Onderwerp: Bezoek-historie

REVOKED- 675 Recommendations on the safe transport of dangerous cargoes and related activities in port areas
Geldigheid:30-01-1995 t/m Status: Geldig vandaag

Dit onderwerp bevat de volgende rubrieken.

Revoked by MSC/Circ.1216 EIF = February 26th, 2007


1 The Maritime Safety Committee, at its sixty-fourth session (5 to 9 December 1994), adopted Recommendations on the Safe Transport of Dangerous Cargoes and Related Activities in Port Areas, as set out in the annex to this circular.

2 These Recommendations replace the Recommendations on the Safe Transport, Handling and Storage of Dangerous Substances in Port Areas (MSC/Circ.299 dated 12 February 1981, as amended by MSC/Circ.299/Add.1 dated 8 July 1983).

3 Member Governments are invited to bring the Recommendations to the attention of the appropriate authorities, shipowners, ship and berth operators, relevant cargo interests, emergency services and all others concerned.

0 Foreword


A Recommendation on the Safe Practice of Dangerous Goods in Ports and Harbours was first circulated by the Organization in November 1973.

The subsequent development of new techniques in shore and ship operations, as well as the desirability of having more comprehensive recommendations which included dangerous goods in packaged form, liquid and solid dangerous substances and liquefied gas carried in bulk, made it necessary to revise and update the Recommendation.

The Recommendation, originally adopted as resolution A.289(VIII), has been revised on several occasions and circulated as MSC/Circ.299 (12 February 1981) and MSC/Circ.299/Add.1 (8 July 1983).

The decision for the latest revision was taken by the fifty-ninth session of the Maritime Safety Committee and the work was entrusted to the Sub-Committee on the Carriage of Dangerous Goods. The current revised edition not only provides the necessary updates but also includes some novel features, the most important of which is the inclusion, in the text, of guidance for the implementation of the Recommendations by those member States which are only now undertaking the regulation of the transport of dangerous goods and related activities in their ports.

The Recommendations have been aligned as closely as possible with relevant IMO codes and the IMDG Code in particular. This means that the particular provisions of those codes will, where relevant, apply in the port area, e.g. the limited quantities provision in the IMDG Code. It is considered essential to harmonize the rules within the port area with the ship in order to ensure smooth operations and to avoid misunderstandings between ship and shore. The Recommendations make a distinction between keeping and storage. Dangerous cargoes temporarily in the port area as part of the transportation chain are not considered as being stored as their presence is solely concerned with awaiting loading onto and further onward movement by another mode of transport. Because this is an operation covered by the Recommendations, the term "keeping" is included in the overall definition of handling. Storage, which involves the holding of substances for an indeterminate period not directly involved with the transportation process, is considered to be outside the scope of these Recommendations and has been excluded from the definitions. Regulatory authorities may wish to regulate the storage of such substances but that would be achieved by other regulations unconnected with the transportation process.

A new element, cargo interests, has been introduced in the Recommendations. This refers to the many and various organizations who can be involved with the dangerous cargoes even before such cargoes reach the port area and ship. These include shippers, packers, those concerned with documentation, consolidators and forwarding agents. Experience has shown that this group has a crucial role to play in the safe transportation of dangerous cargoes and the Recommendation should also apply to them. The term "dangerous cargoes" has replaced "dangerous substances". It reflects the need to deal with cargo only and has been aligned with the respective IMO codes. It also reflects the inclusion of the MARPOL provisions and marine pollutants in the IMDG Code.

1 Introduction


1.1 The entry and presence of DANGEROUS CARGOES in PORT AREAS and any consequential HANDLING should be controlled to ensure the general safety of the area, the containment of the cargoes, the safety of all persons in or near the PORT AREA, and the protection of the environment.

1.2 The safety of life at sea and the safety of a SHIP, its cargo and its crew in a PORT AREA are directly related to the care which is taken with DANGEROUS CARGOES prior to loading or unloading, and during their HANDLING.

1.3 These Recommendations are confined to DANGEROUS CARGOES which are in a PORT AREA as part of the transport chain. These Recommendations do not apply to dangerous substances which are used in a PORT AREA or are for general storage in the PORT AREA, but Governments may wish to control such use and storage by national legal requirements. Should a substance covered by either of these exclusions subsequently be shipped, these Recommendations should then be applied, even though the substance is already in the PORT AREA.

1.4 An essential pre-requisite for the safe TRANSPORT and HANDLING of DANGEROUS CARGOES is their proper identification, containment, packaging, packing, securing, marking, labelling, placarding and documentation. This applies whether the operation takes place in a PORT AREA or at premises away from a PORT AREA.

1.5 Whilst the total transport chain includes inland, port and marine elements, it is essential that every care is taken by those responsible for the matters in 1.4 and that all relevant information is passed to those involved in the transport chain and to the final consignee. Attention should be paid to the possible differing requirements for different modes of TRANSPORT.

1.6 A new chapter 4 on training has been added to these Recommendations. The UN Committee of Experts on the Transport of Dangerous Goods has adopted requirements for training and all the surveys carried out by REGULATORY AUTHORITIES have indicated the need for greater training activities. Chapter 4 was developed in response to those needs.

1.7 A new section 5 has been added to describe the roles of the REGULATORY AUTHORITY, PORT AUTHORITY, BERTH OPERATOR and CARGO INTERESTS.

1.8 These Recommendations are intended to set out a standard framework within which legal requirements can be prepared by Governments, whether for the first time or as a revision, to ensure the safe TRANSPORT and HANDLING of DANGEROUS CARGOES in PORT AREAS. These Recommendations are not intended to specify standards of construction and equipment.

1.9 Attention is drawn to the following internationally recognized IMO codes and guides, which are of direct relevance to the safe TRANSPORT and HANDLING of DANGEROUS CARGOES in PORT AREAS, and which may serve as valuable sources of information in the development of national legal requirements;
  • International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS), 1974, as amended, and earlier SOLAS Conventions where applicable
  • MARPOL 73/78, as amended
  • International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code (IMDG Code) and IMDG Code Supplement (includes EmS, MFAG, BC Code, IMO/ILO Guidelines for Packing Cargo in Freight Containers or Vehicles and Recommendations on the Safe Use of Pesticides in Ships)
  • International Code for the Construction and Equipment of Ships Carrying Dangerous Chemicals in Bulk (IBC Code) and earlier Code (BCH Code) where applicable
  • International Code for the Construction and Equipment of Ships Carrying Liquefied Gases in Bulk (IGC Code) and earlier Codes, the Gas Carrier Code and the Code for Existing Ships Carrying Liquefied Gases in Bulk, where applicable
  • Manual on Oil Pollution, sections I and II
  • Manual on Chemical Pollution, sections 1 and 2
  • Manual on Reception Facilities
  • International Convention on Oil Pollution Preparedness, Response and Co-operation (OPRC), 1990
  • Inert Gas Systems
  • Crude Oil Washing Systems
  • Facilities in Ports for the Reception of Oily Wastes
  • Graphical Symbols for Fire Control Plans
  • Index of Dangerous Chemicals Carried in Bulk
  • International Convention for Safe Containers (CSC), 1972, as amended
  • Recommendations on Principles and Operational Guidance for Deck Officers in Charge of a Watch in Port adopted by the International Conference on Training and Certification of Seafarers, 1978
  • Code of Safety for Nuclear Merchant Ships
  • Safety Recommendations on the Use of Ports by Nuclear Merchant Ships
  • Code of Safe Practice for Cargo Stowage and Securing
  • International Code for the Safe Carriage of Grain in Bulk (International Grain Code)
  • Code for the Safe Carriage of Irradiated Nuclear Fuel, Plutonium and High Level Radioactive Wastes in Flasks on Board Ships
Appendix 1 is a bibliography of other relevant publications.

1.10 General information on seaborne dangerous cargoes and convention requirements relating to ships carrying dangerous cargoes is given in Appendices 2 and 3.

1.11 The codes and guides are under continuous review and are regularly revised. It is essential that only the most up-to-date editions are used. The contents of these codes and guides have been repeated in these Recommendations only to the extent necessary.

1.12 Governments should ensure that national legal requirements concerning the TRANSPORT and HANDLING of DANGEROUS CARGOES are to the greatest extent possible compatible with the relevant codes and guides (see operative paragraph 2 of IMO resolution A.717(17) which: "STRONGLY URGES Governments to co-ordinate their work in the different organizations to prevent conflicts with established rules and regulations relating to the maritime transport of dangerous, hazardous and harmful cargoes, including environmentally hazardous substances (marine pollutants) and wastes").

2 Application and definitions


2.1 Application
These Recommendations apply to the entry and presence of DANGEROUS CARGOES in PORT AREAS both on SHIP and on shore. It is intended that they should be made applicable to any SHIP visiting a port irrespective of its flag. They should not apply to SHIPS' STORES and equipment nor to troopships and warships.


2.2 Definitions
For the purposes of these Recommendations, the following definitions apply:

BERTH - means any dock, pier, jetty, quay, wharf, marine terminal or similar structure (whether floating or not) at which a ship may tie up. It includes any plant or premises, other than a ship, used for purposes ancillary or incidental to the loading or unloading of dangerous cargoes.

BERTH OPERATOR - means any person or body of persons who has for the time being the day-to-day control of the operation of a berth.

BULK - means cargoes which are intended to be carried without any intermediate form of containment in a cargo space which is a structural part of a ship or in a tank permanently fixed in or on a ship.

CARGO INTERESTS - means a shipper, carrier, forwarder, consolidator, packing centre or any person, company or institution involved in any of the following activities: identification, containment, packaging, packing, securing, marking, labelling, placarding or documentation, as appropriate, of dangerous cargoes for receipt by a port and transport by sea and having control over the cargo at any time.

CERTIFICATE - means a certificate issued by or on OF FITNESS behalf of an Administration in accordance with the relevant codes for the construction and equipment of a type of ship certifying that the construction and equipment of the ship are such that certain specified dangerous cargoes may be carried in that ship.

DANGEROUS CARGOES - means any of the following cargoes, whether packaged, carried in bulk packagings or in bulk within the scope of the following regulations:
* oils covered by Annex I of MARPOL 73/78;
* gases covered by the Codes for the Construction and Equipment of Ships Carrying Liquefied Gases in Bulk;
* noxious liquid substances/chemicals, including wastes covered by the Codes for the Construction and Equipment of Ships Carrying Dangerous Chemicals in Bulk and Annex II of MARPOL 73/78;
* dangerous, hazardous and harmful substances, materials and articles including environmentally hazardous substances (marine pollutants) and wastes, covered by the International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code; and
* solid bulk materials possessing chemical hazards and solid bulk materials hazardous only in bulk (MHBs), including wastes, covered by Appendix B of the Code of Safe Practice for Solid Bulk Cargoes.
The term dangerous cargoes includes any empty uncleaned packagings (such as tank-containers, receptacles, intermediate bulk containers (IBCs), bulk packagings, portable tanks or tank vehicles) which previously contained dangerous cargoes, unless the packagings have been sufficiently cleaned of residue of the dangerous cargoes and purged of vapours so as to nullify any hazard or has been filled with a non-dangerous substance.

DOCUMENT OF - means a document issued by or on behalf COMPLIANCE of an Administration to ships carrying dangerous goods in packaged form or in solid form in bulk under SOLAS regulation II-2/54.

