact stability as determined in 1.5 of this annex.

2.4 The downflooding point is important and is regarded as terminating the residual stability curve. The area A2 shall therefore be truncated at the downflooding angle.

2.5 The stability of the craft in the final condition after damage shall be examined and shown to satisfy the criteria, when damaged as stipulated in 2.6 of this Code.

2.6 In the intermediate stages of flooding, the maximum righting lever shall be at least 0.05 m and the range of positive righting lever shall be at least 7°. In all cases, only one breach in the hull and only one free surface need to be assumed.

 

3 - Application of heeling levers

3.1 In applying the heeling levers to the intact and damaged curves, the following shall be considered:

3.1.1 for intact condition:

  1. wind heeling lever (including gusting effect) (HL2); and

  2. wind heeling lever (including gusting effect) plus either the passenger crowding or speed turning levers whichever is the greater (HTL).

3.1.2 for damage condition:

  1. wind heeling lever - steady wind (HL3); and

  2. wind heeling lever plus heeling lever due to passenger crowding (HL4)

3.2 Angles of heel due to steady wind

3.2.1 The angle of heel due to a wind gust when the heeling lever HL2, obtained as in 1.3, is applied to the intact stability curve shall not exceed 10°.

3.2.2 The angle of heel due to a steady wind when the heeling lever HL3, obtained as in 2.2, is applied to the residual stability curve after damage, shall not exceed 15° for passenger craft and 20° for cargo craft.

Figure 1 - Intact stability

 

Figure 2 - Damage stability

 

Abbreviations used in figures 1 and 2

HL2

=

Heeling lever due to wind + gusting

 

HTL=

Heeling lever due to wind + gusting + (passenger crowding or turning)

 

HL3=

Heeling lever due to wind

 

HL4=

Heeling lever due to wind + passenger crowding

 

m=

Angle of maximum GZ

 

d=

Angle of downflooding

 

r=

Angle of roll

 

e=

Angle of equilibrium, assuming no wind, passenger crowding or turning effects

 

h=

Angle of heel due to heeling lever HL2, HTL, HL3 or HL4

 

A1=

> Area required by 1.1

 

A2=

> 0.028 m.rad

Annex 08 Stability of monohull craft

Annex 8 - Stability of monohull craft

1 - Stability criteria in the intact condition

1.1 The weather criterion contained in paragraph 3.2 of the Intact Stability Code1 shall apply. In applying the weather criterion the value of wind pressure P (N/m²) shall be taken as (500{VW / 26}2), where VW = wind speed (m/s) corresponding to the worst intended conditions. In applying the weather criterion account shall also be taken of the roll damping characteristics of individual craft in assessing the assumed roll angle 1, which may alternatively be derived from model or full-scale tests. Hulls with features which greatly increase damping, such as immersed sidehulls, substantial arrays of foils, or flexible skirts or seals, are likely to experience significantly smaller magnitudes of roll angle. For such craft, therefore, the roll angle shall be derived from model or full-scale tests or in the absence of such data shall be taken as 15°.

1.2 The area under the righting lever curve (GZ curve) shall not be less than 0.07 m.rad up to = 15° when the maximum righting lever (GZ) occurs at  = 15° , and 0.055 m.rad up to  = 30° when the maximum righting lever occurs at = 30° or above. Where the maximum righting lever occurs at angles of between = 15° and = 30°, the corresponding area under the righting lever curve shall be:

A = 0.055 + 0.001 (30° - max ) (m.rad)

where:

max is the angle of heel, in degrees, at which the righting lever curve reaches its maximum.

1.3 The area under the righting lever curve between = 30° and = 40° or between = 30° and the angle of flooding F2 if this angle is less than 40°, shall not be less than 0.03 m.rad.

1.4 The righting lever GZ shall be at least 0.2 m at an angle of heel equal to or greater than 30°.

1.5 The maximum righting lever shall occur at an angle of heel not less than 15°.

1.6 The initial metacentric height GMT shall not be less than 0.15 m.

 

2 - Criteria for residual stability after damage

2.1 The stability required in the final condition after damage, and after equalization where provided, shall be determined as specified in 2.1.1 to 2.1.4.

2.1.1 The positive residual righting lever curve shall have a minimum range of 15° beyond the angle of equilibrium. This range may be reduced to a minimum of 10°, in the case where the area under the righting lever curve is that specified in 2.1.2, increased by the ratio:

where the range is expressed in degrees.


2.1.2 The area under the righting lever curve shall be at least 0.015 m.rad, measured from the angle of equilibrium to the lesser of:

  1. the angle at which progressive flooding occurs; and

  2. 27° measured from the upright.

2.1.3 A residual righting lever shall be obtained within the range of positive stability, taking into account the greatest of the following heeling moments:

  1. the crowding of all passengers towards one side;

  2. the launching of all fully loaded davit-launched survival craft on one side; and

  3. due to wind pressure,

as calculated by the formula:

However, in no case, this righting lever shall be less than 0.1 m.

2.1.4 For the purpose of calculating the heeling moments referred to in 2.1.3, the following assumptions shall be made:

  1. Moments due to crowding of passengers. This should be calculated in accordance with paragraph 2.10 of the Code.

  2. Moments due to launching of all fully loaded davit-launched survival craft on one side:

    .2.1 all lifeboats and rescue boats fitted on the side to which the ship has heeled after having sustained damage shall be assumed to be swung out fully loaded and ready for lowering;


    .2.2 for lifeboats which are arranged to be launched fully loaded from the stowed position, the maximum heeling moment during launching shall be taken;


    .2.3 a fully loaded davit-launched liferaft attached to each davit on the side to which the ship has heeled after having sustained damage shall be assumed to be swung out ready for lowering;


    .2.4 persons not in the life-saving appliances which are swung out shall not provide either additional heeling or righting moment; and


    .2.5 life-saving appliances on the side of the ship opposite to the side to which the ship has heeled shall be assumed to be in a stowed position.

  3. Moments due to wind pressure:


    .3.1 the wind pressure shall be taken as (120 {VW/ 26}2) (N/m2), where VW = wind speed (m/s), corresponding to the worst intended condition;


    .3.2 the area applicable shall be the projected lateral area of the ship above the waterline corresponding to the intact condition; and


    .3.3 the moment arm shall be the vertical distance from a point at one half of the mean draught corresponding to the intact condition to the centre of gravity of the lateral area.

2.2 In intermediate stages of flooding, the maximum righting lever shall be at least 0.05m and the range of positive righting levers shall be at least 7°. In all cases, only one breach in the hull and only one free surface need be assumed.


