Onderwerp: Bezoek-historie

1182 Guide To Recovery Techniques
Geldigheid:31-05-2006 t/m Status: Geldig vandaag

Dit onderwerp bevat de volgende rubrieken.


Ref: T6/6.01                                                                                                            MSC.1/Circ.1182

                                                                                                                                31 May 2006


1          The  Maritime  Safety  Committee,  at  its  eighty-first  session  (10  to  19  May  2006),  with aviewtoprovidingspecificguidancetoseafarersonrecoverytechniques,approvedtheGuideon recoverytechniques,preparedbytheSub-CommitteeonRadiocommunicationsandSearchand Rescue at its tenth session (6 to10 March 2006), as set out in the annex.


2          MemberGovernmentsandinternationalorganizationsinconsultativestatusareinvitedto bring the annexed guide to the attention of all concerned, in particular distribution to seafarers.


3          MemberGovernments,internationalorganizationsandothersconcernedareencouraged to enhance the attached Guide with pictorial and other relevantinformation, as appropriate.







1 Introduction: Your Part In Recovery At Sea

1.1       Asaseafarer,youmaysuddenlybefacedwithhavingtorecoverpeopleindistressatsea. Thismightbeapersonoverboardfromyourownship-afellowcrewmember,orapassenger-

oryourshipmightberespondingtosomeoneelse'semergency;forexampleashipabandoned because of flooding, fireor a ditched aircraft.


1.2       Youmayhavetoprepare,withlittleornonotice,torecoverpeople-maybeverymany people.  Whoever they are, their lives may be in your hands.


1.3       In many areas of the world, especially when out of range of shore-based search and rescue (SAR)facilities,yourshipmaybethefirst,ortheonly,rescueunittoreachthem.   Evenifyou are  joined  by  specialized  units,  you  will  still  have  a  vital  role  to  play,  especially  in  a  major incident.  Ifyouarerequiredtorecoverpeopleindistress,itisyourcapabilityandyourshipthat matters.  Youmayhavetofindauniquesolutiontoauniquelifesavingproblem.  Toensurethat you can respond safely and effectively, you need to think about the general issuesbeforehand .


1.4       The recovery process is often far from simple.  For example, it may be complicated by:


.1         differenceinsizebetweenyourshipandthesurvivalcraft:survivorsmayhaveto climb or be lifted considerable distances to get into your ship;


.2         differences  in  relative  movement  between  your  ship  and  the  survival  craft alongside:itmaybedifficulttokeepthesurvivalcraftalongsideandforsurvivors

to get onto ladders etc or in through shell openings; or


.3         physicalcapabilityofthosetoberecovered:iftheyareincapacitated,theymaybe able to do little or nothing to help themselves.


1.5       Thisguidediscussessomeoftheseunderlyingproblems,aswellassomeofthesolutions.It  suggests  some  practical  recovery  techniques  which  have  been  used  successfully  to  recover people in distress.


10 Standing By When People Cannot Be Recovered

10.1     There  will  be  times  when  recovery  cannot  be  attempted  or  completed  without  unduly endangeringtheship,hercreworthoseneedingrecovery.   Onlytheassistingship's  mastercan decide when this is the case.   




10.2     Assistance  can  still  be  given  to  those  in  distress,  even  if  you  cannot  recover  them. Standing by until other help arrives or conditions improve will:


.1         give comfort to the survivors, especially if communications can be established;


.2         assisttheRescueCo-ordinationCentre,asyouwillbeableto provideupdatedand detailed reports on the situation; and


.3         assist otherSARfacilities:


.1         your ship is easier for themtolocate than a survival craft;


.2         you can provide updated and detailed reports; and


.3         units  such  as  helicopters  will  be  able  to  transfer  casualties  to  you  even when you cannot recover themdirectly.


10.3     But, as discussed above, moredirect help can also be given.


.1         Yourownlifesavingappliances-liferaftsinparticular-canbedeployedsothat those in distress, particularly people in the water, can use them.


.2         Iflinescanbepassedtosurvivalcraft,theymaybekeptoutofimmediatedanger; towedtoapositionwhereconditionsareeasierandrecoverymaybeattempted;or even towed to a nearby place of safety.


.3         You  can  provide  a  lee  for  survival  craft,  protecting  them  from  the  worst  of  the conditions, and making life a little easier for those aboard.


.4         Youmaybeabletosupplymoredirectaid,passingsupplies,includingmedical supplies,tothesurvivalcraft-byfloatingthemdownonlinesfasttoalifebuoy, for example, or by towing theminto a position where those in distress can get hold of them.


11 Immediate Care Of People Recovered


11.1  Recoverydoesnotendwhenthesurvivorsetsfootonyourdeck. Heorshestillneeds  immediatehelp-andisstillatsomerisk,inastrangeenvironmentandhavingbeenundergreat stress.


11.2     Peoplerecoveredwillneedsimpledirections,andpreferablyanescort,toshelter,outof harm'sway.   Youshoulddecidebeforehandwhereyouwishsurvivorstogoaboardyourship, how  they  are  going  to  get  there,  who  will  takethem,  and  who  will  look  after  them  once  they arrive.   This  should  include  provision  for  people  who  are  disorientated  and  perhaps  unable  to understandinstructions.  Itshouldalsoincludeprovisionforthosewhoarephysicallyincapable  of moving about the ship.  