FLEXIBLE PIPE - means a flexible hose and its end fittings, which may include means of sealing the ends, used for the purpose of transferring dangerous cargoes.

HANDLING - means the operation of loading or unloading of a ship, railway wagon, vehicle, freight container or other means of transport, transfer to, from or within a warehouse or terminal area or within a ship or transhipment between ships or other modes of transport and includes intermediate keeping, i.e. the temporary storage of dangerous cargoes in the port area during their transport from the point of origin to their destination for the purpose of changing the modes or means of transport.

HOT WORK - means the use of open fires and flames, power tools or hot rivets, grinding, soldering, burning, cutting, welding or any other repair work involving heat or creating sparks which may lead to a hazard because of the presence or proximity of dangerous cargoes.

LOADING ARM - means an articulated hard pipe system and its associated equipment, which may include quick release couplings, emergency release systems or hydraulic power pack, used for the purpose of transferring dangerous cargoes.

MASTER - means any person other than a pilot or a watchman, having charge of a ship.

PACKING - means the packing, loading or filling of dangerous cargoes into receptacles, intermediate bulk containers (IBCs), freight containers, tank containers, portable tanks, railway wagons, bulk packagings, vehicles, shipborne barges or other cargo transport units.

PIPELINE - means all pipes, connections, valves and other ancillary plant, apparatus and appliances in a port provided or used for or in connection with the handling of dangerous cargoes, but does not include a flexible pipe, loading arm or any part of a ship's pipes, apparatus or equipment other than the termination of those parts of the ship's pipes apparatus or equipment to which a flexible pipe is connected.

PORT AREA - means the land and sea area established by legislation.
NOTE: Some port areas may overlap and legal requirements should take account of this possibility.

PORT AUTHORITY - means any person or body of persons empowered to exercise effective control in a port area.

REGULATORY - means the national, regional or local AUTHORITY authority empowered to make legal requirements in respect of a port area and having powers to enforce the legal requirements.

RESPONSIBLE PERSON - means a person appointed by a shore side employer or the master of a ship empowered to take all decisions relating to his specific task, having the necessary current knowledge and experience for that purpose and, where required, is suitably certificated or otherwise recognized by the regulatory authority.

SHIP - means any seagoing or non-seagoing water craft, including those used on inland waters, used for the transport of dangerous cargoes.

SHIPS' STORES - materials which are on board a ship for the upkeep, maintenance, safety operation or navigation of the ship (except for fuel and compressed air used for the ships' primary propulsion machinery or for fixed auxiliary equipment) or for the safety or comfort of the ships' passengers or crew. Materials which are intended for use in commercial operations by a ship are not to be considered as ships' stores (e.g. materials used for diving, surveying and salvage operations).

SKILLED PERSON - means any person having the current knowledge, experience and competence to perform a certain duty.

STOWAGE - means the positioning of packages, intermediate bulk containers (IBCs), freight containers, tank containers, portable tanks, bulk packagings, vehicles, shipborne barges, other cargo transport units and bulk cargoes on board ships, in warehouses, sheds or other areas.

TRANSPORT - means the movement by one or more modes of transport in port areas.

UNSTABLE SUBSTANCE - means a substance which, by nature of its chemical make-up, tends to polymerize or otherwise react in a dangerous manner under certain conditions of temperature or in contact with a catalyst. Mitigation of this tendency can be carried out either by special transport conditions or by introducing adequate amounts of chemical inhibitors or stabilizers to the product.

3 Warehouses, terminal areas and infrastructure

3.1 General


3.1.1 This chapter relates to jetties, PIPELINES, cargo sheds, container stacking areas, warehouses and terminal areas for DANGEROUS CARGOES, access and transport roads, rail links and waterways in PORT AREAS.

3.1.2 The REGULATORY AUTHORITY should take every care that, in defining the PORT AREA, it covers only areas where DANGEROUS CARGOES are transported, handled or kept for the purpose of changing the mode or means of TRANSPORT. Refineries, chemical plants, factories, etc., should not be included in the PORT AREA except for jetties or wharves relating to those activities.

3.1.3 The REGULATORY AUTHORITY should establish general legal requirements to be met for new facilities, extensions or major changes to existing facilities.

3.1.4 The REGULATORY AUTHORITY should also encourage the upgrading of existing facilities to meet such requirements.

3.1.5 When establishing such requirements the REGULATORY AUTHORITY should make every effort to prevent conflicts with established legal requirements relating to the TRANSPORT of DANGEROUS CARGOES including environmentally hazardous substances and wastes.

3.2 Land use planning


3.2.1 When planning new facilities or upgrading existing facilities in a PORT AREA the following factors should be considered:
  1. the protection of health, property and the environment;
  2. the DANGEROUS CARGOES to be transported or handled;
  3. other hazardous installations in the vicinity;
  4. population density in the area under consideration including vulnerability of population;
  5. ease of evacuation or other measures which may need to be taken in the event of an accident;
  6. emergency services and procedures available;
  7. possibility and probability of an accident occurring and the effects on health, property and the environment, depending on the DANGEROUS CARGOES to be transported or handled;
  8. the provision of repair and cleaning facilities for SHIPS and cargo transport units; and
  9. the requirements of MARPOL 73/78 with respect to reception facilities.

3.2.2 Land use planning decisions should take into account the cumulative risk of all hazardous installations and substances in the vicinity of ports.

3.2.3 Land use planning should always take into account international guidelines, experience and recommendations available from the various international bodies.

3.3 Considerations for specific dangerous cargoes


3.3.1 Substances harmful to the aquatic environment

3.3.1.1 Where practicable, wherever such substances are present in the PORT AREA, suitable means should be used to prevent these substances entering into the soil, water areas or drainage systems. This also applies to pipe and conveyor bridges.

3.3.1.2 Whenever practicable, drainage systems should be furnished with shut-off valves, sumps or basins and shore discharge facilities for contaminated water.

3.3.1.3 Whenever practicable, such areas should be separated by containment walls, bunds or sills.


3.3.2 Explosives

3.3.2.1 Explosives should not be permitted to enter the PORT AREA unless the REGULATORY AUTHORITY has granted permission to handle explosives. This should include explosives in transit.

3.3.2.2 Where necessary and permitted by the REGULATORY AUTHORITY a special site with suitable protection and with access by road and rail should be provided for the keeping of explosives.

3.3.2.3 Any such site should be fenced off to prevent the entry of unauthorized persons and should have facilities for watchmen including adequate means of communication.


3.3.3 Temperature controlled dangerous cargoes

3.3.3.1 Where necessary special areas, with shore facilities for connecting temperature controlled cargo transport units to shore utilities should be provided. The facilities should include back up systems.


3.3.4 Radioactive materials

3.3.4.1 Where necessary special areas, which include buildings built in accordance with international safety standards, should be provided for such materials.

3.3.4.2 Any such areas should be secured to prevent the entry of unauthorized persons.

3.4 Specific considerations for warehouses and terminal areas


3.4.1 Dangerous cargo areas

3.4.1.1 Dangerous cargo areas should have separate areas with all necessary facilities appropriate to the hazards emanating from the cargoes to be kept. Where appropriate these facilities should include separate ventilation, drainage, fire resisting walls, ceilings, etc.

3.4.1.2 The spaces should enable an adequate segregation of DANGEROUS CARGOES in accordance with the legal requirements of the REGULATORY AUTHORITY.


3.4.2 Container stacking areas/rail sidings/lorry parking areas

3.4.2.1 Separate areas may be designated for specific DANGEROUS CARGOES.

3.4.2.2 Segregation requirements of the REGULATORY AUTHORITY should be met when designating areas.

3.4.2.3 Care should be taken that, in case of an emergency, adequate access is provided for handling equipment, emergency services, etc.

3.4.2.4 Adequate emergency facilities should be provided. These should be appropriate to the hazards of the DANGEROUS CARGOES to be handled.


3.4.3 Fumigation areas

3.4.3.1 Separate areas should be provided or designated for SHIPS and/or cargo transport units to be fumigated.

3.4.3.2 Whenever practicable these areas should be fenced off to prevent the entry of unauthorized persons and should have facilities for watchmen. The facilities should include adequate means of communication.


3.4.4 Special areas for damaged dangerous cargoes and wastes contaminated with dangerous cargoes.

3.4.4.1 Special areas for damaged DANGEROUS CARGOES and wastes contaminated with DANGEROUS CARGOES should be provided, where damaged DANGEROUS CARGOES may be kept and repacked or contaminated wastes separated and kept until their disposal.

3.4.4.2 Such areas should, where appropriate, be covered, have a sealed floor or ground, separate drainage systems with shut-off valves, sumps or basins and means to discharge contaminated water to special facilities in order to safeguard the PORT AREA and the environment.

3.4.4.3 Such areas should be fenced off to prevent the entry of unauthorized persons and should have facilities for watchmen. The facilities should include adequate means of communications.


3.4.5 Repair/cleaning facilities

3.4.5.1 Where repair or cleaning facilities for SHIPS or cargo transport units are provided, these should be situated well away from any area where DANGEROUS CARGOES are transported or handled.

3.4.5.2 Cleaning facilities should be designed and constructed to protect the environment when environmentally hazardous substances are used or are otherwise involved, in the cleaning process.


3.4.6 Reception facilities

3.4.6.1 Facilities should be provided for the reception and disposal of bilge water, wastes, ballast and slops, contaminated with DANGEROUS CARGOES, as appropriate.


3.4.7 Tank storage and pipelines

3.4.7.1 Permanent installations for the storage of liquid BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES, including PIPELINES, in the PORT AREA should be designed, constructed and maintained in accordance with the REGULATORY AUTHORITY's legal requirements, taking into account temperature, the development of pressure, compatibility of substances and the need to ensure harmonization with the requirements laid down for SHIPS.

4 Training


4.1 Regulatory Authorities

4.1.1 The REGULATORY AUTHORITY should establish minimum requirements for training and, where appropriate, qualifications for each person involved, directly or indirectly, in the TRANSPORT or HANDLING of DANGEROUS CARGOES.

4.1.2 REGULATORY AUTHORITIES involved in the development or enforcement of legal requirements relating to the supervision of TRANSPORT or HANDLING of DANGEROUS CARGOES should ensure that their personnel are adequately trained, commensurate with their responsibilities.


4.2 Management

4.2.1 Management should ensure that all shipboard and shore personnel involved in the TRANSPORT or HANDLING of DANGEROUS CARGOES or in the supervision thereof are adequately trained and appropriately qualified commensurate with their responsibilities within their organization.

4.2.2 Management at all levels should exercise day-to-day responsibility for health and safety.


4.3 Personnel (cargo interests, berth operators and ships)

4.3.1 Every person engaged in the TRANSPORT or HANDLING of DANGEROUS CARGOES should receive training on the safe TRANSPORT and HANDLING of DANGEROUS CARGOES, commensurate with his responsibilities.


4.4 Training content

4.4.1 General awareness/familiarization training

4.4.1.1 Every person should receive training on the safe TRANSPORT and HANDLING of DANGEROUS CARGOES commensurate with his duties. The training should be designed to provide familiarity with the general hazards of relevant DANGEROUS CARGOES and the legal requirements. Such training should include a description of the classes of DANGEROUS CARGOES; marking, labelling and placarding, packing, segregation and compatibility requirements; a description of the purpose and content of the transport documents; and a description of available emergency response documents.