1Refer to the Code on Intact stability for all types of ships covered by IMO instruments, adopted by the Organization by resolution A.749(18), as amended by resolution MSC.75(69).
2In applying this criterion, small openings through which progressive flooding cannot take place need not be considered as open.

Annex 08 Stability of monohull craft

Annex 8 - Stability of monohull craft

1 - Stability criteria in the intact condition

1.1 The weather criterion contained in paragraph 3.2 of the Intact Stability Code* shall apply. In applying the weather criterion, the value of wind pressure P (N/m2) shall be taken as:

500{Vw /26}2

where Vw = wind speed (m/s) corresponding to the worst intended conditions.

The angle of heel due to wind, in applying paragraph 3.2.2.1.2 of the Intact Stability Code, shall not exceed 16° or 80% of the angle of deck-edge immersion (whichever is less). Where the angle of heel due to wind exceeds 10°, efficient non-slip deck surfaces and suitable holding points shall be provided, in accordance with paragraph 2.13.1.1 of this Code. In applying the weather criterion, account shall also be taken of the roll damping characteristics of individual craft in assessing the assumed roll angle 1, which may alternatively be derived from model or full scale tests using the method for determining z in 1.1.5.3 of annex 6. Hulls with features which greatly increase damping, such as immersed sidehulls, substantial arrays of foils, or flexible skirts or seals, are likely to experience significantly smaller magnitudes of roll angle. For such craft, therefore, the roll angle shall be derived from model or full scale tests or, in the absence of such data, shall be taken as 15°.

1.2 The area under the righting lever curve (GZ curve) shall not be less than 0.07 m.rad up to = 15° when the maximum righting lever (GZ) occurs at  = 15° , and 0.055 m.rad up to  = 30° when the maximum righting lever occurs at = 30° or above. Where the maximum righting lever occurs at angles of between = 15° and = 30°, the corresponding area under the righting lever curve shall be:

A = 0.055 + 0.001 (30° - max ) (m.rad)

where:

max is the angle of heel, in degrees, at which the righting lever curve reaches its maximum.

1.3 The area under the righting lever curve between = 30° and = 40° or between = 30° and the angle of flooding F2 if this angle is less than 40°, shall not be less than 0.03 m.rad.

1.4 The righting lever GZ shall be at least 0.2 m at an angle of heel equal to or greater than 30°.

1.5 The maximum righting lever shall occur at an angle of heel not less than 15°.

1.6 The initial metacentric height GMT shall not be less than 0.15 m.

 

2 - Criteria for residual stability after damage

2.1 The stability required in the final condition after damage, and after equalization where provided, shall be determined as specified in 2.1.1 to 2.1.4.

2.1.1 The positive residual righting lever curve shall have a minimum range of 15° beyond the angle of equilibrium. This range may be reduced to a minimum of 10°, in the case where the area under the righting lever curve is that specified in 2.1.2, increased by the ratio:

where the range is expressed in degrees.

The range shall be taken as the difference between the equilibrium heel angle and the heel angle at which the residual righting lever subsequently becomes negative or the angle at which progressive flooding occurs, whichever is less.

2.1.2 The area under the righting lever curve shall be at least 0.015 m.rad, measured from the angle of equilibrium to the lesser of:

  1. the angle at which progressive flooding occurs; and

  2. 27° measured from the upright.

2.1.3 A residual righting lever shall be obtained within the range of positive stability, taking into account the greatest of the following heeling moments:

  1. the crowding of all passengers towards one side;

  2. the launching of all fully loaded davit-launched survival craft on one side; and

  3. due to wind pressure,

as calculated by the formula:

However, in no case, this righting lever shall be less than 0.1 m.

2.1.4 For the purpose of calculating the heeling moments referred to in 2.1.3, the following assumptions shall be made:

  1. Moments due to crowding of passengers. This should be calculated in accordance with paragraph 2.10 of the Code.

  2. Moments due to launching of all fully loaded davit-launched survival craft on one side:

    .2.1 all lifeboats and rescue boats fitted on the side to which the ship has heeled after having sustained damage shall be assumed to be swung out fully loaded and ready for lowering;


    .2.2 for lifeboats which are arranged to be launched fully loaded from the stowed position, the maximum heeling moment during launching shall be taken;


    .2.3 a fully loaded davit-launched liferaft attached to each davit on the side to which the ship has heeled after having sustained damage shall be assumed to be swung out ready for lowering;


    .2.4 persons not in the life-saving appliances which are swung out shall not provide either additional heeling or righting moment; and


    .2.5 life-saving appliances on the side of the ship opposite to the side to which the ship has heeled shall be assumed to be in a stowed position.

  3. Moments due to wind pressure:


    .3.1 the wind pressure shall be taken as (120 {VW/ 26}2) (N/m2), where VW = wind speed (m/s), corresponding to the worst intended condition;


    .3.2 the area applicable shall be the projected lateral area of the ship above the waterline corresponding to the intact condition; and


    .3.3 the moment arm shall be the vertical distance from a point at one half of the mean draught corresponding to the intact condition to the centre of gravity of the lateral area.

2.2 In intermediate stages of flooding, the maximum righting lever shall be at least 0.05m and the range of positive righting levers shall be at least 7°. In all cases, only one breach in the hull and only one free surface need be assumed.


1Refer to the Code on Intact stability for all types of ships covered by IMO instruments, adopted by the Organization by resolution A.749(18), as amended by resolution MSC.75(69). 2In applying this criterion, small openings through which progressive flooding cannot take place need not be considered as open.

Annex 09 Definitions, requirements and compliance criteria related to operational and safety performance

Annex 9 -Definitions, requirements and compliance criteria related to operational and safety performance

This annex applies to all types of craft. Tests to evaluate operational safety shall be conducted on the prototype craft of a new design or of a design incorporating new features which may modify the results of a previous testing. The tests shall be carried out to a schedule agreed between the Administration and the manufacturer. Where conditions of service warrant additional testing (e.g., low temperature), the Administration or base port State authorities as appropriate may require further demonstrations. Functional descriptions, technical and system specifications relevant to the understanding and evaluation of craft performance shall be available.

The objective of these tests is to provide essential information and guidance to enable the craft to be operated safely under normal and emergency conditions within the design speed and environmental envelope.
The following procedures are outlined as requirements in dealing with verification of craft performance.

1 - Performance

1.1 General

1.1.1 The craft shall meet the applicable operational requirements in chapter 17 of this Code and this annex for all extremes of passenger and load configurations for which certification is required. The limiting sea state related to the different modes of operation shall be verified by tests and analyses of a craft of the type for which certification is requested.

1.1.2 Operational control of the craft shall be in accordance with procedures established by the applicant for operation in service. Procedures to be established shall be start procedure, cruise procedures, normal and emergency stop and manoeuvre procedures.

