Onderwerp: Bezoek-historie

751 Special needs of High Speed Craft (HSC) SAR operating plans
Geldigheid:13-06-1996 t/m Status: Geldig vandaag

Dit onderwerp bevat de volgende rubrieken.

( SOLAS Ch X, HSC Code reg )

1 The Maritime Safety Committee, at its sixty-sixth session (28 May to 6 June 1996), noted the particular SAR considerations associated with incidents involving High Speed Craft (HSC) which do not have the same fire and stability standards as SOLAS passenger ships and cannot ensure their intrinsic safety when immobile at sea.

2 Noting that, in the event of an incident which renders an HSC immobile, an urgent response is required by SAR services to ensure the safety of passengers and crew, it is essential that Governments, in drawing up and exercising SAR operation plans, take into account the special considerations associated with HSC operating in their regions.

3 To ensure that operating plans address the SAR considerations associated with HSC, HSC operators/owners should co-operate with SAR authorities taking into account, as necessary and as decided by the regulatory authorities in co-operation with the SAR authority concerned, any special measures the HSC operator/owner will have to undertake.

4 Member Governments are invited to bring this circular to the attention of all concerned for information and action, as appropriate.


The Maritime Safety Committee, at its sixty-first session (7 to 11 December 1992), recognized that chronic exposure to very low concentrations of benzene vapors in air, of the order of a few parts per million, may cause leukaemia.
The Committee, at its sixty-sixth session (28 May to 6 June 1996), desiring to protect the health of seafarers at a level similar to that for shore-based workers engaged in similar tasks:
  1. adopted the annexed minimum safety standard for ships carrying mixtures the benzene content of which is 0.5 per cent or more; and
  2. invited Member Governments to apply the standards as soon as possible.

Annex 1 Minimum safety standards for ships carrying mixtures the benzene content of which is 0.5 percent or more

Chronic exposure to very low concentrations of benzene vapors in air of the order of a few parts per million may cause leukaemia. In order to protect the health of seafarers to the same level as that of shore-based workers performing comparable tasks, measures should be taken for all ships carrying mixtures the benzene content of which is 0.5 per cent or more. Such measures should include the following requirements:

1 Controlled tank venting system
Vapors displaced from the tank during loading and tank breathing should be emitted through a controlled tank venting system complying with either Regulation II-2/59 of SOLAS 74 or paragraph 8.3.2 of the IBC Code, or paragraph 2.14.2 of the BCH Code, as applicable. Whenever a vapor emission control system is available ashore, vapors displaced from the tank during loading should be returned to that system.

2 Air quality monitoring
The airborne concentration of benzene vapor should be measured with an approved instrument by a trained and properly protected person, before any other person is authorized to work in a given area.
As an alternative, a programme of sampling and measurements should be carried out covering all representative circumstances which may be found during cargo operations and a record kept of such programme.

3 Operational exposure limits
Worker exposure to airborne concentrations of benzene vapors should be controlled within the following limits:
  1. a Time Weighted Average (TWA) of one part of benzene per million parts of air, over an eight hour period, which covers the time a man is assumed to work in any 24 hour period.
  2. a Short Term Exposure Limit (STEL) of five parts of benzene per million parts of air over any 15 minute period.

4 Personal protection equipment (PPE)
.1 Equipment for cargo operations on deck Whenever direct or representative measurements indicate that the TWA or the STEL are exceeded during normal cargo handling operations*, personnel required to work in the affected area should wear appropriate respiratory equipment. Such equipment is indicated below**, however a higher level of protection may be selected by the user.
  1. Half face piece: in areas where the airborne concentration of benzene vapors exceeds 1 ppm but is less than 10 ppm;
  2. Full face (filter) piece with dual cartridge: operations other than emergency response, spill response and clean-up, in areas where the airborne concentration of benzene vapors exceeds 10 ppm but is less than 50 ppm;
  3. Air supplied respirators: operations in areas where the airborne concentration of benzene vapors exceeds 50 ppm but is less than 100 ppm;
  4. Pressure demand breathing apparatus: in areas where the airborne concentration of benzene is greater than 100 ppm or unknown; and
  5. Eye protection, impervious gloves and suitable protective apron should be readily available to personnel while making or breaking cargo transfer connections, sampling and gauging or when skin contact with the cargo is likely.
.2 Equipment for entry into enclosed spaces when gas is present Ships carrying mixtures the benzene content of which is 0.5 per cent or more should carry not less than three complete sets of safety equipment each permitting personnel to enter a gas filled compartment and perform work there for at least twenty minutes. Entry must always be subject to adequate pre-entry criteria being satisfactorily complied with.
Such equipment should be in addition to what is required by regulation II-2/17 of SOLAS 74.
One complete set of safety equipment should consist of:
  1. one self-contained air-breathing apparatus (not using stored oxygen);
  2. protective clothing, boots, gloves and tight-fitting goggles;
  3. fire-proof life line with belt resistant to the cargoes carried; and
  4. explosion-proof lamps.
Such ships should also comply with regulation 14.2.3 of the IBC Code.

5 PPE Maintenance
The personal protection equipment should be maintained and replaced in accordance with manufacturers' instructions. Maintenance records should be kept on board.

6 Training
Each respirator wearer shall be given training (and retraining), which shall include explanations and discussions of:
  1. the respiratory hazard and the effect on the wearer if the respirator is not used properly;
  2. the engineering and administrative controls being used and the need for respirators to provide protection;
  3. the reason for selecting a particular type of respirator;
  4. the function, capabilities, and limitations of the selected respirator; and
  5. the method of donning the respirator and checking its fit and operation.

7 Medical Monitoring
Ship personnel potentially exposed to benzene vapor inhalation should be submitted to a programme of regular suitable medical checks on their health. The results of such checks should be kept on record under normal confidential practices in the medical profession.

8 Information on the benzene content of cargo
Prior to loading, the shipper should inform the master in writing if the cargo to be loaded contains 0.5 or more percent benzene. In order to comply with this requirement, the shipper might have to obtain this information from the cargo manufacturer.

* These recommendations regarding air purifying masks apply to operational uses of respiratory equipment for the purposes of protection during normal cargo handling operations and are be confused with those provisions specified in 14.2.8 of the IBC Code.
** There are existing standards for respiratory protection equipment. These standards include:
- American National Standard for Respiratory Protection (ANSI Z88.2 - 1992)
- British Standard for Respiratory Protection Devices, Valved Filtering Half Masks to Protect Against Gases or Gases and Particles (BS EN 405: 1993)

Annex 2 That may contain benzene

This table lists a number of cargoes, normally transported in oil tankers, which may contain benzene in concentrations greater than 0.5%.
    Gasoline Blending Stocks, Reformates
    Gasoline, Automotive
    Gas oil (Cracked)
    Unleaded Gasoline
    Gasoline, Aviation
    Gasoline, Straight Run
    Naphtha, Cracking Fraction
    Naphtha, Petroleum
    Naphtha, Solvent
    Naphtha, Stoddard Solvent
    Napththa, Varnish Makers & Painters (75%)
    Oil, Coal Tar
    Oil, Crude
    1 This list is not exhaustive. Therefore cargoes not listed above may contain benzene in excess of 0.5%.
    2 There are specific products included in some of the above generic entries which contain less than 0.5% benzene, e.g. crude oil. For such products, the circular would not be applicable.
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