4.4.2 Function-specific training

4.4.2.1 Every person should receive detailed training concerning specific requirements for the TRANSPORT and HANDLING of DANGEROUS CARGOES which are applicable to the function that he performs.


4.4.3 Safety training

4.4.3.1 Every person should receive training commensurate with the risks in the event of a release of DANGEROUS CARGOES and the functions he performs, on:
  1. general dangers of the various classes of DANGEROUS CARGOES and how to prevent exposure to their hazards including, if appropriate, the use of personal protective clothing and equipment;
  2. methods and procedures for accident avoidance, such as proper use of package-handling equipment and appropriate methods of STOWAGE and segregation of DANGEROUS CARGOES;
  3. immediate procedures to be followed in the event of an unintentional release of DANGEROUS CARGOES, including any emergency response procedures for which the person is responsible and the personal protection procedures to be followed; and
  4. necessary emergency response information and how to use it.

4.4.3.2 Such training should be provided or verified upon employment in a position involving the TRANSPORT or HANDLING of DANGEROUS CARGOES and should be periodically supplemented with retraining, as deemed appropriate by the REGULATORY AUTHORITY.

5 Responsibilities


5.1 Role of regulatory authority

5.1.1 The REGULATORY AUTHORITY should ensure that appropriate legal requirements, based upon these Recommendations are made and reviewed regularly.

5.1.2 The REGULATORY AUTHORITY should make arrangements for appropriate enforcement action to be taken to ensure compliance with the legal requirements.

5.1.3 As some of the matters covered by these Recommendations are best dealt with by the people on the spot, the REGULATORY AUTHORITY should consider whether some of the legal requirements should be enforced by the PORT AUTHORITY.

5.1.4 Where appropriate, national legal requirements should permit purely local matters to be regulated by local port rules (by-laws), enforced by the PORT AUTHORITY. Such local rules should not duplicate nor be contrary to any of the national legal requirements.

5.1.5 The REGULATORY AUTHORITY should take steps to ensure that appropriate advice is made available to all those who have duties under the legal requirements.


5.2 Role of the port authority

5.2.1 The PORT AUTHORITY should exercise control over the movement of shipping through the PORT AREA and should establish systems for the receipt of prior notification and the conditions under which DANGEROUS CARGOES may enter the PORT AREA.

5.2.2 The PORT AUTHORITY should exercise control over the shoreside entry of DANGEROUS CARGOES into the PORT AREA and should establish systems for the receipt of prior notification and the conditions under which DANGEROUS CARGOES may enter the PORT AREA.

5.2.3 The PORT AUTHORITY, where it has been empowered to do so, should make provisions to enforce the relevant part of the national legal requirements.

5.2.4 Where appropriate, the PORT AUTHORITY should develop and enforce local port rules (by-laws) covering DANGEROUS CARGOES in the PORT AREA.

5.2.5 The PORT AUTHORITY should, when it is within the scope of its responsibility, develop, maintain, publicize and practise, as appropriate, plans for any foreseeable emergency concerning DANGEROUS CARGOES in the PORT AREA.


5.3 Role of berth operator and cargo interests

5.3.1 The BERTH OPERATOR and CARGO INTERESTS have the prime responsibility for carrying out the TRANSPORT and HANDLING of DANGEROUS CARGOES in a manner which safeguards the health and safety of their employees and others who may be affected by the operations, including the general public.

5.3.2 The BERTH OPERATOR and CARGO INTERESTS should consider the risks associated with such activities in PORT AREAS and take them into account when devising safe operational procedures. The procedures should ensure compliance with relevant legal requirements.

5.3.3 The BERTH OPERATOR and CARGO INTERESTS should provide appropriate information, instruction, training and supervision to their employees to ensure that the safe operational procedures are followed in practice. Such supervision should include procedures to verify that DANGEROUS CARGOES comply with the relevant legal requirements and can be accepted for onward TRANSPORT.

5.3.4 The BERTH OPERATOR should ensure that appropriate plans are made to deal with all foreseeable emergencies. Such plans should be co-ordinated with the port emergency plan and relate to incidents and their consequences in the area they control within the PORT AREA and in adjacent areas or premises.

5.3.5 The BERTH OPERATOR should ensure that all accidents and other emergencies, including those involving property, are properly investigated to identify their causes, reported as required by national and local legal requirements, and that any remedial action necessary to correct any deficiencies and prevent any recurrence is taken promptly.

5.3.6 The BERTH OPERATOR and CARGO INTERESTS should ensure that the safety of all aspects of the TRANSPORT and HANDLING of DANGEROUS CARGOES is regularly reviewed.

5.3.7 CARGO INTERESTS should also ensure that DANGEROUS CARGOES they forward for TRANSPORT by sea comply with the relevant legal requirements.


5.4 Awareness

5.4.1 All persons involved with the TRANSPORT and HANDLING of DANGEROUS CARGOES should be appropriately trained to ensure that they are aware of the hazards associated with such cargoes and the precautions that should be taken.

6 General recommendations for regulatory authorities, port authorities, ships, berth operators and cargo interests

6.1 Regulatory authorities and port authorities


6.1.1 Acceptability of dangerous cargoes in port areas

6.1.1.1 The REGULATORY AUTHORITY should determine the classes and quantities of DANGEROUS CARGOES which may be permitted to transit or to enter a PORT AREA by any mode of TRANSPORT and the conditions under which they are to be handled, having regard to the facilities available for the reception and keeping of DANGEROUS CARGOES and the location of the PORT AREA in relation to nearby installations and centres of population. The REGULATORY AUTHORITY should make such information available in the national and, where appropriate, English languages.

6.1.1.2 The PORT AUTHORITY should be empowered to refuse DANGEROUS CARGOES intended for keeping within, or transit through, the PORT AREA, if it is considered that their presence would endanger life or property because of their condition, the condition of their containment, the condition of their mode of conveyance, or the conditions in the PORT AREA. Notwithstanding this provision all reasonable effort should be made to aid a SHIP in distress, particularly when the lives of its crew are in danger.

6.1.1.3 If any DANGEROUS CARGO within the PORT AREA constitutes an unacceptable hazard, the PORT AUTHORITY should be able to remove, or order the removal of, any such cargo or any SHIP, package, freight container, tank-container, portable tank, vehicle or other cargo transport unit containing it.

6.1.1.4 An UNSTABLE SUBSTANCE should not be accepted unless all conditions necessary to ensure its safe TRANSPORT and HANDLING have been specified and met.


6.1.2 Advance notification

6.1.2.1 The REGULATORY AUTHORITY should establish a system whereby the PORT AUTHORITY is notified in good time, but generally not less than 24 hours in advance of the arrival of DANGEROUS CARGOES in the PORT AREA. The REGULATORY AUTHORITY should establish and make available information on the various categories and minimum quantities of such categories of DANGEROUS CARGOES for which prior notification of arrival is required. The system may enable special arrangements to be made or exemptions to be granted as appropriate for certain categories and/or quantities of DANGEROUS CARGOES, for certain modes of TRANSPORT and for short voyages. This will include SHIPS carrying DANGEROUS CARGOES which intend to transit through the PORT AREA.

6.1.2.2 Advance notification should also be given when a SHIP or a cargo transport unit arrives under fumigation. The notification should contain the name of the fumigant and the date of application.

6.1.2.3 The advance notification should also include any deficiency of the SHIP, its equipment and/or the containment of DANGEROUS CARGOES which may affect the safety in the PORT AREA or the SHIP.

6.1.2.4 The REGULATORY AUTHORITY should establish a system whereby the PORT AUTHORITY of the port of departure is notified, in good time but generally not less than 3 hours prior to the departure of a SHIP, of the DANGEROUS CARGOES on board.

6.1.2.5 The advance arrival and departure notification should be given by letter, telex, telefax, or electronic data interchange (EDI) transmission techniques or any other means acceptable to the PORT AUTHORITY.

6.1.2.6 The information which should be given is set out at Annex 1.

6.1.2.7 For DANGEROUS CARGOES arriving by sea the notification should be given by the MASTER of the ship, the shipowner, or his agent. For DANGEROUS CARGOES arriving by road, rail or inland watercraft, advance notification should be given by the CARGO INTERESTS.


6.1.3 Berthing

6.1.3.1 The PORT AUTHORITY should be empowered to:
  1. direct when and where a SHIP, having any DANGEROUS CARGOES on board, should anchor, moor, berth or remain within the PORT AREA, taking into consideration relevant matters such as the quantity and nature of the DANGEROUS CARGOES involved, the environment, the population, the weather conditions;
  2. direct, in an emergency, a SHIP having any DANGEROUS CARGOES on board to be moved within the PORT AREA, or to be removed therefrom having due regard to the safety of the SHIP and its crew; and
  3. attach such requirements to any such directions as are appropriate to local circumstances and the quantity and nature of the DANGEROUS CARGOES involved.

6.1.3.2 The REGULATORY AUTHORITY should require that adequate safe means of access are provided between the SHIP and the shore.


6.1.4 Emergency procedures

6.1.4.1 The REGULATORY AUTHORITY should require that appropriate emergency arrangements are made and brought to the attention of all concerned. These arrangements should include:
  1. the provision of appropriate emergency response alarm operating points;
  2. procedures for notification of an incident or emergency to the appropriate emergency response services within and outside the PORT AREA;
  3. procedures for notification of an incident or emergency to the PORT AREA users both on land and water;
  4. the provision of emergency equipment appropriate to the hazards of the DANGEROUS CARGOES to be handled;
  5. the formation of a local emergency response team to co-ordinate action in the case of a major emergency and to deal with any day-to day untoward incidents such as a minor leak or spillage of DANGEROUS CARGOES;
  6. co-ordinated arrangements for the release of a SHIP in case of an emergency; and
  7. arrangements to ensure adequate access/egress at all times.

6.1.4.2 The REGULATORY AUTHORITY should require the preparation and maintenance of records of the DANGEROUS CARGOES which are present in the PORT AREA for use in an emergency.

6.1.4.3 The REGULATORY AUTHORITY should require that emergency response information is available where DANGEROUS CARGOES are handled and that it is accessible at all times.


6.1.5 Fire precautions

6.1.5.1 The REGULATORY AUTHORITY should require that areas where certain DANGEROUS CARGOES are handled are designated as areas where smoking and other sources of ignition are prohibited and where only electrical equipment of a type safe for use in a flammable atmosphere is used.

6.1.5.2 The carrying out of HOT WORK and the use of any equipment or activity which may lead to a fire or explosion hazard should be prohibited in areas where certain DANGEROUS CARGOES are handled, unless authorized by the PORT AUTHORITY.

6.1.5.3 In areas or spaces where a flammable atmosphere may exist or develop, electrical equipment should be of a type safe for use in a flammable atmosphere.


6.1.6 Environmental precautions

6.1.6.1 The REGULATORY AUTHORITY should require that special areas for the holding and repacking of damaged DANGEROUS CARGOES and wastes contaminated with DANGEROUS CARGOES are provided wherever necessary.

6.1.6.2 The PORT AUTHORITY should ensure that damaged packages, unit loads or cargo transport units are immediately and safely moved to the special area mentioned in

6.1.6.1. They should ensure that damaged packages, unit loads or cargo transport units do not leave the special area unless the DANGEROUS CARGOES have been properly repacked and are in all respects fit and safe for further TRANSPORT and HANDLING.