1.1.3 The procedures established under 1.1.2 shall:

  1. demonstrate that normal manoeuvres and craft responses to failures are consistent in performance;

  2. use methods or devices that are safe and reliable; and

  3. include allowance for any time lag in the execution of procedures that may reasonably be expected in service.

1.1.4 Procedures required by this annex shall be conducted over water of sufficient depth such that craft performance will not be affected.

1.1.5 Tests shall be conducted at minimum practicable weight and additional testing shall be conducted at maximum weight sufficient to establish the need for additional restrictions and for testing to examine the effect of weight.

 

2 - Stopping

2.1 This test is to establish the acceleration experienced when stopping the craft in calm water with no passenger load or cargo load during the following conditions:

  1. normal stop for maximum operational speed;

  2. emergency stop for maximum operational speed; and

  3. crash stop from maximum operational speed and from any transitional mode speed.

2.2 The tests referred to in 2.1.1 and 2.1.2 shall document that the accelerations do not exceed safety level 1 in annex 3 when control levers are used in accordance to written procedures as given in the craft operating manual or in an automatic mode. Should safety level 1 be exceeded during normal stop, control systems shall be modified in order to avoid exceedance or passengers shall be required to be seated during normal stop. Should safety level 1 be exceeded during emergency stop, then written procedures in the craft operating manual shall include detailed information of how to avoid exceedance or the control system shall be modified to avoid exceedance.

2.3 The test referred to in 2.1.3 shall document that the accelerations do not exceed safety level 2 in annex 3 when control levers of automatic modes are used in a manner which will give the highest accelerations. If safety level 2 is exceeded then the craft operating manual shall include a warning that it is a risk to passengers being injured, if a crash stop is performed.

2.4 Other tests shall be repeated during craft turning to establish the need or otherwise to impose any speed-related restrictions during manoeuvres.

 

3 - Cruise performance

3.1 This test is to establish the craft performance and accelerations experienced during cruise modes with no passenger load or cargo load during the following conditions:

  1. normal operation conditions are those in which the craft will safely cruise at any heading while manually operated, auto-pilot assisted operated or operated with any automatic control system in normal mode; and

  2. worst intended conditions, referred to in 1.4.57 of this Code, are those in which it shall be possible to maintain safe cruise without exceptional piloting skill. However, operations at all headings relative to the wind and sea may not be possible. For type of craft having a higher performance standard in non-displacement mode, the performance and accelerations shall also be established at displacement mode during operation in the worst intended condition.

3.2 Operation levels, as defined in 3.1, shall be established and documented by full-scale tests in at least two relevant sea conditions and in head, beam and following seas. It shall be shown that the period of every test (run) and the number of series are sufficient for achieving reliable measurements. In every sea state tested, the aggregate time in each direction shall not be less than 15 min. Model tests and mathematical simulations could be used to verify the performance in the worst intended conditions.

Limits for normal operation condition shall be documented by measurements of craft speed, heading to the wave and interpolation of measurements of maximum horizontal accelerations in accordance with 2.4 of annex 3. Measurement of wave height and period shall be made to the maximum extent practicable.

Limits for worst intended condition shall be documented by measurements of craft speed, wave height and period, heading to the wave and by root mean square (RMS) values of horizontal accelerations in accordance with 2.4 of annex 3 and of vertical accelerations close to the craft longitudinal centre of gravity. RMS values could be used for extrapolation of peak values. To obtain the expected peak values related to structural design load and safety levels (one per 5-min exceedance), multiply the RMS values by 3.0 or


where:
N is the number of successive amplitudes within the relevant period.

If not otherwise verified by model tests or by mathematical calculations, it might be assumed a linear relation between wave height and accelerations based on measurements in the two sea conditions. Limits for worst intended condition shall be documented both related to passenger safety in accordance with 2.4 of annex 3 and related to the actual structural design load of the craft.

3.3 The tests and verification process shall document the limiting seas for safe operation of the craft:

  1. in normal operation at maximum operational speed the accelerations shall not exceed safety level 1 in annex 3 with an average of one per 5-min period. The craft operating manual shall include detailed description of the effects of speed reduction or change of heading to the waves in order to prevent exceedance;

  2. in the worst intended conditions, with reduced speed as necessary, the accelerations shall not exceed safety level 2 in annex 3 with an average of one per 5-min period, nor shall any other craft characteristic motion as pitch, roll and yaw exceed levels that could impede the safety of passengers. In worst intended conditions, with reduced speed as necessary, craft shall be safely manoeuvrable and provide adequate stability in order that the craft can continue safe operation to the nearest place of refuge, provided caution is exercised in handling. Passengers shall be required to be seated when safety level 1 in annex 3 is exceeded; and

  3. within the actual structural design load for the craft, with reduced speed and change of heading, as necessary.

3.4 Turning and manoeuvrability
The craft shall be safely controllable and manoeuvrable during:

  1. hull-borne operation;

  2. operation in non-displacement mode;

  3. take-off, landing;

  4. any intermediate or transition modes, as applicable; and

  5. berthing operations, as applicable.

4 - Effects of failures or malfunction

4.1General
The limits of safe operation, special handling procedures and any operational restrictions shall be examined and developed as a result of full-scale trials conducted by simulating possible equipment failures. The failures to be examined shall be those leading to major or more severe effects as determined from evaluation of FMEA or similar analysis. Failures to be examined shall be agreed between the craft manufacturer and the Administration and each single failure shall be examined in a progressive manner.

4.2Objects of tests
Examination of each failure shall result in:

  1. determining safe limits of craft operation at the time of failure, beyond which the failure will result in degradation beyond safety level 2;

  2. determining crew member's actions, if any, to minimize or counter the effect of the failure; and

  3. determining craft or machinery restrictions to be observed to enable the craft to proceed to a place of refuge with the failure present.

4.3Failures to he examined
Equipment failures shall include, but not be limited to, the following:

  1. total loss of propulsion power;

  2. total loss of lift power (for ACV and SES);

  3. total failure of control of one propulsion system;

  4. involuntary application of full propulsion thrust (positive or negative) on one system;

  5. failure of control of one directional control system;

  6. involuntary full deflection of one directional control system;

  7. failure of control of trim control system;

  8. involuntary full deflection of one trim control system element; and

  9. total loss of electrical power.

Failures shall be fully representative of service conditions and shall be simulated as accurately as possible in the most critical craft manoeuvre where the failure will have maximum impact.

4.4"Dead ship"test
In order to establish craft motions and direction of laying to wind and waves, for the purposes of determining the conditions of a craft evacuation, the craft shall be stopped and all main machinery shut down for sufficient time that the craft's heading relative to wind and waves has stabilized. This test shall be carried out on an opportunity basis to establish patterns of the design's "dead ship" behaviour under a variety of wind and sea states.