11.3     Rememberinparticulartheriskofshockinducedbysuddentransferfromthewaterand possiblehypothermia.  People,whohavebeeninthewater,theinjuredandtheincapable,should, if  possible,  be  taken  from  the  water  horizontally  and  should  be  carried  in  a  horizontal  or near-horizontal  position.     They  should  be  placed  in  the  unconscious  position  as  quickly  as possible and kept this way.  Refer to guidance on the treatment of hypothermia.


11.4    Youshouldalsodecidewhatyouaregoingtodowiththedead.  Bodiesmayberecovered, orpeoplerecoveredalivemaydieaboardyourship.  Someimmediateactionshouldbetaken,if itisonlytoremovethemfromtheplacewhereyouareshelteringtheliving.  Attentionisdrawn toguidanceonthetreatmentofhypothermiaand,inparticular,totheadvicethatpeoplesuffering fromhypothermiamayappear to be dead, yet can still be resuscitated.  Ask for medical advice.


11.5     FurtherguidanceonthecareofpeoplerecoveredmaybefoundinIAMSARVolumeIII (“Mobile Facilities”)  Section2“CareofSurvivors”.   Asthisfurther  care  is  post-recovery,  it  is beyondthescopeofthisguide.  YouarerecommendedtorefertotheIAMSARManualforhelp with the next stage of the rescue operation (see also appendix).


12 Conclusions

12.1     Ifyoufindyourselfansweringadistresscallandfacedwiththeprospectofrecovering people  at  sea,  it  is  certain  that  the  circumstances  will  be  unique  -  and  it  is  possible  that  your response will have to be so too.


12.2     Ithelpstoconsiderthepossibilitiesbeforehand:possibleproblemsandpossiblesolutions. Ithelpstoplanandtoprepare-andpreparationmeansassessingtherecoveryoptionsaboard your ship, and training in their use.


12.3     It could save a life (even yours!).  It could save many lives.


.1         ASSESSthe recovery options aboard your ship;


.2         TRAINin their use; and


.3         PREPAREto save lives.


2 Aims Of This Guide

2.1       Thisguidefocusesonrecoveryandtheworkyoumayhavetodotoachieveit.  Theneed forrecoveryisrare,andyourshipmaynotbedesignedforthetask.   However,youmayfind yourself faced with having to attempt it.


2.2       Thisguideisintendedtobeusedasareferencedocument.   Youshouldreaditnowand you  should  refer  to  it  again  while  proceeding  to  the  scene  of  the  emergency,  as  part  of  your preparation for the recovery operation.   





2.3       The guide's principal aims are to help you - as master or crew of a responding ship -to:


.1         ASSESSand decide upon appropriate means of recovery aboard your own vessel;


.2         TRAIN   in   the   use   of   these   means   of   recovery,   in   general   preparation   for emergencies; and


.3         PREPAREyourselves and your vessel when actually responding to an emergency.


2.4       Thisguidesupportstherecoveryguidancein VolumeIIIoftheInternationalAeronautical and  Maritime  Search  and  Rescue  (IAMSAR)  Manual,  “MOBILE FACILITIES”, which  should  be available on board.  Additional guidance isalso in the Appendix to this guide.


2.5       Recovery-gettingpeopleindistressintoyourship-isjustapartoftheoverallrescue operation.  For guidance on SAR operations as awhole you should refer to the IAMSAR Manual.


2.6       Forsimplicity,thisguidereferstolifeboats,liferafts,etc.as “survivalcraft”.   Itisalso possible  that  you  will  be  recovering  people  from  other  small  craft  such  as:  small  SAR  units; directly  from  small  vessels  in  distress  such  as  yachts  or  fishing  boats;  or  from  the  water,  etc.

In general the same recovery principles apply throughout.


3 The Task Of Recovery: Possible Problems

3.1       Whenproceedingtothesceneofanemergencyatsea,itislikelythatyouwillonlyhave limitedinformationaboutwhatyouwillfindwhenyougetthere.   Whatyoumaywellfindare people in survival craft or in the water.  You should prepare for their recovery.


3.2       Unlessitisproperlypreparedfor,therecoveryprocessmaybeadifficultanddangerous operation.  The following list covers some ofthe problems which you may have to face.


.1         Recovery fromsurvival craft is not simple - see paragraph 3.3 below.


.2         Inarapidoruncontrolledabandonment,whennoteverybodyhasbeenabletoget intosurvivalcraft,youmayalsofindpeopleinthewater,orclingingtofloating wreckage,etc.   Thesepeoplearelesslikelytobeabletohelpthemselvesthanif they were insurvival craft.  Nor will they survive so long.


.3         People  may  still  be  aboard  the  craft  in  distress  and  direct  recovery  may  be required without the intermediate use of survival craft.


.4         Smallcraftareespeciallyvulnerableiftheyareincloseproximitytoyourship. Theirmasts,riggingorothergearmaybecomeentangledandthereisthedanger of crushing or other damage as the two vessels move in the seaway.


.5         People  may  need  to  be  recovered  from  other  places  which  they  have  reached beforeyourarrival(rocks,reefs,sandbanks,shorelinesonlyaccessiblefromthe sea, navigational marks, moored vessels, etc.).