6.1.7 Reporting of incidents

6.1.7.1 Any person having charge of a DANGEROUS CARGO should inform the PORT AUTHORITY immediately of any incident relevant to such cargo that occurs within the PORT AREA which may endanger life, property or the environment.


6.1.8 Inspections

6.1.8.1 The PORT AUTHORITY should make regular inspections to ensure the implementation of the safety precautions in the PORT AREA and the safe TRANSPORT and HANDLING of DANGEROUS CARGOES. They should be empowered to:
  1. inspect documents and certificates concerning the safe TRANSPORT, HANDLING, PACKING and STOWAGE of DANGEROUS CARGOES in the PORT AREA;
  2. inspect packages, unit loads and cargo transport units containing DANGEROUS CARGOES to verify that they are packed, marked, labelled or placarded in accordance with the provisions of the IMDG Code or the appropriate national or international standards applicable for the mode of TRANSPORT; that unnecessary labels, placards and marks have been removed; and that the cargo transport units have been loaded, packed and secured in accordance with the IMO/ILO Guidelines for Packing Cargo in Freight Containers or Vehicles;
  3. inspect freight containers, tank-containers, portable tanks and vehicles containing DANGEROUS CARGOES to ensure that they have a current safety approval plate in accordance with the International Convention for Safe Containers (CSC), 1972, as amended, when applicable, or have been approved in accordance with the relevant provisions of sections 12, 13 or 17 of the General Introduction to the IMDG Code, or by a certification or approval system of an appropriate authority; and
  4. check, by external examination, the physical condition of each freight container, tank-container, portable tank or vehicle containing DANGEROUS CARGOES for obvious damage affecting its strength or packaging integrity and for the presence of any sign of leakage of contents. For ships carrying BULK liquids reference should be made to 8.1.1.3.

6.1.8.2 If any of the inspections or checks mentioned above reveal deficiencies which may affect the safe TRANSPORT or HANDLING of DANGEROUS CARGOES, the PORT AUTHORITY should immediately advise all parties concerned and request them to rectify all deficiencies prior to any further TRANSPORT or HANDLING of the DANGEROUS CARGOES


6.1.9 Repair or maintenance work

6.1.9.1 The PORT AUTHORITY should require that it is notified of any person's intention to carry out repair or maintenance work, either on board a SHIP or ashore, which may constitute a hazard because of the presence of DANGEROUS CARGOES, and that such work is authorized only when it can be carried out without creating such a hazard.

6.1.9.2 In case of HOT WORK in or near tanks, a gas-free certificate, issued by a chemist or other suitably qualified person approved by the PORT AUTHORITY, should be pre-requisite. This certificate should be renewed if circumstances alter and at least every 24 hours.

6.1.9.3 HOT WORK should only be carried out by persons approved by the PORT AUTHORITY and only after being authorized as required in 6.1.5.2. When carrying out such work all necessary precautions should be taken.

6.1.9.4 Minimum safety requirements for carrying out HOT WORK are set out in annex 4.


6.1.10 Entry into confined or enclosed spaces

6.1.10.1 The PORT AUTHORITY should require the MASTER of a SHIP and the BERTH OPERATOR within their respective areas of responsibility to ensure that before any personnel enter any confined or enclosed space, appropriate precautions are taken against the possible presence of dangerous vapours or oxygen depletion.


6.1.11 Fumigation of ships, warehouses, sheds or cargo transport units.

6.1.11.1 The PORT AUTHORITY should designate specific areas for SHIPS or cargo transport units which arrive under fumigation or are to be fumigated. Entry into such areas should be restricted. Appropriate signs (preferably pictograms such as shown in figure 5) should be displayed in such areas ashore. Figure 5 .

6.1.11.2 Prior to giving permission for access to SHIPS, warehouses, sheds or cargo transport units under fumigation, the PORT AUTHORITY should require a certificate from a RESPONSIBLE PERSON that it is safe to do so.


6.1.12 Reception facilities for contaminated bilge water, wastes, ballast and slops

6.1.12.1 The REGULATORY AUTHORITY should make the necessary legal requirements to ensure that, where necessary, contaminated bilge water and hazardous wastes are removed from the SHIP prior to leaving the PORT AREA.

6.1.12.2 The REGULATORY AUTHORITY should ensure that adequate reception facilities are provided for the reception and disposal of bilge water, wastes, ballast and slops contaminated with DANGEROUS CARGOES, as appropriate.

6.1.12.3 The REGULATORY AUTHORITY should ensure that the legal requirements for bunkering (6.1.14) are also applied to reception operations.


6.1.13 Safe transport and handling

6.1.13.1 The REGULATORY AUTHORITY should establish guidelines for measures to be taken to ensure the safe TRANSPORT and HANDLING of DANGEROUS CARGOES, especially the PACKING, STOWAGE and segregation of incompatible cargoes (see sections 10, 14 and 15 and annex 1 of the General Introduction to the IMDG Code).


6.1.14 Bunkering

6.1.14.1 The REGULATORY AUTHORITY and PORT AUTHORITY should include legal requirements for bunkering in port laws or port by-laws which should include the use of a bunkering checklist reflecting local circumstances. Bunkering of SHIPS should normally only be allowed at designated installations or by using bunker vessels. Bunkering precautions including a bunkering checklist are set out in annex 5.

6.1.14.2 Where bunkering is carried out simultaneously with the HANDLING of DANGEROUS CARGOES, gas freeing, purging or tank cleaning, the PORT AUTHORITY may consider the need for special permission to be given and special precautions to be taken to avoid damage to connecting PIPELINES or FLEXIBLE PIPES or any other damage. The permission should only be given when all the questions contained in the bunkering checklist have been answered affirmatively.


6.1.15 Explosives

6.1.15.1 Class 1 cargoes other than class 1.4 S should only be permitted to enter the PORT AREA for direct shipment to or from SHIPS, unless permitted by the REGULATORY AUTHORITY.

6.1.15.2 The REGULATORY AUTHORITY should establish specific requirements for the TRANSPORT and HANDLING of explosives, having regard to the hazards involved and the population density in the vicinity of the PORT AREA and any other relevant circumstances.

6.1.15.3 The precautions for loading and unloading of explosives set out in the Introduction to class 1 of the IMDG Code should be taken into account.

6.1.15.4 Additional basic items for consideration by the REGULATORY AUTHORITY are set out at annex 2.


6.1.16 Radioactive materials

6.1.16.1 Radioactive materials (schedules 5-13 of class 7 of the IMDG Code) should only be permitted to enter the PORT AREA for direct shipment or delivery unless permitted by the REGULATORY AUTHORITY.

6.1.16.2 Packaged radioactive materials should not be brought into the PORT AREA unless they are in conformity with the International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA) Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials, as reflected in the IMDG Code or similar national legal requirements.

6.1.16.3 Packages containing radioactive materials should be so stowed as to prevent harmful effects to persons and possible interaction between packages. Segregation distances on board sea-going SHIPS should be in accordance with class 7 and Section 15 of the General Introduction to the IMDG Code. Guidance on segregation distances required on shore is set out in annex 3.

6.1.16.4 In the event of any accident involving radioactive materials or packages of radioactive materials or any theft or loss of any such materials or packages the PORT AUTHORITY and relevant national authorities should be notified immediately. If there is any possibility of loss of containment of radioactive materials, the area should be isolated and the appropriate contingency plans put into operation.


6.1.17 Infectious substances

6.1.17.1 Infectious substances (class 6.2 of the IMDG Code) should only be permitted to enter the PORT AREA for direct shipment or delivery unless permitted by the REGULATORY AUTHORITY.

6.1.17.2 The REGULATORY AUTHORITY should establish specific requirements for the HANDLING of such substances, including but not limited to:
  1. areas for HANDLING;
  2. stringent supervision; and
  3. additional equipment for the containment of such substances.


6.1.18 Signals

6.1.18.1 The REGULATORY AUTHORITY should decide if and when a SHIP engaged in the TRANSPORT or HANDLING of certain specified DANGEROUS CARGOES in the PORT AREA, should exhibit by day or by night any special visual signals.

6.1.18.2 The specified DANGEROUS CARGOES referred to in 6.1.18.1 should include:
.1 BULK liquids with a flashpoint below 60 degrees C c.c.;
.2 BULK flammable and/or toxic gases; and
.3 Explosives (other than class 1.4S);
to the degree specified by the REGULATORY AUTHORITY.

6.1.18.3 The following four scenarios should be considered:
  1. the SHIP is moored or at anchor by day;
  2. the SHIP is moored or at anchor at night;
  3. the SHIP is under way by day; or
  4. the SHIP is under way at night.

6.1.18.4 Where signals are to be exhibited, they should be:
  1. by day flag "B" of the International Code of Signals; and
  2. by night an all-round fixed red light.



6.1.19 Communications

6.1.19.1 The PORT AUTHORITY should ensure that every SHIP engaged in the TRANSPORT of DANGEROUS CARGOES can maintain effective communications with the PORT AUTHORITY. When appropriate and practicable such communications should be carried out by VHF in accordance with the provisions of SOLAS regulation IV/7 and complying with the performance standards set out in IMO Assembly resolution A.609 (15) and the requirements of the REGULATORY AUTHORITY.


6.1.20 Pilotage and tug assistance

6.1.20.1 The PORT AUTHORITY should decide if and when a SHIP engaged in the TRANSPORT of DANGEROUS CARGOES should take a pilot on board and/or tug assistance while entering, leaving or moving in the PORT AREA.

6.1.20.2 In making such decision consideration should be given to:
  1. the type of SHIP and its manoeuvrability;
  2. the traffic situation;
  3. the layout of the PORT AREA;
  4. the tidal and weather situation; and
  5. the categories (classes) and quantities of DANGEROUS CARGOES carried.


6.1.21 Unmanned barges

6.1.21.1 The REGULATORY AUTHORITY should establish specific rules for unmanned barges carrying DANGEROUS CARGOES, including but not limited to:
  1. handling of such barges;
  2. waiting areas;
  3. watchkeeping ; and
  4. fire precautions and fire-fighting arrangements.


6.1.22 Exemptions

6.1.22.1 The REGULATORY AUTHORITY should take account of the varying degrees of hazards presented by DANGEROUS CARGOES and provide for exemptions from the provisions of these Recommendations, as appropriate. Exemptions should take account of nature, class and amount of the DANGEROUS CARGOES involved and the specific circumstances of the PORT AREA. Some products should be subject to most recommendations while others of minimal hazard may be exempt. In all cases it should be ensured that the exemption will not give rise to a significant risk to persons.


6.1.23 Knowledge of rules and regulations

6.1.23.1 The PORT AUTHORITY should appoint at least one RESPONSIBLE PERSON who has adequate knowledge of the current national and international legal requirements concerning the TRANSPORT and HANDLING of DANGEROUS CARGOES.


6.1.24 References

6.1.24.1 The PORT AUTHORITY should ensure that all relevant national and international legal requirements, guidelines, recommendations or other documents governing, referring or relating to:
  1. the TRANSPORT of DANGEROUS CARGOES;
  2. SHIPS carrying such cargoes; and
  3. installations handling, transporting, producing or otherwise using such cargoes; which have to be consulted within the PORT AREA, are readily available at the PORT AUTHORITY for reference and are updated as appropriate.