Annex 09 Definitions, requirements and compliance criteria related to operational and safety performance

Annex 9 -Definitions, requirements and compliance criteria related to operational and safety performance

This annex applies to all types of craft. Tests to evaluate operational safety shall be conducted on the first craft of a new design or of a design incorporating new features which may modify the results of a previous testing. The tests shall be carried out to a schedule agreed between the Administration and the manufacturer. Where conditions of service warrant additional testing (e.g., low temperature), the Administration or base port State authorities as appropriate may require further demonstrations. Functional descriptions, technical and system specifications relevant to the understanding and evaluation of craft performance shall be available.

The objective of these tests is to provide essential information and guidance to enable the craft to be operated safely under normal and emergency conditions within the design speed and environmental envelope.
The following procedures are outlined as requirements in dealing with verification of craft performance.

1 - Performance

1.1 General

1.1.1 The craft shall meet the applicable operational requirements in chapter 17 of this Code and this annex for all extremes of passenger and load configurations for which certification is required. The limiting sea state related to the different modes of operation shall be verified by tests and analyses of a craft of the type for which certification is requested.

1.1.2 Operational control of the craft shall be in accordance with procedures established by the applicant for operation in service. Procedures to be established shall be start procedure, cruise procedures, normal and emergency stop and manoeuvre procedures.

1.1.3 The procedures established under 1.1.2 shall:

  1. demonstrate that normal manoeuvres and craft responses to failures are consistent in performance;

  2. use methods or devices that are safe and reliable; and

  3. include allowance for any time lag in the execution of procedures that may reasonably be expected in service.

1.1.4 Procedures required by this annex shall be conducted over water of sufficient depth such that craft performance will not be affected.

1.1.5 Tests shall be conducted at minimum practicable weight and additional testing shall be conducted at maximum weight sufficient to establish the need for additional restrictions and for testing to examine the effect of weight.

 

2 - Stopping

2.1 This test is to establish the acceleration experienced when stopping the craft in calm water with no passenger load or cargo load during the following conditions:

  1. normal stop for 90% of maximum speed;

  2. emergency stop for 90% of maximum speed; and

  3. crash stop from 90% of maximum speed and from any transitional mode speed.

2.2 The tests referred to in 2.1.1 and 2.1.2 shall document that the accelerations do not exceed safety level 1 in annex 3 when control levers are used in accordance to written procedures as given in the craft operating manual or in an automatic mode. Should safety level 1 be exceeded during normal stop, control systems shall be modified in order to avoid exceedance or passengers shall be required to be seated during normal stop. Should safety level 1 be exceeded during emergency stop, then written procedures in the craft operating manual shall include detailed information of how to avoid exceedance or the control system shall be modified to avoid exceedance.

2.3 The test referred to in 2.1.3 shall document that the accelerations do not exceed safety level 2 in annex 3 when control levers of automatic modes are used in a manner which will give the highest accelerations. If safety level 2 is exceeded then the craft operating manual shall include a warning that it is a risk to passengers being injured, if a crash stop is performed.

2.4 Other tests shall be repeated during craft turning to establish the need or otherwise to impose any speed-related restrictions during manoeuvres.

 

3 - Cruise performance

3.1 This test is to establish the craft performance and accelerations experienced during cruise modes with no passenger load or cargo load during the following conditions:

  1. normal operation conditions are those in which the craft will safely cruise at any heading while manually operated, auto-pilot assisted operated or operated with any automatic control system in normal mode; and

  2. worst intended conditions, referred to in 1.4.57 of this Code, are those in which it shall be possible to maintain safe cruise without exceptional piloting skill. However, operations at all headings relative to the wind and sea may not be possible. For type of craft having a higher performance standard in non-displacement mode, the performance and accelerations shall also be established at displacement mode during operation in the worst intended condition.

3.2 Operation levels, as defined in 3.1, shall be established and documented by full-scale tests in at least two relevant sea conditions and in head, beam and following seas. It shall be shown that the period of every test (run) and the number of series are sufficient for achieving reliable measurements. In every sea state tested, the aggregate time in each direction shall not be less than 15 min. Model tests and mathematical simulations could be used to verify the performance in the worst intended conditions.

Limits for normal operation condition shall be documented by measurements of craft speed, heading to the wave and interpolation of measurements of maximum horizontal accelerations in accordance with 2.4 of annex 3. Measurement of wave height and period shall be made to the maximum extent practicable.

Limits for worst intended condition shall be documented by measurements of craft speed, wave height and period, heading to the wave and by root mean square (RMS) values of horizontal accelerations in accordance with 2.4 of annex 3 and of vertical accelerations close to the craft longitudinal centre of gravity. RMS values could be used for extrapolation of peak values. To obtain the expected peak values related to structural design load and safety levels (one per 5-min exceedance), multiply the RMS values by 3.0 or


where:
N is the number of successive amplitudes within the relevant period.

If not otherwise verified by model tests or by mathematical calculations, it might be assumed a linear relation between wave height and accelerations based on measurements in the two sea conditions. The worst intended conditions shall not exceed 150% of the more severe of the two measured sea conditions. Limits for worst intended condition shall be documented both related to passenger safety in accordance with 2.4 of annex 3 and related to the actual structural design load of the craft.

3.3 The tests and verification process shall document the limiting seas for safe operation of the craft:

  1. in normal operation at 90% of maximum speed the accelerations shall not exceed safety level 1 in annex 3 with an average of one per 5-min period. The craft operating manual shall include detailed description of the effects of speed reduction or change of heading to the waves in order to prevent exceedance;

  2. in the worst intended conditions, with reduced speed as necessary, the accelerations shall not exceed safety level 2 in annex 3 with an average of one per 5-min period, nor shall any other craft characteristic motion as pitch, roll and yaw exceed levels that could impede the safety of passengers. In worst intended conditions, with reduced speed as necessary, craft shall be safely manoeuvrable and provide adequate stability in order that the craft can continue safe operation to the nearest place of refuge, provided caution is exercised in handling. Passengers shall be required to be seated when safety level 1 in annex 3 is exceeded; and

  3. within the actual structural design load for the craft, with reduced speed and change of heading, as necessary.

3.4 Turning and manoeuvrability
The craft shall be safely controllable and manoeuvrable during:

  1. hull-borne operation;

  2. operation in non-displacement mode;

  3. take-off, landing;

  4. any intermediate or transition modes, as applicable; and

  5. berthing operations, as applicable.