.6         Inadditiontorecoveringpeopleyourself,youmayhavetoreceivepeoplefrom other  SAR  units  such  as  rescue  boats  or  helicopters.   These  units  may  wish  to transferpeopletoyourshipratherthantakethemdirectlyashore,sothattheycan return  to  pick  up  others  more  quickly.  Many  of  the  problems  associated  with recovering  people  from  survival  craft  also  apply  to  the  transfer  of  people  from (small) rescue boats into(large) ships.


.7         Transferfromhelicoptershasitsownspecialrequirements,includingtrainingand preparationonboard-seeIAMSARVolumeIIISection2: `Helicopteroperations’.


3.3       Therearelikelytobefurthercomplications,evenafteracontrolledevacuationinwhich people have entered survival craft successfully.


.1         Types of survival craft vary.


.1         Powered survival craft may be able to manoeuvre themselves alongside the recovering ship (your ship), but those without power cannot do so.


.2         Manysurvivalcraftarecoveredandthesecoversmaynotberemovable. Coversassistsurvivalwhilewaitingforhelptoarrive,buttheycangetin the  way  during  the  recovery  process.  Getting  out  of  enclosed  survival craftmaybedifficultwhenthecraftisinaseaway,particularlyiftheexit points are small and difficult to negotiate.


.2         Thoseawaitingrecoverymaylacktheabilitytohelpthemselvesortohelpothers tohelpthem.   Thismaybebecauseofinjury,illness(includingseasicknessafter a periodinasurvivalcraft),theeffectsofcoldor  heat,  age(whetherelderlyor very young) or infirmity.


.3         It  is  likely  that  people  awaiting  recovery  will  have  little  or  no  experience  of transferringbetweensmallcraftliketheirsurvivalcraftandlargeronessuchas yourship.   Forexample,steppingontoapilotladderandthenclimbingitisnot difficultforafitpersonusedtodoingso,butthismaybeeffectivelyimpossible for others.


.4         Theremaybelanguagedifficulties.   Ifinstructionsarenotproperlyunderstood, theconsequencesmaybedangerous.   Youmaynothavealanguageincommon withthepersontoberecoveredand,evenwhenyoudo,theymaynotunderstand your instructions.


.5        Theremaybealargenumberofpeopletorecover.  Inthecaseofapassengership, this     number   may   amount   to    hundreds     or    even    thousands     of    people. This possibility brings additional problems with it, including:


.1         SCALE:  thesheersizeoftheproblemcanbedauntingandthestressofthe situation may lead you to lose focus and efficiency.


.2         PRIORITY:   whoshouldberecoveredfirst?   Itisclearthatpeopleinthe water  should  take  priority  over  those  in  survival  craft.     It  is  less  clear whethertheinjuredorinfirmshouldtakepriorityoverthemorecapable, who can be recovered more quickly.    



.3         RESOURCES:      facilities  aboard  your  ship  may  become  overwhelmed.

Survivors  will  need  shelter  and,  subsequently,  warmth,  water,  food  and, probably, some medical attention.


                          .4         PEOPLE:  youwillneedsufficientnumbersofpeopletonavigateyourship, operate the means of recovery and escort those recovered to shelter

4 Planning For Recovery

4.1       The  circumstances  you  find  when  you  arrive  at  the  scene  will  differ  from  incident  to incident; but general planning can, and should, be done.


4.2       In planning how best to bring peopleaboard your ship, you should consider:


.1         who will be required for the recoveryprocess;


.2         who will manage the ship in the meantime;


.3         what can be done to help people prior to recovery;


.4         the means of recovery available to you;


.5         where on the ship the survivorsshould be taken after recovery;


.6         how they will be looked after once they are aboard; and


.7         how you will keep your own crew and passengersinformed of what's going on.


4.3       Effective recovery of survivors will only occur through planning and preparation:


.1         have a plan;


.2         make sure everyone understands the plan and their own place in it;


.3         be prepared; and


.4         haveeveryoneready,withalltheequipmenttheyneed,beforecommencingthe recovery operation.


4.4       You  may  not  have  much  time  to  think  about  details  when  the  emergency  happens; but  if  you  have  thought  about  your  capabilities  beforehand  and  you  have  trained  to  use  them effectively - in short, if you areprepared - you will not need much time.


4.5       Rememberthatplansareofnouseunlessyouknowhowtoputthemintoeffect.   This requires training, and the testing ofboth plans and training by exercise.


5 Providing Assistance Prior To Recovery

5.1       People  can  still  die  after  you  have  found  them  but  before  you  can  get  them  on  board. Recoverytakestime-andthoseindistressmaynothavemuchtime,especiallyiftheyareinthe water, unprotected and/or unsupported.  You should be ready to help themstay alive until you are able to recover them.


5.2       Depending on how long the recovery islikely to take, they may need:


.1         buoyancy aids such as lifebuoys, lifejackets and liferafts;


.2         detectionaidssuchashigh-visibility/retro-reflectivematerial,lights,aSARTand an EPIRB;


.3         survival aids such as shelter, clothing, drink, food and first aid supplies; and


.4         communications equipment such as a handheld radio, for example.