6.2 Ships carrying dangerous cargoes


6.2.1 Entering the port area

6.2.1.1 Prior to entering a PORT AREA, the MASTER of a SHIP having DANGEROUS CARGOES on board should:
  1. familiarize himself and his crew, as appropriate, with the legal requirements relating to SHIPS carrying or handling DANGEROUS CARGOES in the PORT AREA;
  2. check the condition of his SHIP, its machinery, equipment and appliances, as appropriate;
  3. check, wherever possible, the DANGEROUS CARGOES and their containments for any damage or leakage; and
  4. inform the PORT AUTHORITY of any relevant deficiency of the SHIP, its machinery, equipment or appliances or any damage or leakage of DANGEROUS CARGOES or containments which may endanger life, property or the environment.

6.2.1.2 Unless exempted by the PORT AUTHORITY, the MASTER of a SHIP should ensure that upon entering the PORT AREA:
  1. proper communications are maintained with the PORT AUTHORITY; and
  2. when required, the signals referred to in 6.1.18.1 are displayed.


6.2.2 Watchkeeping

6.2.2.1 The MASTER of a SHIP should ensure that a safe deck watch and a safe engine watch are maintained by the ready availability on board of a duly qualified officer or officers and ratings where appropriate, even when the SHIP is safely moored or safely at anchor in the PORT AREA. The MASTER should ensure that at all times there is sufficient crew available to operate the appropriate shipboard appliances in case of an emergency.

6.2.2.2 The MASTER of a SHIP should, in organizing safe watchkeeping arrangements, take full account of the nature, quantity, PACKING and STOWAGE of the DANGEROUS CARGOES and of any special conditions on board, afloat and ashore.

6.2.2.3 In organizing the watches, full account should also be taken of the "Recommendation on Principles and Operational Guidance for Deck Officers in charge of a Watch in Port" (resolution 3) and the "Recommendation on Principles and Operational Guidance for Engineer Officers in Charge of an Engineering Watch in Port" (resolution 4) adopted by the International Conference on Training and Certification of Seafarers, 1978.


6.2.3 Berthing

6.2.3.1 The MASTER of a SHIP should ensure that the moorings used in securing the SHIP are of an appropriate type, and of sufficient strength and number for the size of the SHIP and the local conditions.

6.2.3.2 Unless exempted by the PORT AUTHORITY, the MASTER of a SHIP which has to display the signals referred to in 6.1.18.1 should, at all times, while it is berthed in the PORT AREA:
  1. provide towing wires of adequate size at the bow and the stern ready for immediate use. The towing eye should be passed outboard and kept at about the water level by means of a rope stopper which will break under stress and release an adequate length of towing wire, stowed on deck for immediate use. The end of the wire should be properly secured to mooring bits; and
  2. ensure that the mooring arrangements are such that the SHIP can be released quickly in an emergency.

6.2.3.3 The MASTER of a SHIP should ensure that machinery necessary for the safety of the SHIP or the HANDLING of cargo or ballast is properly maintained, attended and always ready for use and that funnel uptakes and boiler tubes are not blown without the permission of the PORT AUTHORITY.

6.2.3.4 The MASTER of a SHIP should ensure that adequate safe means of access is provided between the SHIP and the shore.


6.2.4 Emergency procedures

6.2.4.1 The MASTER of a SHIP should, as appropriate, make himself, his officers and his crew familiar with the emergency response procedures established in the PORT AREA and the facilities available at the BERTH.

6.2.4.2 The MASTER of a SHIP should consider the necessity for arrangements for a safe and quick emergency escape, taking into account the nature of the DANGEROUS CARGOES and any special conditions on board.

6.2.4.3 The MASTER of a SHIP should establish emergency response procedures on board the SHIP to deal with incidents involving DANGEROUS CARGOES carried or to be carried on board and should ensure that the officers and crew are properly trained in carrying out such procedures.


6.2.5 Emergency information

6.2.5.1 The MASTER of a SHIP carrying DANGEROUS CARGOES should ensure that in addition to the information to be provided in accordance with SOLAS regulation II-2/20.2, the following information is kept at the same place:
  1. a list of all DANGEROUS CARGOES on board in transit in accordance with 9.10 of the General Introduction to the IMDG Code;
  2. a list of all DANGEROUS CARGOES to be unloaded in the PORT AREA. This list should contain the same information as requested under 6.2.5.1.1; and
  3. a list of all DANGEROUS CARGOES to be loaded in the PORT AREA containing the information required by 9.3 of the General Introduction to the IMDG Code and the intended STOWAGE on board the SHIP.

6.2.5.2 The MASTER of a SHIP should ensure that the officer on duty has the necessary information on measures to be taken to deal with incidents involving DANGEROUS CARGOES and that it is available for use in emergencies.

6.2.5.3 The MASTER should ensure that the Emergency Procedures for Ships carrying Dangerous Goods (EmS), and the Medical First Aid Guide for Use in Accidents Involving Dangerous Goods (MFAG) (in the IMDG Code Supplement) and/or comparable emergency response information are on board and readily accessible at all times.

6.2.5.4 The MASTER of a SHIP should ensure that the duty officer is always aware of the crew members or passengers and/or visitors on board or on shore leave.


6.2.6 Fire Precautions

6.2.6.1 The MASTER of a SHIP should ensure that:
  1. places where smoking is prohibited are designated; and
  2. notices in a pictogram form prohibiting smoking are clearly visible at all locations and at a safe distance from places where smoking would constitute a hazard.

6.2.6.2 The MASTER of a SHIP should ensure that tools or equipment, when used in an area or space where a flammable atmosphere may exist or may develop, are used in such a manner that no fire or explosion can be caused.

6.2.6.3 The MASTER of a SHIP should ensure that, in areas or spaces in which a flammable atmosphere may occur, only portable electrical equipment, including any used for sampling or ullaging, of a type safe for use in a flammable atmosphere is used.

6.2.6.4 The MASTER of a SHIP should ensure that electrical equipment on a wandering electrical lead is not used in areas or spaces where a flammable atmosphere may occur.

6.2.6.5 The MASTER of a SHIP should ensure that adequate and properly tested fire-fighting facilities, appropriate to the DANGEROUS CARGOES on board, are readily available and that the crew is trained and practised in the use of the fire-fighting equipment.


6.2.7 Environmental precautions

6.2.7.1 The MASTER of a SHIP having damaged packages, unit loads or cargo transport units of DANGEROUS CARGOES on board should ensure that all necessary measures are taken to avoid accidental spillage of such cargoes into the water.


6.2.8 Reporting of incidents

6.2.8.1 The MASTER of a SHIP, within his area of responsibility, should ensure that, if an incident occurs during the HANDLING of DANGEROUS CARGOES which may endanger life, property or the environment, the person having charge of the HANDLING immediately causes the operation to be stopped if it is safe to do so and prevents it being resumed until adequate safety measures have been taken. The MASTER of a SHIP should impose upon every member of his crew the obligation of reporting, to the person having charge of the operation, any such incident seen to occur during the HANDLING of DANGEROUS CARGOES.

6.2.8.2 The MASTER of a SHIP should ensure that any incident which may affect the safety of the PORT AREA, the population or the environment, is immediately reported to the PORT AUTHORITY. These may include incidents involving the SHIP, its crew, machinery, equipment or appliances, or to the DANGEROUS CARGOES or their containments which occur while in the PORT AREA, or after notification in accordance with 6.1.2 has been given.

6.2.8.3 The MASTER of a SHIP should ensure that any damaged or leaking package, unit load or cargo transport unit containing DANGEROUS CARGOES on board the SHIP is reported immediately to the BERTH OPERATOR and the PORT AUTHORITY and that suitable remedial action is taken in accordance with 6.1.6.2.


6.2.9 Inspections

6.2.9.1 The MASTER of a SHIP should ensure that, where practicable, regular inspections are carried out by the crew on the condition of the DANGEROUS CARGOES or their containments while on board the SHIP in the PORT AREA.

6.2.9.2 The MASTER of a SHIP should ensure that all necessary support is given to the PORT AUTHORITY when an inspection of DANGEROUS CARGOES and/or their containments on board the SHIP is carried out by them.


6.2.10 Repair or maintenance work

6.2.10.1 The MASTER of a SHIP, after having consulted the BERTH OPERATOR, where appropriate, should ensure that no repair or maintenance work resulting in the immobilization of the SHIP, its cargo handling equipment or the non-functioning of its safety appliances is carried out without prior permission of the PORT AUTHORITY.

6.2.10.2 The MASTER of a SHIP and persons carrying out the repair or maintenance work, after having consulted the BERTH OPERATOR, where appropriate, should ensure that they are in possession of a permit to proceed issued by the PORT AUTHORITY before any such work involving HOT WORK and any other repair or maintenance work which may lead to a hazard because of the presence of DANGEROUS CARGOES, is carried out on a SHIP.

6.2.10.3 Minimum safety requirements for carrying out HOT WORK are set out in annex 4.


6.2.11 Entry into confined or enclosed spaces

6.2.11.1 The MASTER of a SHIP should ensure that no person enters a cargo space, cargo tank, void space around such tank, cargo handling space, or other confined or enclosed space which has contained or may contain dangerous vapours, unless the space is free of dangerous vapours, is not deficient in oxygen, and has been authorized by a RESPONSIBLE PERSON trained in the use of the relevant equipment and sufficiently knowledgeable to interpret correctly the results obtained. This RESPONSIBLE PERSON should record the measurements taken.

6.2.11.2 Where it is necessary for operational purposes to enter a space which cannot be freed of dangerous vapours within a reasonable time or it is unlikely that the space will remain free of dangerous vapours, then entry should only be made by personnel wearing self-contained breathing apparatus, and any other necessary protective equipment and clothing. The entire operation should be carried out under the direct supervision of the RESPONSIBLE PERSON who should be provided with self-contained breathing apparatus, protective equipment and rescue harness. The breathing apparatus, protective and rescue equipment should not be of a type that could introduce a source of ignition into the space.

6.2.11.3 The MASTER of a SHIP should ensure that entry into a space mentioned in 6.2.11.1 follows the carefully established procedures contained in international codes and guides.


6.2.12 Fumigation of ships, cargo spaces or cargo transport units

6.2.12.1 The MASTER of a SHIP under fumigation or which has compartments under fumigation or fumigated cargo transport units on board should ensure, that signs are displayed at a clearly visible position at the gangway or entrance to the compartment or cargo transport unit. The signs should state the hazard to anyone entering the SHIP, compartment or cargo transport unit.

6.2.12.2 The MASTER of a SHIP should ensure that no person enters the SHIP, compartment or cargo transport unit which has been fumigated unless it has been thoroughly ventilated and a RESPONSIBLE PERSON has certified that it is safe to enter.


6.2.13 Contaminated bilge water, wastes, ballast or slops

6.2.13.1 The MASTER of a SHIP should ensure that bilge water, wastes, ballast or slops contaminated with DANGEROUS CARGOES are collected and kept on board whilst in the PORT AREA either in the cargo space, or other designated spaces, or watertight receptacles to avoid accidental spillage.

6.2.13.2 The MASTER of a SHIP having bilge water, wastes, ballast or slops contaminated with DANGEROUS CARGOES on board should ensure that such contaminated bilge water, wastes, ballast or slops are removed from the SHIP in accordance with the requirements of the REGULATORY AUTHORITY prior to the SHIP leaving the PORT AREA.