4 - Effects of failures or malfunction

4.1General
The limits of safe operation, special handling procedures and any operational restrictions shall be examined and developed as a result of full-scale trials conducted by simulating possible equipment failures. The failures to be examined shall be those leading to major or more severe effects as determined from evaluation of FMEA or similar analysis. Failures to be examined shall be agreed between the craft manufacturer and the Administration and each single failure shall be examined in a progressive manner.

4.2Objects of tests
Examination of each failure shall result in:

  1. determining safe limits of craft operation at the time of failure, beyond which the failure will result in degradation beyond safety level 2;

  2. determining crew member's actions, if any, to minimize or counter the effect of the failure; and

  3. determining craft or machinery restrictions to be observed to enable the craft to proceed to a place of refuge with the failure present.

4.3Failures to he examined
Equipment failures shall include, but not be limited to, the following:

  1. total loss of propulsion power;

  2. total loss of lift power (for ACV and SES);

  3. total failure of control of one propulsion system;

  4. involuntary application of full propulsion thrust (positive or negative) on one system;

  5. failure of control of one directional control system;

  6. involuntary full deflection of one directional control system;

  7. failure of control of trim control system;

  8. involuntary full deflection of one trim control system element; and

  9. total loss of electrical power.

Failures shall be fully representative of service conditions and shall be simulated as accurately as possible in the most critical craft manoeuvre where the failure will have maximum impact.

4.4"Dead ship"test
In order to establish craft motions and direction of laying to wind and waves, for the purposes of determining the conditions of a craft evacuation, the craft shall be stopped and all main machinery shut down for sufficient time that the craft's heading relative to wind and waves has stabilized. This test shall be carried out on an opportunity basis to establish patterns of the design's "dead ship" behaviour under a variety of wind and sea states.

Annex 10 Criteria for testing and evaluation of revenue and crew seats

Annex 10 - Criteria for testing and evaluation of revenue and crew seats

1 - Purpose and scope
The purpose of these criteria is to provide requirements for revenue and crew seats, seat anchorage and seat accessories and their installation to minimize occupant injury and/or disruption of egress/ingress if the craft suffers a collision.

2 - Static seat tests

2.1 The requirements of this section are applicable to all crew and revenue seats .

2.2 All seats to which this paragraph applies, along with their supports and deck attachments, shall be designed to withstand at least the following static forces applied in the direction of the craft:

  1. Forward direction: a force of 2.25 kN,

  2. After direction: a force of 1.5 kN,

  3. Transverse direction: a force of 1.5 kN,

  4. Vertically downward: a force of 2.25 kN, and

  5. Vertically upward: a force of 1.5 kN.

A seat shall comprise a frame, bottom and back. Forces applied in the fore or aft direction of the seat shall be applied horizontally to the seat back 350 mm above the seat bottom. Forces applied in the transverse seat direction shall be applied horizontally to the seat bottom. Vertical upward forces shall be evenly distributed to the corners of the seat bottom frame. Vertical downward forces shall be uniformly distributed over the seat bottom. If a seating unit consists of more than one seating position, these forces shall be applied at each seating position concurrently during the tests.

2.3 When the forces are applied to a seat, consideration shall be given to the direction in which the seat is to face in the craft. For example, if the seat faces sideways, the transverse craft force would be applied fore and aft on the seat and the forward craft force would be applied transversely on the seat.

2.4 Each seating unit to be tested shall be attached to the support structure similar to the manner in which it will be attached to the deck structure in the craft. Although a rigid support structure can be used for these tests, a support structure, having the same strength and stiffness as the support structure in the craft, is preferred.

2.5 The forces described in 2.2.1 to 2.2.3 shall be applied to the seat through a cylindrical surface having a radius of 80 mm and a width at least equal to the width of the seat. The surface shall be equipped with at least one force transducer able to measure the forces applied.

2.6 The seat shall be considered acceptable if:

  1. under the influence of the forces referred to in 2.2.1 to 2.2.3, the permanent displacement measured at the point of application of the force is not more than 400 mm;

  2. no part of the seat, the seat mountings or the accessories become completely detached during the tests;

  3. the seat remains firmly held, even if one or more of the anchorages is partly detached;

  4. all of the locking systems remain locked during the entire test but the adjustment and locking systems need not be operational after the tests; and

  5. rigid parts of the seat with which the occupant may come into contact shall present a curved surface with a radius of at least 5 mm.

2.7 The requirements of section 3 may be used in lieu of the requirements of this section provided that the accelerations used for the tests are at least 3g.

3- Dynamic seat tests

3.1 The requirements of this section are applicable in addition to those in 2.1 for crew and revenue seats in craft having a design collision load of 3g or greater.

3.2 All seats for which this section applies, the seat supporting structure, the attachment to the deck structure, the lap belt, if installed, and shoulder harness, if installed, shall be designed to withstand the maximum acceleration force that can be imposed upon them during a design collision. Consideration shall be given to the orientation of the seat relative to the acceleration force (i.e. whether the seat is forward-, aft-, or side-facing).

3.3 The acceleration pulse to which the seat is subjected shall be representative of the collision time-history of the craft. If the collision time-history is not known, or cannot be simulated, the acceleration time-history envelope shown in the figure can be used.

3.4 In the test frame, each seat unit and its accessories (e.g., lap belts and shoulder harnesses) shall be attached to the support structure similar to the manner in which it will be attached in the craft. The support structure can be a rigid surface; however, a support structure having the same strength and stiffness as the support structure in the craft is preferred. Other seats and/or table s with which an occupant may come in contact during a collision shall be included in the test frame in an orientation and with a method of attachment typical of that in the craft.

Figure Acceleration time-history envelope 

 

3.5 During the dynamic seat test, a fiftieth percentile anthropomorphic test dummy, suitable for the test being conducted, shall be placed in the seat in an upright seating position. If a typical seating unit is composed of more than one occupant seat, a test dummy shall be placed in each occupant seat in the unit. The dummy, or dummies, shall be secured in the seat unit in accordance with procedures of recognized national standards1 and be secured using only the lap belt and shoulder harness if they are installed. Tray tables and other such devices shall be placed in the position that would cause the greatest potential for an occupant to become injured.

3.6 The test dummy shall be instrumented and calibrated, in accordance with the requirements of a recognized national standard, so as to permit, as a minimum, calculation of the head injury criterion, calculation of the thoracic trauma index, measurement of force in the femur, and measurement, if possible, of extension and flexion of the neck.

3.7 If more than one dummy is used in the tests, the dummy located in the seat having the highest potential for an occupant to be injured shall be the one instrumented. The other dummy or dummies need not be instrumented.

3.8 The tests shall be conducted and the instrumentation shall be sampled at a rate sufficient to reliably show response of the dummy in accordance with the requirements of a recognized national standard2.