5.3       Thesimplerbuoyantitems-lifebuoysinparticular-canbedroppedorthrowntothose indistressonanearlypassbytheship.  Ifpossible,contactshouldbeestablishedbymessenger (e.g.  rocket  line,  rescue  throw-line  or  heaving  line)  and  the  items  passed  under  control. Rememberthatnotalllinesarebuoyant,andthatyouwillneedtogetthemveryclosetothosein distress if they are to have a chance of seeing and getting hold of them.


5.4       Buoyantitems  maybe  veereddowntothoseindistresswhiletheshipstandsclear,by drifting  them  down  on  lines  made  fast  to  a  lifebuoy,  for  example,  or  by  towing  them  into  a position where those in distress can get hold of them.


5.5       If  the  recovery  operation  looks  like  it  might  be  protracted,  one  or  more  of  your  own liferafts  can  be  deployed.   Remember,  however,  that  a  liferaft  might  drift  faster  than  those  in distress  can  swim.   You  will  need  to  guide  it  to  the  people  you  are  assisting,  and  this  means makingalinefasttotheraftbeforedeployingit:donotrelyontheraft'sownpainter,whichmay tearaway.


5.6       Youcanalsohelpthoseindistresswhileyoureadyyourshipfortherecoveryoperation by  making  a  lee  for  them  or,  if  contact  can  be  established  by  line,  by  towing  them  out  of immediate  danger  such  as  that  posed  by  the  wreck  itself  or  by  spilt  hazardous  cargo,  or  by  a

lee shore.



6 The Recovery Process

6.1       During the recovery process itself, therewill be three basic tasks to complete:


.1         bringing people to the side of the ship so that they can be recovered;


.2         getting people into the ship; and


.3         dealing withthemonce they are aboard.   






6.2       Someinformationoneachoftheabovetasksisgivenbelow.  Thinkcarefullyabouteach oftheminyourplanningandpreparation.   Ifyouhavedoneso,therecoveryprocessshouldbe easier when you have to carry it out.


.1         PREPAREyour means of recovery before you arrive at the scene;


.2         PREPAREyourselfandyourcrewbeforeyouarriveatthescene.  Everyoneshould know their duties and stick to themas much as possible;


.3         PREPARE on-boardcommunications,sothatlookoutsandtherecoveryteamwill be able to communicate readily with the Bridge team;


.4         THINKabout the approach before making it:


.1         DETERMINE whatwillbethemostsignificantfactorincreatingaleefor the casualty - wind, sea or swell;


.2         ASSESSnavigational hazards on scene;


.3         DECIDEonwhichsideyouwanttomakethelee,bearinginmindyourown ship'smanoeuvring characteristics;


.4         CONSIDER runningbythecasualtyfirst,iftimepermits,tohelpyoumake your assessment;


.5         CONSIDERstoppingwellshortofthecasualtyduringthefinalapproach,to getthewayoffyourvesselandtoassesstheeffectsofwind,seaandswell when stopped/at slow speeds;


.6         APPROACH  with  the  significant  element  (wind,  sea  or  swell)  fine  on  the weather bow and your recovery target fine on the lee bow; and


.7         asyoucomeuptothecraftorpersoninthewater,TURNAWAY fromthe weatherandstoptocreatethelee,withyourrecoverytargetcloseonyour lee side;


.5         ENSURE thatyouhavesufficientlookoutswhocancommunicatewiththeBridge. Remember  that  during  the  final  approach  to  a  survival  craft  or  a  person  in  the water they may not be visible fromthe Bridge;


.6         ENSUREthat the lookouts know their duties; and


.7         BE READY to  receive  craft  and/or  people  alongside,  with  boat  ropes  rigged  and other equipment (including safety lines and buoyant equipment) ready to hand

7 Bringing People To The Side Of The Ship

7.1       Ifpeopleinsurvivalcraftorinthewatercannotputthemselvesinapositionfromwhich theycanbebroughtsafelyaboardtherecoveringship,someone(orsomething)hastogoandget them.   




7.2       Manoeuvringalargeshipinaseawaytocomealongside,andthenremainalongside,a small target like a survival craft ora person in the water will be difficult.


.1         The main danger in this case is thatof running over and/or crushing the target.


.2         It  is  also  possible  to  over-compensate  for  that  risk,  so  that  the  survival  craft  or person will be missed because still too far away.


.3         Both  your  ship  and  the  target  are  likely  to  be  affected,  unequally,  by  wind,  sea state, and water currents.


7.3       There  may  be  other  factors  which  make  this  task  more  difficult  still.   Be  prepared  for them.  For example:


.1         Roomtomanoeuvremaybelimitedbynearbynavigationalhazards,ortheremay bemorethanonesurvivalcraftinthearea:youmayhavetoavoidsomewhile manoeuvring alongside another.


.2         Bewareofrunningdownpeopleinthewater(whomaybeveryhardtosee)while making  your  approach  to  your  chosen  target.   Post  good  lookouts  with  direct communications to the Bridge while in the incident area.


.3         Althoughpoweredsurvivalcraftmaybeabletogetthemselves(andotherunits they  are  towing)  alongside  your  ship  and  keep  themselves  there,  this  can  be difficultinaseaway.  Inroughseas,thesurvivalcraftorthepeopleaboardthem maybedamagedifthrownagainsttheship'sside.   Haveboatropesready,and fenders if you have them.