6.2.14 Alcohol and drug abuse

6.2.14.1 The MASTER of a SHIP, within his area of responsibility, should ensure that no person under the influence of alcohol or drugs to such an extent that his judgement or actions are impaired, is allowed to participate in any operation involving the HANDLING of DANGEROUS CARGOES and any such persons are kept clear of the immediate areas where DANGEROUS CARGOES are being transported or handled.


6.2.15 Weather conditions

6.2.15.1 The MASTER of a SHIP, within his area of responsibility, should not permit DANGEROUS CARGOES to be handled in weather conditions which may seriously increase the risk.


6.2.16 Lighting

6.2.16.1 The MASTER of a SHIP, within his area of responsibility, should ensure that the area where DANGEROUS CARGOES are handled or where preparations are being made for the HANDLING of DANGEROUS CARGOES and access to such areas are adequately illuminated.


6.2.17 Handling equipment

6.2.17.1 The MASTER of a SHIP, within his area of responsibility, should ensure that all ship's equipment used in the HANDLING of DANGEROUS CARGOES is suitable for such use and used only by SKILLED PERSONS.

6.2.17.2 The MASTER of a SHIP, within his area of responsibility, should ensure that all ship's cargo handling equipment is of an approved type, properly maintained, and tested in accordance with national and international legal requirements.


6.2.18 Protective equipment

6.2.18.1 The MASTER of a SHIP, within his area of responsibility, should, when necessary, provide a sufficient quantity of appropriate protective equipment and clothing for the SHIP's personnel involved in the HANDLING of DANGEROUS CARGOES.

6.2.18.2 Such equipment and clothing should provide adequate protection against the hazards specific to the DANGEROUS CARGOES handled and should, where appropriate, be of an approved type or made in conformity with an approved standard.

6.3 Shore installations


6.3.1 Berthing

6.3.1.1 The BERTH OPERATOR should ensure that:
  1. adequate and safe mooring facilities are provided; and
  2. adequate safe access is provided between the SHIP and the shore.


6.3.2 Supervision

6.3.2.1 The BERTH OPERATOR should ensure that areas where packages are kept are properly supervised and packages are regularly inspected for leakage or damage. Any leaking package should only be handled under the supervision of a RESPONSIBLE PERSON.

6.3.2.2 The BERTH OPERATOR should ensure that no person, without reasonable cause, opens or otherwise interferes with any freight container, tank-container, portable tank or vehicle containing DANGEROUS CARGOES. When a freight container, tank-container, portable tank or vehicle is opened by a person authorized to examine its contents, the BERTH OPERATOR should ensure that the person concerned is aware of the possible hazards arising from the presence of the DANGEROUS CARGOES.


6.3.3 Identification, packing, marking, labelling or placarding and certification

6.3.3.1 The BERTH OPERATOR should ensure that DANGEROUS CARGOES entering his premises have been duly certified or declared by the CARGO INTERESTS as being properly identified, packed, marked, labelled or placarded so as to comply with the appropriate provisions of the IMDG Code or, alternatively, with appropriate national or international legal requirements applicable to the relevant mode of TRANSPORT.


6.3.4 Safe handling and segregation

6.3.4.1 A BERTH OPERATOR transporting or handling DANGEROUS CARGOES should appoint at least one RESPONSIBLE PERSON who has adequate knowledge of the national and international legal requirements concerning the TRANSPORT and HANDLING of DANGEROUS CARGOES, including the segregation of incompatible cargoes.


6.3.5 Emergency procedures

6.3.5.1 The BERTH OPERATOR should ensure that appropriate emergency arrangements are made and brought to the attention of all concerned; these arrangements should include:
  1. the provision of appropriate emergency alarm operating points;
  2. procedures for notification of an incident or emergency to the appropriate emergency services within and outside the PORT AREA;
  3. procedures for notification of an incident or emergency to the PORT AUTHORITY and PORT AREA users both on land and water;
  4. the provision of emergency equipment appropriate to the hazards of the DANGEROUS CARGOES to be handled;
  5. co-ordinated arrangements for the release of a SHIP in case of an emergency; and
  6. arrangements to ensure adequate access/egress at all times.

6.3.5.2 The BERTH OPERATOR should consider the necessity of arrangements for a safe and quick emergency escape, taking into account the nature of the DANGEROUS CARGOES and any special conditions.


6.3.6 Emergency information

6.3.6.1 The BERTH OPERATOR should ensure that a list of all DANGEROUS CARGOES in the warehouses, sheds or other areas, including the quantities, correct technical names, UN number, classification and exact location is held readily available for the emergency services.

6.3.6.2 The BERTH OPERATOR should ensure that the RESPONSIBLE PERSON for a warehouse, shed or area, where DANGEROUS CARGOES are handled, is as far as possible aware of the status of occupancy with the DANGEROUS CARGOES in his area and this is available in case of emergencies.

6.3.6.3 The BERTH OPERATOR should ensure that the person responsible for cargo handling operations involving DANGEROUS CARGOES has the necessary information on measures to be taken to deal with incidents involving DANGEROUS CARGOES and that it is available for use in emergencies.

6.3.6.4 To ensure the availability of the information referred to in 6.3.6.1 to 6.3.6.3, electronic or other automatic data processing or transmission techniques may be used.

6.3.6.5 The BERTH OPERATOR should ensure that the port or BERTH emergency response procedures and port or BERTH emergency telephone numbers are placed at prominent locations within or at warehouses, sheds or areas where DANGEROUS CARGOES are transported or handled.

6.3.6.6 The BERTH OPERATOR should ensure that fire-fighting and pollution-combating equipment and installations are clearly marked as such and notices drawing attention to them are clearly visible at all appropriate locations.

6.3.6.7 The BERTH OPERATOR should inform the MASTER of any SHIP carrying or handling DANGEROUS CARGOES of the emergency procedures in force and the services available at the BERTH.


6.3.7 Fire precautions

6.3.7.1 The BERTH OPERATOR should ensure that:
  1. all parts of the BERTH and any SHIP moored to it are at all times accessible to emergency services;
  2. audible or visual alarms for emergency use are installed in the area or other means of rapid communication with emergency services are available;
  3. the BERTH is fitted with an international ship/shore connection to supply water to the SHIP's fire-fighting equipment;
  4. all areas used for the HANDLING of DANGEROUS CARGOES are kept clean and tidy;
  5. before DANGEROUS CARGOES are handled, the MASTER of a SHIP is informed of the location of the nearest means of summoning emergency services; and
  6. the lighting and other electrical equipment in areas where DANGEROUS CARGOES are present on the BERTH is of a type safe for use in a flammable atmosphere.

6.3.7.2 The BERTH OPERATOR should ensure that:
  1. places where smoking is prohibited are designated; and
  2. notices in a pictogram form prohibiting smoking are clearly visible at all locations and at a safe distance from places where smoking would constitute a hazard.

6.3.7.3 The BERTH OPERATOR should ensure that equipment used in an area or space where a flammable atmosphere may exist or develop, is of a type safe for use in a flammable atmosphere and used in such a manner that no fire or explosion can be caused.

6.3.7.4 The BERTH OPERATOR should ensure that only portable electrical equipment of a type safe for use in a flammable atmosphere is used in an area or space in which a flammable atmosphere may occur.

6.3.7.5 The BERTH OPERATOR should ensure that electrical equipment on a wandering lead is not used in areas or spaces where a flammable atmosphere may occur.


6.3.8 Fire Fighting

6.3.8.1 The BERTH OPERATOR should ensure that adequate and properly tested fire-fighting equipment and facilities are provided and readily available in accordance with the requirements of the REGULATORY AUTHORITY in areas where DANGEROUS CARGOES are transported or handled.

6.3.8.2 The BERTH OPERATOR should ensure that personnel involved in the HANDLING or TRANSPORT of DANGEROUS CARGOES are trained and practised in the use of fire-fighting equipment in accordance with the requirements of the REGULATORY AUTHORITY.


6.3.9 Environmental precautions

6.3.9.1 The BERTH OPERATOR should ensure that DANGEROUS CARGOES are only handled in areas which comply with the requirements of the REGULATORY AUTHORITY.

6.3.9.2 The BERTH OPERATOR should ensure that any damaged package, unit load or cargo transport unit containing DANGEROUS CARGOES is dealt with in accordance with the requirements of the REGULATORY AUTHORITY and is not transported or handled unless the DANGEROUS CARGOES have been properly repacked and are in all respects fit and safe for further TRANSPORT or HANDLING.

6.3.9.3 The BERTH OPERATOR should ensure that, if necessary, any damaged package, unit load or cargo transport unit containing DANGEROUS CARGOES is removed to a designated area for such cargoes.


6.3.10 Pollution combating

6.3.10.1 The BERTH OPERATOR should ensure that adequate equipment is available to minimize the damage in case of a spillage of DANGEROUS CARGOES.

6.3.10.2 The BERTH OPERATOR should ensure that personnel involved in the TRANSPORT or HANDLING of DANGEROUS CARGOES are trained and practised in the use of pollution combating equipment and facilities in accordance with the requirements of the REGULATORY AUTHORITY.


6.3.11 Reporting of incidents

6.3.11.1 The BERTH OPERATOR, within his area of responsibility, should ensure that, if an incident occurs during the HANDLING of DANGEROUS CARGOES which may endanger life, property or the environment, the person having charge of HANDLING immediately causes the operation to be stopped, if it is safe to do so, and prevents it being resumed until appropriate safety measures have been taken. The BERTH OPERATOR should require every member of his personnel to report to the person having charge of the operation any such incident they see to occur during the HANDLING of DANGEROUS CARGOES.

6.3.11.2 The BERTH OPERATOR should ensure that any incident involving DANGEROUS CARGOES and which may endanger life, property or the environment is reported immediately to the PORT AUTHORITY.

6.3.11.3 The BERTH OPERATOR should ensure that any damaged or leaking package, unit load or cargo transport unit containing DANGEROUS CARGOES is reported immediately to the PORT AUTHORITY and that suitable remedial action is taken in accordance with 6.1.6.2.


6.3.12 Inspections

6.3.12.1 The BERTH OPERATOR, where appropriate, should:
  1. check documents and certificates concerning the safe TRANSPORT, HANDLING, PACKING AND STOWAGE of DANGEROUS CARGOES in the PORT AREA at the time of receipt;
  2. check, where practicable, packages, unit loads and cargo transport units containing DANGEROUS CARGOES to verify that they are marked, labelled or placarded in accordance with the provisions of the IMDG-Code or the appropriate national or international legal requirements applicable for the mode of TRANSPORT and that unnecessary labels, placards and marks have been removed and that the cargo transport units have been loaded, packed and secured in accordance with the IMO/ILO Guidelines for Packing Cargo in Freight Containers or Vehicles;
  3. check freight containers, tank-containers, portable tanks and vehicles containing DANGEROUS CARGOES to ensure that they have a current safety approval plate in accordance with the International Convention for Safe Containers (CSC), 1972, as amended, when applicable, or have been approved in accordance with the relevant provisions of sections 12, 13 or 17 of the General Introduction to the IMDG Code or by a certification or approval system of an appropriate authority; and
  4. check, by external examination, the physical condition of each freight container, tank-container, portable tank or vehicle containing DANGEROUS CARGOES for obvious damage affecting its strength or packaging integrity and for the presence of any sign of leakage of contents.

