Direct reduced iron (DRI) (C) is a porous, black/grey metallic material generated as a by-productof the manufacturing and handling processes of DRI (A) and/or DRI (B). The density of DRI (C) is less than 5,000 kg/m3.
ANGLE OF REPOSE
BULK DENSITY (kg/m3)
STOWAGE FACTOR (m3/t)
||1850 to 3300
||0.30 to 0.54
|Fines and small particles
with an average size less
than 6.35 mm, no particles to
exceed 12 mm
Temporary increase in temperature of about 30oC due to self-heating may be expected after material handling in bulk.
There is a risk of overheating, fire and explosion during transport. This cargo reacts with air and with fresh water or seawater, to produce hydrogen and heat. Hydrogen is a flammable gas that can form an explosive mixture when mixed with air in concentrations above 4% by volume.
Cargo heating may generate very high temperatures that are sufficient to lead to self-heating, auto-ignition and explosion.
Oxygen in cargo spaces and in enclosed adjacent spaces may be depleted. Flammable gas may also build up in these spaces. All precautions shall be taken when entering cargo and enclosed adjacent spaces.
The reactivity of this cargo is extremely difficult to assess due to the nature of the material that can be included in the category. A worst case scenario should therefore be assumed at all times.
STOWAGE & SEGREGATION
"Separated from" goods of classes 1 (division 1.4S), 2, 3, 4 and 5, and class 8 acids in packaged form (see IMDG Code).
"Separated from" solid bulk materials of classes 4 and 5.
Goods of class 1, other than division 1.4S, shall not be carried in the same ship. Boundaries of compartments where this cargo is carried shall be resistant to fire and passage of liquid.
Cargo spaces shall be clean, dry and free of salt and residues of previous cargoes. Prior to loading, wooden fixtures such as battens, loose dunnage, debris and combustible materials shall be removed.
The cargo shall be kept within the permissible moisture content indicated in this schedule at all times during loading, and during transportation.
This cargo shall not be loaded onto ships, or transferred between ships or barges, during ANY precipitation.
During loading of this cargo, all non-working hatches of cargo spaces into which this cargo is loaded, or is to be loaded, shall be kept closed.
Prior to loading, the terminal shall ensure that the conveyor belts and all other equipment used for loading this cargo contain no accumulation of water or other substances. Each time cargo operations are commenced or restarted, particularly after rain or washing down, any loading belt shall be operated empty and not over a ship's cargo space.
Prior to loading, an ultrasonic test or another equivalent method with a suitable instrument shall be conducted to ensure weather tightness of the hatch covers and closing arrangements and all readings shall confirm weather tightness.
Prior to loading this cargo, the shipper shall provide the master with a certificate issued by a competent person recognized by the National Administration of the port of loading stating that the cargo, at the time of loading, is suitable for shipment; that it conforms with the requirements of this Code; that the moisture content is less than 0.3%; and the temperature does not exceed 65°C. This certificate shall state that the cargo meets the loading criteria in regards to ageing and material temperature.
The cargo shall not be accepted for loading when its temperature is in excess of 65°C or if its moisture content is in excess of 0.3%. Any cargo that has been wetted, or is known to have been wetted, shall not be loaded into any cargo space.
Trim in accordance with the relevant provisions required under sections 4 and 5 of the Code.
The cargo temperature shall be monitored during loading and recorded in a log detailing the temperature for each lot of cargo loaded, a copy of which shall be provided to the master. After loading, a certificate shall be issued by a competent person recognized by the National Administration of the port of loading confirming that throughout the whole consignment of fines and small particles the moisture content has not exceeded 0.3% and the temperature does not exceed 65°C.
On completion of loading of a cargo space it shall be immediately closed and sealed. Sufficient inert gas shall then be introduced to achieve an oxygen concentration less than 5% throughout the cargo space.
Due consideration shall be given to the possibility of moisture inside the cargo pile in order to avoid loading of wet cargo or a wet part of the cargo recognizing that the bottom of the pile can be wet even though the surface of cargo pile looks dry. The carrier's nominated technical persons or other representatives shall have reasonable access to stockpiles and loading installations for inspection.
Prior to shipment, the cargo shall be aged for at least 30 days and a certificate confirming this shall be issued by a competent person recognized by the National Administration of the port of loading.
Shippers shall provide to the master prior to loading comprehensive information on the cargo and safety procedures to be followed in the event of emergency. This advice may be an amplification of this Code, but shall not be contrary thereto in respect of safety.
Where practicable, ballast tanks adjacent to the cargo spaces containing this cargo, other than double-bottom tanks, shall be kept empty. Weather tightness shall be maintained throughout the voyage. Bilge wells of the cargo spaces shall be clean, dry and protected from ingress of the cargo using non-combustible material. The introduction of moisture and accumulation of condensation in the cargo spaces shall be avoided.
Appropriate precautions shall be taken to protect equipment, machinery and accommodation spaces from the dust of the cargo. Radars and exposed radio communication equipment of ships which carry this cargo shall be protected from the dust of this cargo. Persons who may be exposed to the dust of the cargo shall wear protective clothing, goggles or other equivalent dust eye-protection and dust filter masks, as necessary.
During any handling of this cargo "NO SMOKING" signs shall be posted on decks and in areas adjacent to cargo spaces, and no naked light shall be permitted in these areas. Smoking, burning, cutting, chipping, grinding or other sources of ignition shall not be allowed in the vicinity of cargo spaces containing this cargo at any time.