.4         Peopleinthewatermaybeabletoswim(overshortdistances)togettotheship's side.  Itispossiblethatpeoplewillenterthewaterfromsurvivalcraftinorderto dosoasyouapproach,althoughtheyshouldbetoldnottoifpossible-atleast until you are ready to recover them.


7.4       Overcomingtheproblemsofmanoeuvringisamatterofseamanship-andofpreparation. Manoeuvringyourownshipatslowspeed,judgingitsmovementandthatofthesurvivalcraftor person  in  the  water,  is  a  skill.   Appropriate  training  should  be  encouraged  by  owners  and operators of all ships.


7.5       However,  it  may  be  unsafe  -  or  simply  impossible  -  to  bring  the  survival  craft  or  the peopleinthewateralongsideyourshipdirectly.  Youmayhavetofindanotherwayofreaching them.  Onewaytodothisistolauncharescuecraftfromyourownship,ifthiscanbeachieved safely .


7.6       Launching a rescue craft will serve three purposes:


.1         it will make the final approach to the target easier;


.2         primary  recovery  (into  the  rescue  craft)  will  be  easier,  because  of  the  rescue craft's lower freeboard and similar motion to that ofthe target; and  



.3         completing  the  recovery  by  returning  to  the  ship  and  being  lifted  back  aboard using  the  rescue  craft's own  recovery  system  should  also  be  easier  -  always provided that it can be done safely.


7.7       Onlylimitednumbersofpeoplecanbebroughtaboardoneachoccasion,butthismaybe asaferoptionthandirectrecovery.   Italsointroducesanumberofcontrolmeasures,allowing more time for dealing with those who have been recovered once they are aboard the ship.


7.8       Thebestleeforlaunchingandrecoveryofrescuecraftislikelytobeobtainedbyputting the sea on a quarter, steaming slowly ahead,and doing the boat work on the opposite side.


7.9       For  most  ships,  however,  launching  rescue  craft  may  only  be  an  option  in  reasonably goodweatherconditions.  Inmoderateseaconditionsorworse,launchandrecoverymaybetoo hazardous, putting your own crew into danger and making an already difficult situation worse.


7.10     The  use  of  your  own  rescue  craft  must  be  for  the  master  to  decide,  depending  on  the particular circumstances of the incident.  Factors to consider include:


.1         theseverityoftherisktothoseindistress:  cantheybeleftwheretheyareuntil more  suitable  help  arrives  (supported  in  other  ways  by  the  assisting  ship  in  the meantime - see below) or are alternative means of recovery available;


.2         onsceneweatherconditions:   particularlyseastate,butalsowindstrengthand direction, ambient temperatures and visibility;


.3         the capability of the rescue craft:


.1         the efficiency of the rescue craft launch and recovery equipment;


.2         the competence and experience of the rescue craft'screw;


.3        the availability of personal protective equipment for the rescue craft's crew;


.4         the  effectiveness  of  communications  between  the  rescue  craft  and  the recovery ship;




the proximity of navigational hazardsto the rescue craft; and





the  rescue  craft's ability  to  navigate,  whether  independently  or




fromthe ship, so as to avoid hazards and to locate the perso



.4         the  manoeuvrability  of  the  recovering  ship:       can  you  get  into  a  position  to launch and recover the rescue craft safely; and


.5         theproximityofnavigationalhazards:  limitingyourabilitytomanoeuvreorto provide alternative help to those in distress.





8 Getting People Aboard The Ship: Factors To Consider

8.1       Oncepeopleareinapositionfromwhichtheycanberecovered,thenextpartofthetask is to get themaboard the ship.  Thiswill dependon:


.1         the prevailing weather and sea conditions;


.2         the condition of the people to be recovered;


.3         the size of your ship;


.4         your ship'sdesign;


.5         the equipment available; and


.6         the competency of those using it.


8.2       Weather andsea conditions on scene will beimportant, particularly the sea state.


.1         How is the recovery target moving in relation to your ship?


.1         Inaseawayalargeshipmovesverydifferentlytoasmallcraft(orperson) alongside  her.   The  smaller  target  tends  to  react  to  every  sea  and  swell wave, while the large ship does not.


.2         Therecoverytargetinthewatermayberundown,crushed,capsizedor swamped by your ship, or it may be left behind.


.3         Itmaybeverydifficulttotransferfromasmallcraftontoyourshipasthe two move vertically relativetoeachother.


.4         Your  ship  and  the  recovery  target  will  be  subject  to  leeway  in  different ways.   Ship  and  target  may  be  blown  together  or  apart.   Water  currents may also have different effects on your ship and the target.

.2         Your ship'sownmovements will also be a factor.


.1         As  the  ship  moves  in  sea  and  swell,  people  may  be  swung  against  the ship'sside as they climb or are liftedto an embarkation point.


.2         Aspeopleclimborareliftedintoyourship,thecrafttheyhavejustleft may rise on a wave, striking or trapping themagainst the ship's side.


.3         People  may  swing  away  from  the  side  and  collide  with  another  hazard, including the craft they have just left.


8.3       You  should  attempt  to  minimize  the  difficulties  caused  by  rough  seas.  Consider  the following when planning recovery operations:


.1         Try  to  keep  sufficiently  off  the  wind  to  reduce  the  ship's roll  and  pitch  and  to create  a  lee.  Find  by  experiment  (if  time  permits)  the  position  in  which  the recovery target lies most easily alongside.