6.3.12.2 The BERTH OPERATOR should make such checks regularly to ensure implementation of the safety precautions in the PORT AREA and the safety of TRANSPORT.

6.3.12.3 If any of the checks mentioned above reveal deficiencies which may affect the safe TRANSPORT or HANDLING of DANGEROUS CARGOES the BERTH OPERATOR should immediately advise all parties concerned and request them to rectify all deficiencies prior to any further TRANSPORT or HANDLING of DANGEROUS CARGOES.

6.3.12.4 The BERTH OPERATOR should ensure that every necessary support will be given to the PORT AUTHORITY or any other person or institution entitled to carry out inspections when they intend to carry out an inspection of DANGEROUS CARGOES.


6.3.13 Repair or maintenance work

6.3.13.1 The BERTH OPERATOR should ensure that no repair or maintenance work resulting in non-availability of the emergency/fire equipment required by these Recommendations is carried out at the BERTH without prior permission of the PORT AUTHORITY.

6.3.13.2 The BERTH OPERATOR and the company carrying out the repairs, after having consulted the MASTER of a SHIP, where appropriate, should ensure that they are in possession of a permit to proceed issued by the PORT AUTHORITY before any repair or maintenance work involving HOT WORK, or any other such work which may lead to a hazard because of the presence of DANGEROUS CARGOES, is carried out.

6.3.13.3 Minimum safety requirements for carrying out HOT WORK are set out in annex 4.


6.3.14 Entry into confined or enclosed spaces

6.3.14.1 The BERTH OPERATOR should ensure that no person enters a cargo space, cargo tank, void space around such tank, cargo handling space, or other confined or enclosed space which has contained or may contain dangerous vapour unless the space is free of dangerous vapour and not deficient in oxygen, and is certified to that effect by a RESPONSIBLE PERSON trained in the use of the relevant equipment and sufficiently knowledgeable to interpret correctly the results obtained. The RESPONSIBLE PERSON should record the measurements taken.

6.3.14.2 Where it is necessary for operational purposes to enter a space which cannot be freed of dangerous vapour within a reasonable time and which, therefore, cannot be certified as provided in 6.3.14.1, or it is unlikely that the space will remain free of dangerous vapours, then entry should only be made by persons wearing a self-contained breathing apparatus and any other necessary protective equipment and clothing. The entire operation should be carried out under the direct supervision of a RESPONSIBLE PERSON who should also be provided with self-contained breathing apparatus, protective equipment and rescue harness. The breathing apparatus, protective and rescue equipment should not be of a type that could introduce a source of ignition into the space.

6.3.14.3 The BERTH OPERATOR should ensure that entry into a space mentioned in 6.3.14.1 follows carefully established procedures which are contained in international codes and guides.


6.3.15 Fumigation of warehouses, sheds or cargo transport units

6.3.15.1 The BERTH OPERATOR should ensure that fumigation of warehouses, sheds or cargo transport units is carried out only in accordance with the requirements of the REGULATORY AUTHORITY.

6.3.15.2 The BERTH OPERATOR should ensure that fumigation of cargo transport units is carried out only in areas designated by the PORT AUTHORITY for that purpose.

6.3.15.3 The BERTH OPERATOR should ensure that fumigated warehouses, sheds or cargo transport units are conspicuously marked, informing anyone approaching them of the hazards involved.

6.3.15.4 The BERTH OPERATOR should ensure that no person enters a fumigated warehouse, shed or cargo transport unit unless it has been properly ventilated and a RESPONSIBLE PERSON has issued a certificate that it is safe to enter it.


6.3.16 Contaminated wastes

6.3.16.1 The BERTH OPERATOR should ensure that wastes contaminated with DANGEROUS CARGOES are immediately collected and disposed of in accordance with the requirements of the REGULATORY AUTHORITY.


6.3.17 Alcohol and drug abuse

6.3.17.1 The BERTH OPERATOR, within his area of responsibility, should ensure that no person under the influence of alcohol or drugs to such an extent that his judgement or actions are impaired is allowed to participate in any operation involving the HANDLING of DANGEROUS CARGOES and any such persons are kept clear of the immediate areas where DANGEROUS CARGOES are being transported or handled.


6.3.18 Weather conditions

6.3.18.1 The BERTH OPERATOR, within his area of responsibility, should not permit DANGEROUS CARGOES to be handled in weather conditions which may seriously increase the risk.


6.3.19 Lighting

6.3.19.1 The BERTH OPERATOR, within his areas of responsibility, should ensure that areas where DANGEROUS CARGOES are handled or where preparations are being made to handle DANGEROUS CARGOES and access to such areas are adequately illuminated.


6.3.20 Handling Equipment

6.3.20.1 The BERTH OPERATOR, within his area of responsibility, should ensure that all equipment used in the HANDLING of DANGEROUS CARGOES is suitable for such use and used only by SKILLED PERSONS.

6.3.20.2 The BERTH OPERATOR, within his area of responsibility, should ensure that all cargo handling equipment is of an approved type where appropriate, properly maintained, and tested in accordance with national and international legal requirements.


6.3.21 Protective equipment

6.3.21.1 The BERTH OPERATOR, within his area of responsibility, should ensure, when necessary, that a sufficient quantity of appropriate protective equipment is available to all personnel involved in the HANDLING of DANGEROUS CARGOES.

6.3.21.2 Such equipment should provide adequate protection against the hazards specific to the DANGEROUS CARGOES handled and should be of an approved type or made in conformity with an approved standard.

6.4 Cargo interests


6.4.1 Documents and certificates

6.4.1.1 The CARGO INTERESTS should ensure that all documents and certificates concerning DANGEROUS CARGOES are issued in accordance with the IMDG Code and national or international legal requirements applicable to the relevant modes of TRANSPORT. Required shipping papers with the related certificates, where applicable, should always be with the party having the DANGEROUS CARGO at each stage while in the PORT AREA.


6.4.2 Identification, packing, marking, labelling or placarding and certification

6.4.2.1 The CARGO INTERESTS should ensure that DANGEROUS CARGOES are properly identified, packed, marked and labelled or placarded so as to comply with the appropriate provisions of the IMDG Code or alternatively with appropriate national or international legal requirements applicable to the relevant modes of TRANSPORT and that unnecessary, placards, marks and labels have been removed.


6.4.3 Freight containers, tank-containers, portable tanks and vehicles

6.4.3.1 The CARGO INTERESTS should ensure that freight containers, tank-containers, portable tanks and vehicles used for carrying DANGEROUS CARGOES have a current safety approval plate in accordance with the International Convention for Safe Containers (CSC), 1972, as amended, when appropriate, or have been approved in accordance with the relevant provisions of sections 12, 13 or 17 of the General Introduction to the IMDG Code, or by a certification or approval system of an appropriate authority.

6.4.3.2 The CARGO INTERESTS should ensure that cargo transport units are packed with DANGEROUS CARGOES in accordance with the IMO/ILO Guidelines for Packing Cargo in Freight Containers or Vehicles or any other national or international legal requirements applicable to the mode of TRANSPORT so as to ensure the safe TRANSPORT and HANDLING of such units in the PORT AREA.


6.4.4 Inspections

6.4.4.1 The CARGO INTERESTS should appoint a RESPONSIBLE PERSON when DANGEROUS CARGOES are handled, transported or transhipped who should prior to and during the transport chain check that the provisions set out in 6.4.1 to 6.4.3 are complied with.

6.4.4.2 The RESPONSIBLE PERSON of the CARGO INTERESTS should check, by visual examination, the physical condition of each freight container, tank-container, portable tank or vehicle for obvious damage affecting its strength or packaging integrity and for the presence of any sign of leakage of contents.

6.4.4.3 The RESPONSIBLE PERSON of the CARGO INTERESTS should make such checks regularly to ensure implementation of the safety precautions in the transport chain to the PORT AREA.

6.4.4.4 If any of the checks mentioned above reveal deficiencies which may affect the safe TRANSPORT or HANDLING of DANGEROUS CARGOES the RESPONSIBLE PERSON of the CARGO INTERESTS should advise all parties concerned immediately and request them to rectify all deficiencies prior to any further TRANSPORT or HANDLING of the DANGEROUS CARGOES.

6.4.4.5 The RESPONSIBLE PERSON of the CARGO INTERESTS should ensure that every necessary support will be given to the PORT AUTHORITY or the BERTH OPERATOR when an inspection of the DANGEROUS CARGOES is carried out by them.

7 Dangerous cargoes in packaged form


7.1 Documentation

7.1.1 SHIPS built on or after 1 September 1984 and carrying DANGEROUS GOODS are required to carry on board a DOCUMENT OF COMPLIANCE in accordance with SOLAS 1974, regulation II-2/54.3 as evidence that the SHIP complies with the special requirements for SHIPS carrying DANGEROUS CARGOES stipulated in SOLAS regulation II- 2/54.

7.1.2 The DOCUMENT OF COMPLIANCE furthermore provides information on the classes of DANGEROUS CARGOES that may be carried on deck and in each compartment.

7.1.3 Also, on board a SHIP carrying DANGEROUS CARGOES a list, a manifest or a detailed stowage plan detailing the DANGEROUS CARGOES and their location on board is required.

7.1.4 The REGULATORY AUTHORITY should establish appropriate arrangements for the inspection of the SHIP, to ensure, where appropriate, that the DANGEROUS CARGOES have been loaded and stowed in accordance with the DOCUMENT OF COMPLIANCE.


7.2 Supervision

7.2.1 As soon as practicable after the berthing of the SHIP, the MASTER and the BERTH OPERATOR, within their respective areas of responsibility, should ensure that a RESPONSIBLE PERSON is appointed to supervise the HANDLING of DANGEROUS CARGOES. The RESPONSIBLE PERSON should be aware of the risks involved and the steps to be taken in an emergency and who maintains any necessary contact with the MASTER and the BERTH OPERATOR.


7.3 Information for operational and emergency purposes

7.3.1 The MASTER of a SHIP and the BERTH OPERATOR, within their respective areas of responsibility, should have the following information with respect to all DANGEROUS CARGOES transported or handled immediately available:
  1. the description of DANGEROUS CARGOES in accordance with section 9 of the General Introduction to the IMDG Code;
  2. details of special equipment needed for the safe HANDLING of a particular DANGEROUS CARGO; and
  3. the emergency procedures, including action to be taken in the event of a spillage or leakage, counter measures against accidental contact, fire-fighting procedures and suitable fire-fighting media.

7.3.2 The MASTER of a SHIP and the BERTH OPERATOR should appoint a RESPONSIBLE PERSON who should maintain records of DANGEROUS CARGOES loaded and/or unloaded. The RESPONSIBLE PERSON and records should be available to assist in emergencies.


7.4 General handling precautions

7.4.1 The MASTER of a SHIP and the BERTH OPERATOR, within their respective areas of responsibility, should ensure that:
  1. every person engaged in the HANDLING of DANGEROUS CARGOES exercises reasonable care to avoid damage to packages, unit loads and cargo transport units;
  2. whilst DANGEROUS CARGOES are being handled, precautions are taken to prevent unauthorized access to handling areas; and
  3. if there is any loss of containment of DANGEROUS CARGO, every practical step is taken to minimize risks to persons and adverse effects to the environment.