3.9 The seat unit tested in accordance with the requirements of this section shall be considered acceptable if:

  1. the seat unit and tables installed in the seat unit or area do not become dislodged from the supporting deck structure and do not deform in a manner that would cause the occupant to become trapped or injured;

  2. the lap belt, if installed, remains attached and on the test dummy's pelvis during the impact. The shoulder harness, if installed, remains attached and in the immediate vicinity of the test dummy's shoulder during the impact. After the impact, the release mechanisms of any installed lap belt and shoulder harness shall be operative;

  3. the following acceptability criteria are met:


    .3.1 the head injury criterion (HIC), calculated in accordance with the formula, does not exceed 500


    where:

    tl and t2 are the beginning and ending times (in seconds) of the interval in which the HIC is a maximum. The term a(t) is the resultant measured acceleration in the head of the dummy in g;

    .3.2 the thoracic trauma index (TTI), calculated in accordance with the formula, does not exceed 30g except for periods totalling less than 3 ms

    or acceleration at the centre of gravity
    where:

    gR is the acceleration in g of either the upper or lower rib;
    gLS is the acceleration in g of the lower spine; and


    .3.3 the force in the femur does not exceed 10 kN except that it cannot exceed 8 kN for periods totalling more than 20 ms; and

  4. loads on the upper torso harness straps do not exceed 7.8 kN or a total of 8.9 kN if dual straps are used.

 


1Refer to ECE 80 with addendum 79. Other national standards may be acceptable.
2Refer to the specifications of International Standard ISO 6487 - Technique of measurement in impact tests(1987) or SAE J211 - Instrumentation.

Annex 10 Criteria for testing and evaluation of revenue and crew seats

Annex 10 - Criteria for testing and evaluation of revenue and crew seats

1 - Purpose and scope
The purpose of these criteria is to provide requirements for revenue and crew seats, seat anchorage and seat accessories and their installation to minimize occupant injury and/or disruption of egress/ingress if the craft suffers a collision.

2 - Static seat tests

2.1 The requirements of this section are applicable to all crew and revenue seats .

2.2 All seats to which this paragraph applies, along with their supports and deck attachments, shall be designed to withstand at least the following static forces applied in the direction of the craft:

  1. Forward direction: a force of 2.25 kN,

  2. After direction: a force of 1.5 kN,

  3. Transverse direction: a force of 1.5 kN,

  4. Vertically downward: a force of 2.25 kN, and

  5. Vertically upward: a force of 1.5 kN.

A seat shall comprise a frame, bottom and back. Forces applied in the fore or aft direction of the seat shall be applied horizontally to the seat back 350 mm above the seat bottom. Forces applied in the transverse seat direction shall be applied horizontally to the seat bottom. Vertical upward forces shall be evenly distributed to the corners of the seat bottom frame. Vertical downward forces shall be uniformly distributed over the seat bottom. If a seating unit consists of more than one seating position, these forces shall be applied at each seating position concurrently during the tests.

2.3 When the forces are applied to a seat, consideration shall be given to the direction in which the seat is to face in the craft. For example, if the seat faces sideways, the transverse craft force would be applied fore and aft on the seat and the forward craft force would be applied transversely on the seat.

2.4 Each seating unit to be tested shall be attached to the support structure similar to the manner in which it will be attached to the deck structure in the craft. Although a rigid support structure can be used for these tests, a support structure, having the same strength and stiffness as the support structure in the craft, is preferred.

2.5 The forces described in 2.2.1 to 2.2.3 shall be applied to the seat through a cylindrical surface having a radius of 80 mm and a width at least equal to the width of the seat. The surface shall be equipped with at least one force transducer able to measure the forces applied.

2.6 The seat shall be considered acceptable if:

  1. under the influence of the forces referred to in 2.2.1 to 2.2.3, the permanent displacement measured at the point of application of the force is not more than 400 mm;

  2. no part of the seat, the seat mountings or the accessories become completely detached during the tests;

  3. the seat remains firmly held, even if one or more of the anchorages is partly detached;

  4. all of the locking systems remain locked during the entire test but the adjustment and locking systems need not be operational after the tests; and

  5. rigid parts of the seat with which the occupant may come into contact shall present a curved surface with a radius of at least 5 mm.

2.7 The requirements of section 3 may be used in lieu of the requirements of this section provided that the accelerations used for the tests are at least 3g.

3- Dynamic seat tests

3.1 The requirements of this section are applicable in addition to those in 2.1 for crew and revenue seats in craft having a design collision load of 3g or greater.

3.2 All seats for which this section applies, the seat supporting structure, the attachment to the deck structure, the lap belt, if installed, and shoulder harness, if installed, shall be designed to withstand the maximum acceleration force that can be imposed upon them during a design collision. Consideration shall be given to the orientation of the seat relative to the acceleration force (i.e. whether the seat is forward-, aft-, or side-facing).

3.3 The acceleration pulse to which the seat is subjected shall be representative of the collision time-history of the craft. If the collision time-history is not known, or cannot be simulated, the acceleration time-history envelope shown in the figure can be used.

3.4 In the test frame, each seat unit and its accessories (e.g., lap belts and shoulder harnesses) shall be attached to the support structure similar to the manner in which it will be attached in the craft. The support structure can be a rigid surface; however, a support structure having the same strength and stiffness as the support structure in the craft is preferred. Other seats and/or table s with which an occupant may come in contact during a collision shall be included in the test frame in an orientation and with a method of attachment typical of that in the craft.

Figure Acceleration time-history envelope 

 

3.5 During the dynamic seat test, a fiftieth percentile anthropomorphic test dummy, suitable for the test being conducted, shall be placed in the seat in an upright seating position. If a typical seating unit is composed of more than one occupant seat, a test dummy shall be placed in each occupant seat in the unit. The dummy, or dummies, shall be secured in the seat unit in accordance with procedures of recognized national standards1 and be secured using only the lap belt and shoulder harness if they are installed. Tray tables and other such devices shall be placed in the position that would cause the greatest potential for an occupant to become injured.

3.6 The test dummy shall be instrumented and calibrated, in accordance with the requirements of a recognized national standard, so as to permit, as a minimum, calculation of the head injury criterion, calculation of the thoracic trauma index, measurement of force in the femur, and measurement, if possible, of extension and flexion of the neck.

3.7 If more than one dummy is used in the tests, the dummy located in the seat having the highest potential for an occupant to be injured shall be the one instrumented. The other dummy or dummies need not be instrumented.

3.8 The tests shall be conducted and the instrumentation shall be sampled at a rate sufficient to reliably show response of the dummy in accordance with the requirements of a recognized national standard2.

