8.1 Oncepeopleareinapositionfromwhichtheycanberecovered,thenextpartofthetask is to get themaboard the ship. Thiswill dependon:
.1 the prevailing weather and sea conditions;
.2 the condition of the people to be recovered;
.3 the size of your ship;
.4 your ship'sdesign;
.5 the equipment available; and
.6 the competency of those using it.
8.2 Weather andsea conditions on scene will beimportant, particularly the sea state.
.1 How is the recovery target moving in relation to your ship?
.1 Inaseawayalargeshipmovesverydifferentlytoasmallcraft(orperson) alongside her. The smaller target tends to react to every sea and swell wave, while the large ship does not.
.2 Therecoverytargetinthewatermayberundown,crushed,capsizedor swamped by your ship, or it may be left behind.
.3 Itmaybeverydifficulttotransferfromasmallcraftontoyourshipasthe two move vertically relativetoeachother.
.4 Your ship and the recovery target will be subject to leeway in different ways. Ship and target may be blown together or apart. Water currents may also have different effects on your ship and the target.
.2 Your ship'sownmovements will also be a factor.
.1 As the ship moves in sea and swell, people may be swung against the ship'sside as they climb or are liftedto an embarkation point.
.2 Aspeopleclimborareliftedintoyourship,thecrafttheyhavejustleft may rise on a wave, striking or trapping themagainst the ship's side.
.3 People may swing away from the side and collide with another hazard, including the craft they have just left.
8.3 You should attempt to minimize the difficulties caused by rough seas. Consider the following when planning recovery operations:
.1 Try to keep sufficiently off the wind to reduce the ship's roll and pitch and to create a lee. Find by experiment (if time permits) the position in which the recovery target lies most easily alongside.
.2 Steamingslowlyaheadwiththerecoverytargetsecuredalongsideandtheweather on the opposite quarter should ease differential movement, although it does introduceotherrisks. Craftmaybedamaged,linesmaypart,orpeoplemayfall into the water during the recovery operation, and drift astern.
.3 Try to secure survival craft alongside if possible, to prevent them being blown away or left behind.
.4 Whenliftingpeople,controllinesshouldberiggedtothehoistandtendedinan effort to minimize swinging.
.5 Safetylinesshouldalwaysbeusedtosecurethecasualtyincasehe/sheisinjured and/or falls.
.7 Itmaybepossibletotransferthosetoberecoveredtoanintermediateplatform suchasaliferaftveereddowntothem,oractingasafenderagainsttheship's side.
.8 Itmaybenecessarytohavethementerthewater,suitablyequippedwithflotation aidsandsafetylinesfromtheship,tobepulledacrossasafetygapbetweenthe ship and the survival craft.
.9 Ultimately,however,theonlyoptionmaybetoabandontheattemptatrecovery and to stand by the target, supplying whatever assistance you can until a more capable recovery unit arrives or conditions ease.
8.4 Theconditionofthepeopletoberecoveredisanothercriticalfactor. Whenrespondingto anemergency,youwillusuallynotknowtheconditionofthoseneeding recoveryuntilyouarrive.
.1 People'sconditionatrecoverycanrangefromthefitandhealthytotheentirely helpless who, through injury, infirmity, hypothermia, or fear can do nothing to assist in their own recovery.
.2 This wide range of capability may be found across a group of people to be recovered, so that some of the group will be able to climb unaided into the recovering ship while others will need assistance. It may be found in an individual: eventhefitandexperiencedseafarer'scapabilitywillerodeovertime, andmayerodequickly. Weatherconditions-ambienttemperaturesinparticular
- and the level of protection available prior to recovery are critical.
.3 You may find that people in distress are able to help themselves (and others). You mayfindthatyouwillhavetodoalltheworkyourselfbecausetheycannot,or can no longer, help themselves. You arelikely to find a mix of these conditions.
.4 Fearisafactordeservingattention. Manyofthoseawaitingrecoverywillbeable to deal with it; others may not. The latter may try to be recovered first or (ifafraid for missing friends or family members, for example, or if simply afraid of the recovery process itself) they may resist recovery. In either case they may act dangerously. Beasreadyasyoucanforsuchunpredictablebehaviour,including havingextralifesavingequipmenttohandincasesomeoneendsupinthewater. The aimis to retain control of the recovery process overall: loss of control by individuals can be tolerated unless it directlyaffects others' safety.
8.5 Be ready to deal with each of these possibilities. You should plan ahead, so far as is practicable.
.1 Itmaybebesttobringatleastsomeofthemorecapablesurvivorsaboardfirst. Youwillprobablybeabletorecovermorecapablepeoplemorequicklythanyou can recover the incapable, and, once aboard, they may be able to help you, by lookingafterothersurvivorsforexample. Ontheotherhand,someofthemost capableshouldalsobeamongthelasttoberecovered,asyouwillneedthemto help prepare the incapable for recovery.
.2 Communications with those awaiting recovery are therefore very important. A controlledandcorrectlyprioritizedrecoveryprocessshouldbeestablishedand maintained.
8.6 Thesizeofyourship,relativetoyourrecoverytarget,willaffectdifferentialmovement, as discussed above.
8.7 Itwillalsodeterminehowfarthosebeingrecoveredhavetoclimborbelifted;which,in turn, may affect:
.1 how long recovery takes;
.2 how many people can be recovered;
.4 how anxious they are about the operation.
8.8 Theship's designmaymakerecoverysimpler. Ahigh-sidedshipmaybeabletouselow freeboard areas or openings in her hullsuch as pilot, bunkering, or cargo doors.
8.9 Thebestpointofentryintotheshipshouldbeassessedwiththeprevailingconditionsin mind. The questions to be considered include:
.1 Where can ladders or other climbing devices be rigged?
.2 Wherecanliftingdevicesbe used? Whatarethepowersourcesand leadsforsuch devices?
.3 Arethereanylowfreeboardareas? Cantheybesafelyaccessedinbadweatheror difficultseaconditions? Canthemeansofrecoveryberiggedthere? Canthose recovered be safely removed fromthere to shelter?
.4 Are there any hull openings? Can they be safely accessed and opened in bad weatherordifficultseaconditions? Canthemeansofrecoveryberiggedthere? Can those recovered be safely removed fromthere to shelter?
.5 If thinking ofusing accommodation ladders sited aft, is there a danger of survivors orcraftnearthefootoftheladderbeingtrappedunderthehullasittaperstothe stern?
.6 Istherebeltingalongtheship's sides? Ifsothisisaparticularhazardtosmall craft, with significant danger of the craft being trapped beneath it. Recovery points should be at any breaks in the belting.
8.10 Theequipmentavailableandthenumberofpeoplecompetenttooperateitarealsokey factors. Iftherearen'tenoughpeopletrainedtooperateallavailablemeansofrecovery,orifthe recoveringshiphasplentyofpeoplebuthasn'tpreparedadequate recoveryequipment,efficiency
of recovery will obviously be impaired.
.2 PLANits use.
.3 ASSIGNpeople to operate it.
.4 ENSUREthat they know how to operate it.