.2         Steamingslowlyaheadwiththerecoverytargetsecuredalongsideandtheweather on  the  opposite  quarter  should  ease  differential  movement,  although  it  does introduceotherrisks.   Craftmaybedamaged,linesmaypart,orpeoplemayfall into the water during the recovery operation, and drift astern.


.3         Try  to  secure  survival  craft  alongside  if  possible,  to  prevent  them  being  blown away or left behind.


.4         Whenliftingpeople,controllinesshouldberiggedtothehoistandtendedinan effort to minimize swinging.


.5         Safetylinesshouldalwaysbeusedtosecurethecasualtyincasehe/sheisinjured and/or falls.


.6        Ifthedifferentialmovementistooviolent,youwillneedtoconsiderotheroptions.


.7         Itmaybepossibletotransferthosetoberecoveredtoanintermediateplatform suchasaliferaftveereddowntothem,oractingasafenderagainsttheship's side.


.8         Itmaybenecessarytohavethementerthewater,suitablyequippedwithflotation aidsandsafetylinesfromtheship,tobepulledacrossasafetygapbetweenthe ship and the survival craft.


.9         Ultimately,however,theonlyoptionmaybetoabandontheattemptatrecovery and  to  stand  by  the  target,  supplying  whatever  assistance  you  can  until  a  more capable recovery unit arrives or conditions ease.



8.4       Theconditionofthepeopletoberecoveredisanothercriticalfactor.  Whenrespondingto anemergency,youwillusuallynotknowtheconditionofthoseneeding recoveryuntilyouarrive.


.1         People'sconditionatrecoverycanrangefromthefitandhealthytotheentirely helpless  who,  through  injury,  infirmity,  hypothermia,  or  fear  can  do  nothing  to assist in their own recovery.


.2         This  wide  range  of  capability  may  be  found  across  a  group  of  people  to  be recovered,  so  that  some  of  the  group  will  be  able  to  climb  unaided  into  the recovering  ship  while  others  will  need  assistance. It  may  be  found  in  an individual:  eventhefitandexperiencedseafarer'scapabilitywillerodeovertime, andmayerodequickly.  Weatherconditions-ambienttemperaturesinparticular

- and the level of protection available prior to recovery are critical.


.3         You may find that people in distress are able to help themselves (and others).  You mayfindthatyouwillhavetodoalltheworkyourselfbecausetheycannot,or can no longer, help themselves.  You arelikely to find a mix of these conditions.


.4         Fearisafactordeservingattention.  Manyofthoseawaitingrecoverywillbeable to deal with it; others may not.  The latter may try to be recovered first or (ifafraid for  missing  friends  or  family  members,  for  example,  or  if  simply  afraid  of  the recovery  process  itself)  they  may  resist   recovery. In  either  case  they  may  act dangerously.  Beasreadyasyoucanforsuchunpredictablebehaviour,including havingextralifesavingequipmenttohandincasesomeoneendsupinthewater. The  aimis  to  retain  control  of  the  recovery  process  overall:   loss  of  control  by individuals can be tolerated unless it directlyaffects others' safety.


8.5       Be  ready  to  deal  with  each  of  these  possibilities.   You  should  plan  ahead,  so  far  as  is practicable.


.1         Itmaybebesttobringatleastsomeofthemorecapablesurvivorsaboardfirst. Youwillprobablybeabletorecovermorecapablepeoplemorequicklythanyou can  recover  the  incapable,  and,  once  aboard,  they  may  be  able  to  help  you,  by lookingafterothersurvivorsforexample.   Ontheotherhand,someofthemost capableshouldalsobeamongthelasttoberecovered,asyouwillneedthemto help prepare the incapable for recovery.


.2         Communications  with  those  awaiting  recovery  are  therefore  very  important. A controlledandcorrectlyprioritizedrecoveryprocessshouldbeestablishedand maintained.


8.6       Thesizeofyourship,relativetoyourrecoverytarget,willaffectdifferentialmovement, as discussed above.


8.7       Itwillalsodeterminehowfarthosebeingrecoveredhavetoclimborbelifted;which,in turn, may affect:


.1         how long recovery takes;


.2         how many people can be recovered;


.3         whethertheyareexposedtoadditionalriskssuchasswingingagainsttheship's



.4         how anxious they are about the operation.


8.8       Theship's  designmaymakerecoverysimpler.  Ahigh-sidedshipmaybeabletouselow freeboard areas or openings in her hullsuch as pilot, bunkering, or cargo doors.


8.9       Thebestpointofentryintotheshipshouldbeassessedwiththeprevailingconditionsin mind.  The questions to be considered include:


.1         Where can ladders or other climbing devices be rigged?


.2         Wherecanliftingdevicesbe used?  Whatarethepowersourcesand leadsforsuch devices?


.3         Arethereanylowfreeboardareas?  Cantheybesafelyaccessedinbadweatheror difficultseaconditions?   Canthemeansofrecoveryberiggedthere?   Canthose recovered be safely removed fromthere to shelter?


.4         Are  there  any  hull  openings?       Can  they  be  safely  accessed  and  opened  in  bad weatherordifficultseaconditions?   Canthemeansofrecoveryberiggedthere? Can those recovered be safely removed fromthere to shelter?