3.9 The seat unit tested in accordance with the requirements of this section shall be considered acceptable if:

  1. the seat unit and tables installed in the seat unit or area do not become dislodged from the supporting deck structure and do not deform in a manner that would cause the occupant to become trapped or injured;

  2. the lap belt, if installed, remains attached and on the test dummy's pelvis during the impact. The shoulder harness, if installed, remains attached and in the immediate vicinity of the test dummy's shoulder during the impact. After the impact, the release mechanisms of any installed lap belt and shoulder harness shall be operative;

  3. the following acceptability criteria are met:


    .3.1 the head injury criterion (HIC), calculated in accordance with the formula, does not exceed 500


    where:

    tl and t2 are the beginning and ending times (in seconds) of the interval in which the HIC is a maximum. The term a(t) is the resultant measured acceleration in the head of the dummy in g;

    .3.2 the thoracic trauma index (TTI), calculated in accordance with the formula, does not exceed 30g except for periods totalling less than 3 ms

    or acceleration at the centre of gravity
    where:

    gR is the acceleration in g of either the upper or lower rib;
    gLS is the acceleration in g of the lower spine; and

    .3.3 neck flexion does not exceed 88 Nm;


    .3.4 neck extension does not exceed 48 Nm;


    .3.5 in lieu of the requirements of subparagraphs .3.3 and .3.4 above, a seatback or headrest of at least 850 mm above the seat cushion is acceptable; and


    .3.6 the force in the femur does not exceed 10 kN except that it cannot exceed 8 kN for periods totalling more than 20 ms; and

  4. loads on the upper torso harness straps do not exceed 7.8 kN or a total of 8.9 kN if dual straps are used.


1Refer to ECE 80 with addendum 79. Other national standards may be acceptable.
2Refer to the specifications of International Standard ISO 6487 - Technique of measurement in impact tests(1987) or SAE J211 - Instrumentation.

Annex 11 Open reversible life rafts



1 General


1.1 All open reversible liferafts shall :

.1 be constructed with proper workmanship and materials;

.2 not be damaged in stowage throughout the air temperature range of -18°C to +65°C;

.3 be capable of operating throughout an air temperature range of -18°C to +65°C and a seawater temperature range of -1°C to +30°C;

.4 be rot-proof, corrosion-resistant and not be unduly affected by seawater, oil or fungal attack;

.5 be stable and maintain their shape when inflated and fully laden; and

.6 be fitted with retro-reflective material, where it will assist in detection, and in accordance with the recommendations adopted by the Organization.1

2 Construction

2.1 The open reversible liferaft shall be so constructed that when it is dropped into the water in its container from a height of 10 m, the liferaft and its equipment will operate satisfactorily. If the open reversible liferaft is to be stowed at a height of more than 10 m above the waterline in the lightest seagoing condition, it shall be of a type which has been satisfactorily drop-tested from at least that height.

2.2 The open reversible floating liferaft shall be capable of withstanding repeated jumps on to it from a height of at least 4.5 m.

2.3 The open reversible liferaft and its fittings shall be so constructed as to enable it to be towed at a speed of 3 knots in calm water when loaded with its full complement of persons and equipment, with the sea-anchor deployed.

2.4 The open reversible liferaft when fully inflated shall be capable of being boarded from the water whichever way up it inflates.
_____________
1 Refer to the Recommendation on the Use and Fitting of Retro-Reflective Materials on Life-Saving Appliances, adopted by the Organization by resolution A.658(16).

2.5 The main buoyancy chamber shall be divided into:

.1 not less than two separate compartments, each inflated through a nonreturn inflation valve on each compartment; and

.2 the buoyancy chambers shall be so arranged that in the event of one of the compartments being damaged or failing to inflate, the intact compartment shall be able to support, with positive freeboard over the open reversible liferaft's entire periphery, the number of persons which the liferaft is permitted to accommodate, each having a mass of 75 kg and seated in their normal positions.

2.6 The floor of the open reversible liferaft shall be waterproof.

2.7 The open reversible liferaft shall be inflated with a non-toxic gas by an inflation system complying with the requirements of paragraph 4.2.2 of the LSA Code. Inflation shall be completed within the period of one minute at an ambient temperature of between 18°C and 20°C and within a period of three minutes at an ambient temperature of -18°C. After inflation the open reversible liferaft shall maintain its form when loaded with its full complement of persons and equipment.

2.8 Each inflatable compartment shall be capable of withstanding a pressure equal to at least three times the working pressure and shall be prevented from reaching a pressure exceeding twice the working pressure either by means of relief valves or by a limited gas supply. Means shall be provided for fitting the topping-up pump or bellows.

2.9 The surface of the buoyancy tubes shall be of non-slip material. At least 25% of these tubes shall be of a highly visible colour.

2.10 The number of persons which an open reversible liferaft shall be permitted to accommodate shall be equal to the lesser of:

.1 the greatest whole number obtained by dividing by 0.096 the volume, measured in cubic metres, of the main buoyancy tubes (which for this purpose shall not include the thwarts, if fitted) when inflated; or

.2 the greatest whole number obtained by dividing by 0.372 the inner horizontal cross-sectional area of the open reversible liferaft measured in square metres (which for this purpose may include the thwart or thwarts, if fitted) measured to the innermost edge of the buoyancy tubes; or

.3 the number of persons having an average mass of 75 kg, all wearing lifejackets, that can be seated inboard of the buoyancy tubes without interfering with the operation of any of the liferaft's equipment.

3 Open reversible liferaft fittings

3.1 Lifelines shall be securely becketed around the inside and outside of the open reversible liferaft.

3.2 The open reversible liferaft shall be fitted with an efficient painter of a length suitable for automatic inflation on reaching the water. For open reversible liferafts accommodating more than 30 persons an additional bowsing-in line shall be fitted.

3.3 The breaking strength of the painter system, including its means of attachment to the open reversible liferaft, except the weak link required by paragraph 4.1.6.2 of the LSA Code, shall be:

.1 7.5 kN for open reversible liferafts accommodating up to 8 persons;

.2 10.0 kN for open reversible liferafts accommodating 9 to 30 persons; and

.3 15.0 kN for open reversible liferafts accommodating more than 30 persons.

3.4 The open reversible liferaft shall be fitted with at least the following number of inflated ramps to assist boarding from the sea whichever way up the raft inflates:

.1 one boarding ramp for open reversible liferafts accommodating up to 30 persons; or

.2 two boarding ramps for open reversible liferafts accommodating more than 30 persons; such boarding ramps shall be 180° apart.

