3.2 Category POPULATION
3.2.1 This describes the makeup of the population in terms of age, gender, physical attributes and response times. The population is identical for all scenarios with the exception of the response time and passenger initial locations. The population is made of the following mix:
Table 3.1 – Population’s composition (age and gender)
Population groups  passengers

Percentage of passengers (%)

Females younger than 30 years 
7 
Females 3050 years old 
7 
Females older than 50 years 
16 
Females older than 50, mobility impaired (1) 
10 
Females older than 50, mobility impaired (2) 
10 
Males younger than 30 years 
7 
Males 3050 years old 
7 
Males older than 50 years 
16 
Males older than 50, mobility impaired (1) 
10 
Males older than 50, mobility impaired (2) 
10 
Population groups – crew

Percentage of crew (%)

Crew females 
50 
Crew males 
50 
All of the attributes associated with this population distribution should consist of a statistical distribution within a fixed range of values. The range is specified between a minimum and maximum value with a uniform random distribution.
3.2.2 Response time
The response time distributions for the benchmark scenarios should be truncated logarithmic normal distributions^{1} as follows:
For Case 1 and Case 3 (Night Cases):
 (3.2.2.1) 
400 < x < 700 
For Case 2 and Case 4 (Day Cases):

(3.2.2.2) 
400 < x < 700 
where, x is the response time in seconds and y is the probability density at response time x.
3.2.3 Unhindered travel speeds on flat terrain (e.g., corridors)
The maximum unhindered travel speeds to be used are those derived from data published by Ando^{2} which provides male and female walk rates as a function of age. These are distributed according to figure 3.1 and represented by approximate piecewise functions shown in table 3.3.
Figure 3.1  Walking speeds as a function of age and gender
Table 3.3  Regression formulation for mean travel speed values3
Gender  Age (years)  Speed (m/s) 
Female  2  8.3  0.06 ^{*} age + 0.5 
8.3  13.3  0.04 ^{*} age + 0.67 
13.3  22.25  0.02 ^{*}age + 0.94 
22.25  37.5  0.018 ^{*} age + 1.78 
37.5  70  0.01 ^{*}age + 1.45 
Male  2  5  0.16 ^{*} age + 0.3 
5  12.5  0.06 ^{*} age + 0.8 
12.5  18.8  0.008 ^{*} age + 1.45 
18.8  39.2  0.01 ^{*} age + 1.78 
39.2  70  0.009 ^{*} age + 1.75 
For each and gender group specified in table 3.1, the walking speed should be modelled as a statistical uniform distribution having minimum and maximum values as follows:
Table 3.4 – Walking speed on flat terrain (e.g., corridors)
Population groups – passengers

Walking speed on flat terrain (e.g., corridors)

Minimum (m/s)

Maximum (m/s)

Females younger than 30 years

0.93 
1.55 
Females 3050 years old 
0.71 
1.19 
Females older than 50 years 
0.56 
0.94 
Females older than 50, mobility impaired (1)

0.43 
0.71 
Females older than 50, mobility impaired (2) 
0.37 
0.61 
Males younger than 30 years 
1.11 
1.85 
Males 3050 years old 
0.97 
1.62 
Males older than 50 years 
0.84 
1.4 
Males older than 50, mobility impaired (1) 
0.64 
1.06 
Males older than 50, mobility impaired (2) 
0.55 
0.91 
Population groups – crew

Walking speed on flat terrain (e.g., corridors)

Minimum (m/s)

Maximum (m/s)

Crew females 
0.93 
1.55 
Crew males 
1.11 
1.85 
3.2.4 Unhindered stair speeds^{4}
Speeds are given on the base of gender, age and travel direction (up and down). The speeds in table 3.5 are those along the inclined stairs. It is expected that all the data above will be updated when more appropriate data and results become available.
Table 3.5 – Walking speed on stairs
Population groups – passengers

Walking speed on stairs (m/s)

Stairs down

Stairs up

Min.

Max.

Min.

Max.

Females younger than 30 years 
0.56 
0.94 
0.47 
0.79 
Females 3050 years old 
0.49 
0.81 
0.44 
0.74 
Females older than 50 years 
0.45 
0.75 
0.37 
0.61 
Females older than 50, mobility impaired (1) 
0.34 
0.56 
0.28 
0.46 
Females older than 50, mobility impaired (2) 
0.29 
0.49 
0.23 
0.39 
Males younger than 30 years 
0.76 
1.27 
0.5 
0.84 
Males 3050 years old 
0.64 
1.07 
0.47 
0.79 
Males older than 50 years 
0.5 
0.84 
0.38 
0.64 
Males older than 50, mobility impaired (1) 
0.38 
0.64 
0.29 
0.49 
Males older than 50, mobility impaired (2) 
0.33 
0.55 
0.25 
0.41 
Population groups – Crew

Walking speed on stairs (m/s)

Stairs down

Stairs up

Min.

Max.

Min.

Max.

Crew females 
0.56 
0.94 
0.47 
0.79 
Crew males 
0.76 
1.26 
0.5 
0.84 
3.2.5 Exit flow rate (doors)
The specific unit flow rate is the number of escaping persons past a point in the escape route per unit time per unit width of the route involved, and is measured in number of persons (p). The specific unit flow rate5 for any exit should not exceed 1.33 p/(m s).
1
“Recommendations on the Nature of the Passenger Response Time Distribution to be used in the MSC.1033 Assembly Time Analysis Based on Data Derived from Sea Trials”, Galea, E. R., Deere, S., Sharp, G., Fillips, L., Lawrence, P., and Gwunne, S., The Transaction of The Royal Institution of Naval Architects, Part A  International Journal of Maritime Engineering ISSN 14798751.2007.
2
Ando K, Ota H, and Oki T, Forecasting The Flow Of People, Railway Research Review, (45), pp 814, 1988.
3
Maritime EXODUS V4.0, USER GUIDE AND TECHNICAL MANUAL, Authors: E R Galea, S Gwynne, P. J. Lawrence, L. Filippidis, D. Blackshields and D. Cooney, CMS Press, May 2003 Revision 1.0, ISBN: 1 904521 38 X.
4
The maximum unhindered stair speeds are derived from data generated by J. Fruin. Pedestrian planning and design, Metropolitan Association of Urban Designers and Environmental Planners, New York, 1971. The study comprises two staircase configurations.
5
Value based on data accepted in civil building applications in Japan, the United Kingdom and the United States; this value is also consistent with the simplified evacuation analysis method.