.5         If thinking ofusing accommodation ladders sited aft, is there a danger of survivors orcraftnearthefootoftheladderbeingtrappedunderthehullasittaperstothe stern?


.6         Istherebeltingalongtheship's  sides?   Ifsothisisaparticularhazardtosmall craft,  with  significant  danger  of  the  craft  being  trapped  beneath  it.  Recovery points should be at any breaks in the belting.


8.10     Theequipmentavailableandthenumberofpeoplecompetenttooperateitarealsokey factors.  Iftherearen'tenoughpeopletrainedtooperateallavailablemeansofrecovery,orifthe recoveringshiphasplentyofpeoplebuthasn'tpreparedadequate recoveryequipment,efficiency

of recovery will obviously be impaired.


.1         ASSESSyourequipment.


.2         PLANits use.


.3         ASSIGNpeople to operate it.


.4         ENSUREthat they know how to operate it.




9 Getting People Aboard The Ship: Climbing And Lifting

9.1       Themethodsofrecoverydiscussedinthisguideareinadditionto purpose-builtmeansof recoverycarriedaboardtheship.  Theyaremethodsthatseafarershaveusedsuccessfullyinthe past.  Consider which ones can be used aboardyour ship; or whether you can devise others.



9.2       Youmayhavetousethesemethodsintheabsenceofpurpose-builtmeansofrecovery;or intheirplaceiftheycannotbedeployedintheprevailingcircumstances.  Youmayalsoneedto usethesemethodsasextrameansofrecoveryiftherearemanypeopleneedingtobepickedup- especiallyifrecoverytimeislimitedbylikelysurvivaltimes,orbytheonsetofdarknessorbad weather, for example.


9.3       The following climbingdevices should be considered:


.1         pilot laddersand lifts;


.2         accommodation ladders;


.3         your own survival craft embarkation ladders; and


.4         other ladders and nets.


9.4       Someorallofthesemayberigged,inmostcaseswhatevertheconditions.  Thefollowing points should be borne in mind:


.1         Lifting survivors is preferable to having themclimb a ladder or net - see below.


.2         Laddersandnetsshouldbesoriggedastominimizetheclimb;thatis,wherethe freeboard is lowest or at suitable openings in the ship's  side.


.3         They should be rigged on the flat sides of the ship, away from bow and stern.


.4         Theirlowerendsshouldbeweightedsoastohangabouttwometresbelowthe water level, enabling people in the water to get onto them.


.5         Ifpossible,rignetsandJacob'sladderssothattheyhangclearoftheship's  side,

to enable people to grasp the rungs or cross-ropes more readily.


.6         Pilot  ladders  -  or,  if  they  can  be  rigged  safely  in  the  prevailing  conditions, accommodation ladders - are preferableto nets and Jacob's ladders.


.7         All ladders and netsshould be tended.


.8         Safetylinesshouldbedeployedalongsidethem,withrescuestropsorloopsinthe end  for  the  casualty's use.   These  safety  lines  should  be  correctly  secured  and tended.


.9         A  liferaft  can  be  deployed  at  the  foot  of  the  ladder  or  net,  to  act  as  a  transfer platform.


.10       Peoplemaynotbeabletomaketheclimb.  Insuchcircumstancesacrewmember fromtherecoveringship,wearingpersonalprotectiveequipmentandasafetyline, may have to go down to assist.


.11       If  people  are  incapable  of  making  the  climb,  the  ladder  or  net  may  have  to  be recoveredwiththemsecuredtoit.  Forindividualsurvivors,thismaybepossible manually.  Alternatively a winch or otherpower source will have to be used.


9.5       In  general,  liftingsurvivors  is  preferable  to  having  them  try  to  climb  ladders  or  nets.

The following lifting devices should be considered:


.1         cranes(includingstorescranes, etc.), gantries, derricks;


.2         davits;


.3         windlass, winches; and


.4         proprietary recovery devices.


9.6       The following points should be borne in mind:


.1         Lifting  devices  should  be  rigged  so  that  those  recovered  can  be  lifted  clear  of hazards and landed on deck in a safe area.


.2         Sofaraspossible,linesledfromwindlassorwinchesshouldberiggedsothatthe casualty can be lifted above the deck edge.


.3         Controllinesshouldberiggedtothelowerendofthelift,sothatswingingagainst the ship's  side can be limited.


.4         The  lower  end  of  the  lift  should  be  equipped  with  at  least  a  rescue  strop  or a secure loop.


.5         Apurpose-builtorimprovisedrescuebasket,oraproprietaryrecoverydevice,is usually better than strops and loops.


.6         Peoplewhohavebeeninthewater,theinjuredandtheincapable,shouldbelifted inahorizontalornear-horizontalpositionifpossible(forexample,inabasket,or intwostrops;oneunderthearms,theotherundertheknees).  Thisminimizesthe riskofshockinducedbysuddentransferfromthewaterandpossiblehypothermia.


.7         Acrewmemberfromtherecoveringship,wearingpersonalprotectiveequipment andasafetyline,maybeabletogodownwiththelifttoassistthoseincapableof helping themselves into the strop, loop, basket or other device.