3.5 The open reversible liferaft shall be fitted with water pockets complying with the following requirements:

.1 the cross-sectional area of the pockets shall be in the shape of an isosceles triangle with the base of the triangle attached to the buoyancy tubes of the open reversible liferaft;

.2 the design shall be such that the pockets fill to approximately 60% of capacity within 15 s to 25 s of deployment;

.3 the pockets attached to each buoyancy tube shall normally have aggregate capacity of between 125 l and 150 l for inflatable open reversible liferafts up to and including the 10-person size;

.4 the pockets to be fitted to each buoyancy tube on liferafts certified to carry more than 10 persons shall have, as far as practicable, an aggregate capacity of 12 N litres, where N is the number of persons carried;

.5 each pocket on a buoyancy tube shall be attached so that when the pocket is in the deployed position it is attached along the full length of its upper edges to, or close to, the lowest part of the lower buoyancy tube; and

.6 the pockets shall be distributed symmetrically round the circumference of the liferaft with sufficient separation between each pocket to enable air to escape readily.

3.6 At least one manually controlled lamp complying with the requirements shall be fitted on the upper and lower surfaces of the buoyancy tubes.

3.7 Suitable automatic drain arrangements shall be provided on each side of the floor of the liferaft in the following manner:

.1 one for open reversible liferafts accommodating up to 30 persons; or

.2 two for open reversible liferafts accommodating more than 30 persons.

3.8 The equipment of every open reversible liferaft shall consist of:

.1 one buoyant rescue quoit, attached to not less than 30 m of buoyant line with a breaking strength of at least 1 kN;

.2 two safety knives of the non-folding type, having a buoyant handle, shall be fitted attached to open reversible liferaft by light lines. They shall be stowed in pockets so that, irrespective of the way in which the open reversible liferaft inflates, one will be readily available on the top surface of the upper buoyancy tube in a suitable position to enable the painter to be readily cut;

.3 one buoyant bailer;

.4 two sponges;

.5 one sea-anchor permanently attached to the open reversible liferaft in such a way as to be readily deployable when the open reversible liferaft inflates. The position of the sea-anchor shall be clearly marked on both buoyancy tubes;

.6 two buoyant paddles;

.7 one first-aid outfit in a waterproof case capable of being closed tightly after use;

.8 one whistle or equivalent sound signal;

.9 two hand flares;

.10 one waterproof electric torch suitable for Morse signalling together with one spare set of batteries and one spare bulb in a waterproof container;

.11 one repair outfit for repairing punctures in buoyancy compartments; and

.12 one topping-up pump or bellows.

3.9 The equipment specified in 3.8 is designated an HSC Pack.

3.10 Where appropriate, the equipment shall be stowed in a container which, if it is not an integral part of, or permanently attached to, the open reversible liferaft, shall be stowed and secured to the open reversible liferaft and be capable of floating in water for at least 30 min without damage to its contents. Irrespective of whether the equipment container is an integral part of, or is permanently attached to, the open reversible liferaft, the equipment shall be readily accessible irrespective of which way up the open reversible liferaft inflates. The line which secures the equipment container to the open reversible liferaft shall have a breaking strength of 2 kN or a breaking strength of 3:1 based on the mass of the complete equipment pack, whichever is the greater.

4 Containers for open reversible inflatable liferafts

4.1 The open reversible liferafts shall be packed in a container that is:

.1 so constructed as to withstand conditions encountered at sea;

.2 of sufficient inherent buoyancy, when packed with the liferaft and its equipment, to pull the painter from within and to operate the inflation mechanism shall the craft sink; and

.3 as far as practicable, watertight, except for drain holes in the container bottom.

4.2 The container shall be marked with:

.1 maker's name or trademark;

.2 serial number;

.3 the number of persons it is permitted to carry;

.4 non-SOLAS reversible;

.5 type of emergency pack enclosed;

.6 date when last serviced;

.7 length of painter;

.8 maximum permitted height of stowage above waterline (depending on drop-test height); and

.9 launching instructions.

5 Markings on open reversible inflatable liferafts
The open reversible liferafts shall be marked with:

.1 maker's name or trademark;

.2 serial number;

.3 date of manufacture (month and year);

.4 name and place of service station where it was last serviced; and

.5 number of persons it is permitted to accommodate on the top of each buoyancy tube, in characters not less than 100 mm in height and of a colour contrasting with that of the tube.

6 Ins tructions and information
Instructions and information required for inclusion in the craft's training manual and in the instructions for on-board maintenance shall be in a form suitable for inclusion in such training manual and instructions for on-board maintenance. Instructions and information shall be in a clear and concise form and shall include, as appropriate, the following:

.1 general description of the open reversible liferaft and its equipment;

.2 installation arrangements;

.3 operational instructions, including use of associated survival equipment; and

.4 servicing requirements.

7 Testing of open reversible inflatable liferafts

7.1 When testing open reversible liferafts in accordance with the recommendations of resolution MSC.81(70), part 1:

.1 tests No. 5.5, 5.12, 5.16, 5.17.2, 5.17.10, 5.17.11, 5.17.12, 5.18 and 5.20 may be omitted;

.2 the part of test No. 5.8 regarding closing arrangement may be omitted,

.3 the temperature - 30oC in test No. 5.17.3 and 5.17.5 may be substituted with - 18oC; and

.4 the drop height of 18 m in test No. 5.1.2 may be substituted with 10 m. Omittances and substitution, as described above, shall be reflected in the type approval certificate.

Annex 12 Factors to be considerd

Annex 12 - Factors to be considerd in determining craft operating limitations1

1 - Purpose and scope
The purpose of this annex is to identify the parameters to which consideration should be given when determining the worst intended conditions (defined in 1.4.61) and other operational limitations (defined in 1.4.41) for insertion into the Permit to Operate, in order to facilitate consistent application of the Code.

2 - Factors to be considered
As a minimum, the following factors shall be considered:

  1. The maximum distance from refuge implied by 1.3.4.

  2. The availability of rescue resources to comply with 1.4.12.1 (category A craft only).

  3. Minimum air temperature (susceptibility to icing), visibility and depth of water for safe operation as addressed by 1.4.61.

  4. The significant wave height and maximum mean wind speed used when applying the requirements for stability and buoyancy in chapter 2 and associated annexes.

  5. The safe seakeeping limitations (especially significant wave height) considering the known stability hazards listed in 2.1.5, the operating conditions on the intended route (see 18.1.3.2) and the motions experienced during operation defined in 3.3 of annex 9.

  6. The structural safety of the craft in critical design conditions according to chapter 3.

  7. The safe deployment and operation of evacuation systems and survival craft as required by 8.6.5.

  8. The safe handling limitations determined in accordance with the sea trials required by chapter 17 and annexes 3 and 9, identifying any limitations on weight and centre-of-gravity position according to 17.3, and the effects of failures and malfunctions according to 17.4.

 


1Refer to the guidelines to be developed by the Organization.

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