Cargo spaces containing this cargo and adjacent spaces may become oxygen-depleted. No person shall enter a loaded cargo space or an enclosed adjacent space unless the space has been ventilated and the atmosphere tested and found to be gas-free and have sufficient oxygen to support life. Notwithstanding, emergency entry may be permitted without ventilation, testing, or both provided that the entry into the space is undertaken only by trained personnel wearing self-contained breathing apparatus under the supervision of a responsible officer and no source of ignition is introduced into the space.
Prior to loading, provision shall be made to introduce a dry, inert gas at tanktop level so that the inert gas purges the air from the cargo and fills the free volume above. Nitrogen is preferred for this purpose. All vents, accesses and other openings such as coaming drains that could allow the inert atmosphere to be lost from cargo spaces carrying this cargo shall be closed and sealed.
The ship shall be provided with the means to ensure that a requirement of this Code to maintain the oxygen concentration below 5% can be achieved and maintained throughout the voyage. The ship's fixed CO2 fire-fighting system shall not be used for this purpose. Consideration shall be given to providing the vessel with the means to top up the cargo spaces with additional supplies of inert gas taking into account the duration of the voyage.
The ship shall be provided with the means for reliably measuring the temperatures at several points within the stow and determining the concentrations of hydrogen and oxygen in the cargo space atmosphere on voyage.
Appropriate precautions shall be taken to minimize as far as practicable the loss of the inert atmosphere.
Any cargo that has already been loaded into a cargo space and which subsequently is exposed to additional fresh water or seawater over its natural moisture content and becomes wetted, or in which reactions have started and its temperature has exceeded 120oC, shall be discharged without delay.
On completion of loading of a cargo space it shall be immediately closed and sealed. Sufficient inert gas shall then be introduced to achieve an oxygen concentration less than 5% thought the cargo space.
The ship shall not sail until the master and a competent person recognized by the National Administration of the port of loading are satisfied:
- that all loaded cargo spaces are correctly sealed and inerted;
- that the temperature of the cargo has stabilized at all measuring points and that the temperature does not exceed 65oC; and
- that at the end of the inerting process, the concentration of hydrogen in the free space of the holds has stabilized and does not exceed 0.2% by volume.
The cargo spaces carrying this cargo shall remain tightly sealed and the inert condition maintained during the voyage.
For quantitative measurements of hydrogen and oxygen, suitable detectors shall be on board while this cargo is carried. The detectors shall be suitable for use in an oxygen-depleted atmosphere and of a type certified safe for use in explosive atmospheres. The concentrations of hydrogen and oxygen in the cargo spaces carrying this cargo shall be measured at regular intervals during voyage, and the results of the measurements shall be recorded and kept on board for a minimum of two years.
The oxygen concentration in the cargo spaces carrying this cargo shall be maintained at less than 5% throughout the duration of the voyage by topping up with inert gas.
Cargo temperatures shall be taken at regular intervals during the voyage and the results of the measurements shall be recorded and kept on board for a minimum of two years. If the temperature in the cargo space exceeds 65°C or the monitored hydrogen concentration exceeds 1% (> 25% LEL) by volume, appropriate safety precautions shall be taken in accordance with the procedures provided by the shipper in the event of emergency. If in doubt, expert advice shall be sought.
Bilge wells shall be checked regularly for the presence of water. If water is found, it shall be removed by pumping or draining the bilge wells. Consideration shall be given to increasing the frequency of cargo monitoring following periods of bad weather. All measurements shall be taken so as to minimize as far as practicable the loss of inert gas from the cargo spaces.
The hydrogen concentration in the cargo space shall be measured immediately before any opening action of the hatch covers. If the hydrogen concentration is greater than 1% (> 25% LEL) by volume, all appropriate safety precautions in conformity with the procedures provided by the shipper or the recommendations of the competent authority shall be taken. If in doubt, expert advice shall be sought.
During precipitation, all cargo operations shall be suspended and holds containing cargo shall be closed. Monitoring for hydrogen of those holds containing cargo shall be resumed.
Accumulations of dust from this cargo on deck or in proximity to cargo spaces shall be removed as quickly as possible. Hosing with seawater shall be avoided. Consideration shall be given to carefully cleaning exposed radiocommunications equipment to which dust from the cargo might adhere, such as radar, radio aerials, VHF installations, AIS and GPS.
SPECIAL EMERGENCY EQUIPMENT TO BE CARRIED
EMERGENCY ACTION IN THE EVENT OF FIRE
In the event of emergency, the specific procedures provided by the shipper should be consulted and followed, as appropriate.
Do not use CO2. Do not use water. Do not use steam.
Batten down and reinstate the inert atmosphere using supplies or equipment if available on board. Increase the frequency of monitoring. If temperature and/or hydrogen concentration steadily rise, seek expert advice as quickly as possible.
If the temperature in the cargo space exceeds 120°C, the ship should make for the nearest appropriate port to discharge the affected cargo. Preparations should be made for grab discharge.
If additional nitrogen gas is available, the use of this gas will assist in keeping the oxygen concentration down and may contain the fire and prevent an explosive atmosphere if hydrogen is produced.
Flooding with water of the affected cargo hold should only be contemplated as
MEDICAL FIRST AID
Refer to the Medical First Aid Guide (MFAG), as amended.