9.7       The  rescue  basket  mentioned  above  is  a  particularly  useful  recovery  tool.     It  may  be possible  to  improvise  such  a  basket;  but  it  is  not  an  expensive  piece  of  equipment  and  it  is recommended that a purpose-built unit be carried on board.


9.8       Therescuebasketusuallytakestheformofametalframewithfloats/fendersaroundits perimeter  and  the  lifting  hook  made  fast  to  the  top  of  the  frame,  clear  of  people  inside.   The basketfloatspartiallysubmerged,sothatpeoplecaneasilyenteritorbepulledintoit.  Thefloats doubleasfendersduringthelift,shouldthebasketswingagainsttheship's  side.   Somebaskets aredesignedtofoldforeaseofstowage.  Thesizeofthebasket,andhowmanypeopleitcanlift at once, largely depends on the ship's  lifting capability.


9.9       Thecontrollinesmentionedabove-usuallyriggedforeandaftalongtheship's  side,and tendedduringtheliftinordertosteadytheliftandminimizeswinging-maybesupplemented byalinetothesurvivalcraft.   Thislineservestwofunctions.   Itmaybetendedbythosestill aboard  the  survival  craft  as  an  additional  means  of  controlling  the  hoist's  lateral  movements. It also  serves  to  maintain  contact  with  the  survival  craft  throughout,  so  that  the  hoist  may  be brought back more easily to the survival craft for the next lift.


9.10     Your own ship's  Survival Equipment may be used for recovery purposes.


.1         Liferafts  and  lifeboats,  left  on  the  falls,  may  be  used  as  lifts  in  relatively  good conditions.   Loweringtheseunitstowaterlevelenablespeopletobetransferred fromsurvivalcraftandliftedtotherecoveringship's  embarkationdeck.  Itshould

be noted that:


.1         Any quick-release gear should be disabled.


.2         Carewillbeneedednottooverloaddavitwinchesnotnormallydesigned

torecovercraftwithmorethantheirowncrewaboard:peoplecanusually only be recovered in small numbers by this method.


.2         Shipsfittedwithmarineevacuationsystemsoftheslidetypecandeploythemand recover people by pulling themup the slide.


.1         Light  ladders  may  be  carried  for  deployment  down  the  slide,  to  enable people  to  climb  it  unaided:  this  will  usually  be  easier  than  climbing  a ladder up the vertical ship's  side.


.2         Winchescanberiggedsothatpeoplemaybehauleduptheslideonlines, secured by rescue strops or loops.


9.11     Afurtheroptiontoconsider,ifwinch-fittedHelicoptersareonscene,istousethemas transfer  lifts.   People  can  be  winched  from  survival  craft  directly  onto  the  recovering  ship  - whichisaquickeroperationthantakingthemintothehelicopter'scabinfirst.  Thehelicopteris effectively used as a crane.








1          ThefollowingisanextractfromVolumeIIIoftheIAMSARManual:   MobileFacilities Volume.   VolumeIIIshouldbereferredtoforfurtherguidance,forexampleonthetransferof survivors fromhelicopters and on the immediatecare of survivors oncesuccessfully recovered.




2          Seafarersshouldconsiderhowtorecoversurvivorsintotheirownvesselsundervarious environmental conditions.  Recovery methods include:


.1         using throwing rockets or heaving lines topass lifebuoys and/or lines to survivors;


.2         streaming a rope, with lifebuoysor other flotation attached;


.3         riggingpilotladders,Jacob'sladdersornets,preferablyclearoftheship's  side, withsafetylines.  Ifsurvivorsareunabletoclimb,laddersornetsmayhavetobe recovered with the survivors securedto them.  Where practicable:


.1         rig ladders or nets frompilot doors or other low openings;


.2         deploy safety lines with rescue strops or loops;


.3         use suitably equipped crew members to assist survivors directly; and


.4         deploy a liferaft with the ladder or net to act as a transfer platform;


.4         pulling survivors up suitable marine evacuation systems;


.5         deploying liferafts or lifeboats for survivors to hold onto, or climb into;


.6         using rafts or boats as lifts, leaving themon the falls if conditions permit;


.7         lifting  survivors  using  gantries,  cranes,  davits  or  derricks,  with  lines  rigged  to minimize swinging against the ship's  side;


.8         deploying purpose-built or improvised recovery baskets;


.9         rigging a boat rope for boats and survival craft tosecure alongside; and


.10       lowering embarkation ladders.


3          Any lights in use must not be directedtowards helicopters operating in the area.      




4          Survivors  in  the  water  should  be  lifted  in  a  horizontal  or  near-horizontal  position  if possible(forexample,intwostrops;oneunderthearms,theotherundertheknees)tominimize the risk of shock induced by sudden transfer from the water and possible hypothermia.


5          Assisting vessels should also be prepared to receive survivorsfromhelicopters.*


6          When  the  risks  involved  in  recovery  operations  outweigh  the  risks  of  leaving  the survivors in life saving appliances, considerthe following actions:


.1         using the ship to provide a lee for the survivors;


.2         deployinglife-saving appliances from the assisting vessel;


.3         maintainingvisualandcommunications contact with the survivors;


.4         updatingthe co-ordinating authority; and


.5         transferringessentialsurvival and medical supplies.







*               RefertoIAMSARVolume III Section 2:“Helicopter Operations”.

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