8 Liquid bulk dangerous cargoes (including liquefied gas)

8.1 General


8.1.1 International Certificates

8.1.1.1 The following international certificates may be relevant:
  1. International Oil Pollution Prevention (IOPP) Certificate;
  2. International Certificate of Fitness; and
  3. International Certificate for the Prevention of Pollution by Noxious Liquid Substances Carried in Bulk (NLS Certificate).

8.1.1.2 The PORT AUTHORITY should, in accordance with the legal requirements of the REGULATORY AUTHORITY, be able to prohibit:
  1. the entry into the PORT AREA of a SHIP carrying BULK oil, unless the MASTER is in possession of a valid IOPP Certificate, supplemented with form B - Record of Construction and Equipment for Oil Tankers;
  2. the entry into the PORT AREA of a SHIP carrying liquid BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES to which the Codes for the Construction and Equipment of Ships Carrying Dangerous Chemicals or Liquefied Gases in Bulk are applicable, unless the MASTER is in possession of a valid CERTIFICATE OF FITNESS;
  3. the entry into the PORT AREA of a SHIP carrying liquid BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES and to which the Codes for the Construction and Equipment of Ships Carrying Dangerous Chemicals or Liquefied Gases in Bulk are not applicable, unless the MASTER is in possession of a valid NLS Certificate; and
  4. the loading and unloading of liquid BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES into or from SHIPS referred to in 8.1.1.2.1 to 8.1.1.2.3 unless the MASTER is in possession of a valid IOPP Certificate, CERTIFICATE OF FITNESS or NLS Certificate, as appropriate, for that SHIP and those DANGEROUS CARGOES.

8.1.1.3 The REGULATORY AUTHORITY should establish appropriate arrangements for the inspection of a SHIP, to ensure that it complies with any certificate, referred to in 8.1.1.1, where there is reason to believe that the SHIP may not comply.


8.1.2 Vapour emission control

8.1.2.1 Subject to the requirements of the REGULATORY AUTHORITY, the PORT AUTHORITY may require that whenever certain liquid BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES are handled, suitable and safe measures are taken to prevent or control the emission of vapour into the atmosphere.


8.1.3 Information for operational and emergency purposes

8.1.3.1 The MASTER of a SHIP and the BERTH OPERATOR within their respective areas of responsibility should have immediately available the following information with respect to each DANGEROUS CARGO transported or handled:
  1. the correct technical name of the cargo, the UN number (where available) and a description of the relevant physical and chemical properties (including reactivity) necessary for the safe containment and HANDLING of the cargo;
  2. procedures for cargo transfer, slop transfer, gas-freeing, inerting, ballasting, de-ballasting and tank cleaning;
  3. special equipment needed for the safe HANDLING of a particular cargo; and
  4. appropriate emergency response procedures, including the:
    - action to be taken in the event of a spillage or leak;
    - countermeasures against accidental contact; and
    - fire-fighting procedures and the suitable fire-fighting media.

8.2 Ships carrying liquid bulk dangerous cargoes


8.2.1 Compatibility

8.2.1.1 The MASTER of a SHIP should in co-operation with the PORT AUTHORITY and BERTH OPERATOR, where appropriate, ensure that during the HANDLING of liquid BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES, which may react in a hazardous manner (physically or chemically) with any other cargo carried or handled, every precaution is taken to prevent such hazard by selecting non-adjacent tanks with separate venting systems for their carriage and using separate pumping and piping systems for their HANDLING.

8.2.1.2 The MASTER of a SHIP should ensure that no liquid BULK DANGEROUS CARGO comes into contact with any tank, pipe, valve or any other equipment in the SHIP which may cause a hazard by weakening, chemical reaction or any other means. He should also be aware of the hazard associated with solidification of cargo in ships' vent lines, substances which react with water and oxidizing agents.


8.2.2 Handling

8.2.2.1 The MASTER of a SHIP should ensure that:
  1. precautions are taken at all times to prevent flammable and/or toxic vapour from entering a service or control station, accommodation or machinery spaces on the SHIP;
  2. except for vents designed to prevent excess pressure or vacuum within a cargo space, all openings from cargo spaces are kept closed during HANDLING of flammable and/or toxic cargoes, or ballast water contaminated with such CARGOES, except with the permission of the PORT AUTHORITY and BERTH OPERATOR; and
  3. any tools or equipment used, e.g. for sampling or ullaging are used in a manner so as not to cause ignition.

8.2.2.2 In the case of flammable cargoes sighting and ullage ports should be kept closed unless required to be open for operational purposes. If, for design reasons, they are required to be open, the openings should be protected by a flame screen which may be removed for a short period during ullaging, sighting, sounding and sampling. The flame screens should be a good fit and be kept clean and in good condition.

NOTE: SOLAS regulation II-2/59 applies to tankers built on or after 1 July 1986 and is much more stringent than the above regarding venting arrangements.

8.2.2.3 The MASTER of a SHIP should ensure that, should an incident occur during the HANDLING of liquid BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES or ballast water contaminated with liquid BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES which necessitates a repair to the cargo piping system or connections, or which interferes in any way with the uninterrupted flow of liquid BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES or ballast water, such HANDLING is stopped and not resumed until adequate safety measures have been taken with the approval of the PORT AUTHORITY and, where appropriate, the BERTH OPERATOR.


8.2.3 Gas-freeing, tank cleaning and inerting

8.2.3.1 The MASTER of a SHIP carrying or having carried liquid BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES should ensure that gas-freeing, tank cleaning (including crude oil washing), or purging with inert gas is carried out in accordance with the SHIP's operating manuals which lay down the correct procedure to be employed. Such operating manuals should deal comprehensively with the procedure to be employed and should incorporate the recommendations and guidelines of IMO or other organizations where they are appropriate.

8.2.3.2 No gas-freeing, tank cleaning or purging should be carried out without the permission of the PORT AUTHORITY and the BERTH OPERATOR, where appropriate.


8.2.4 Containment of spillage

8.2.4.1 The MASTER of a SHIP should ensure that during handling operations all scuppers are kept closed except to the extent that it is necessary to allow water to drain off, and that the scuppers are inspected regularly. Where corrosive liquids or refrigerated gases are being handled, the scuppers may be kept open if permitted by the PORT AUTHORITY, provided that an ample supply of water is available at all times in the vicinity of the manifolds. Attention is however drawn to the requirements of Regulation 26 of Annex I of MARPOL 73/78 for shipboard oil pollution emergency plans.

8.3 Shore installations


8.3.1 Warning notices

8.3.1.1 The BERTH OPERATOR should ensure that, before handling liquid BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES at any BERTH on the shore, appropriate warning notices, preferably pictograms, are placed at all entrances and approaches to the BERTH.


8.3.2 Compatibility

8.3.2.1 The BERTH OPERATOR should ensure that liquid BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES are handled and kept in such a manner so as to preclude the possibility of a dangerous interaction with incompatible cargoes or materials.


8.3.3 Communications

8.3.3.1 The BERTH OPERATOR should ensure that effective communication has been established between a BERTH used for the HANDLING of liquid BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES and the installation from or into which such CARGOES are being transferred. Communication equipment so used should be of a type safe for use in a flammable atmosphere.

NOTE: VHF equipment operating on frequencies allocated to the maritime mobile service should only be used for communications between a SHIP and the shore installation where allowed by the REGULATORY AUTHORITY and where permitted by the PORT AUTHORITY.


8.3.4 Pipelines used for liquid bulk dangerous cargoes

8.3.4.1 The BERTH OPERATOR should ensure that a PIPELINE or FLEXIBLE PIPE:
  1. is not used for cargoes other than those for which it is suitable, having regard to the temperature and compatibility of such cargoes;
  2. is suitably protected if it is liable to be damaged by impact; and
  3. is electrically continuous except for the inclusion of an insulating flange or non-conductive spool piece when used for the transfer of a flammable liquid. The PIPELINE on the seaward side of the insulating section should be electrically continuous to the SHIP, and that on the landward side should be electrically continuous to the jetty earthing system.

8.3.4.2 The BERTH OPERATOR should ensure that:
  1. adequate precautions are taken to prevent a short-circuit of the insulating section referred to in 8.3.4.1.3;
  2. the insulating and earthing systems referred to in 8.3.4.1.3 are inspected and tested at appropriate intervals to ensure their effectiveness; and
  3. any other metallic connections between the BERTH and the SHIP are protected or arranged so as to ensure that there is no possibility of incendive sparking where a flammable atmosphere may be present.


8.3.5 Sources of ignition

8.3.5.1 The BERTH OPERATOR should ensure that the MASTER of a SHIP is notified of any conditions which may require precautions to be taken for avoidance of sources of ignition on the SHIP such as galley stoves or cooking appliances with non-immersed elements.


8.3.6 Containment of spillage

8.3.6.1 The BERTH OPERATOR should ensure that all drain holes and pipes and all other drains of any kind on the jetty, where liquid BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES might escape in case of an accident, are closed before HANDLING commences and are kept closed during the whole of the period of the HANDLING of liquid BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES.

8.3.6.2 In case of a spillage occurring, adequate means of containment and disposal, as required by the REGULATORY AUTHORITY or PORT AUTHORITY, should be available at short notice.


8.3.7 Shore electricity supply

8.3.7.1 The BERTH OPERATOR should ensure that any shore communication cables to a SHIP are of a type certified safe for use in hazardous areas.

8.3.7.2 The BERTH OPERATOR should ensure that no shore electrical supply is connected to a SHIP, except a supply of a type safe for use in a flammable atmosphere, or in an emergency and with approval of the PORT AUTHORITY.

8.3.7.3 The BERTH OPERATOR should ensure that no connection, cable or electrical supply is used near a SHIP carrying flammable cargoes at a BERTH where such cargoes are present or where a flammable atmosphere may be present, unless it is certified for use in such places.

8.4 Handling


8.4.1 Flexible pipes

8.4.1.1 The MASTER of a SHIP and the BERTH OPERATOR within their respective areas of responsibility should ensure that:
  1. no FLEXIBLE PIPE is used for cargoes other than those for which it is suitable, having regard to the temperature and compatibility of such cargoes, or at any working pressure for which it is unsuitable;
  2. each type of FLEXIBLE PIPE complete with end fittings has been prototype tested and a certificate provided to show the bursting pressure. Prototype hoses must not be used in service;
  3. before being placed in service, each FLEXIBLE PIPE supplied should be hydraulically tested in accordance with the requirements of the REGULATORY AUTHORITY;
  4. before being put into use on any day a FLEXIBLE PIPE, other than one being used at a monobuoy or other off-shore facility, is visually inspected. FLEXIBLE PIPES used at monobuoys and other off-shore facilities should be inspected at frequent intervals;
  5. a FLEXIBLE PIPE is permanently and legibly marked, showing the type of hose, its specified maximum working pressure and its month and year of manufacture;
  6. there are adequate electrical insulation flanges;
  7. the length of each FLEXIBLE PIPE is sufficient to satisfactorily operate within the defined operating envelope without overstressing the terminal connection;
  8. a FLEXIBLE PIPE rigged for the HANDLING of liquid BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES is kept under adequate supervision;
  9. there are adequate procedures for the disconnection of the FLEXIBLE PIPE in the event of an emergency, to protect the environment, personnel safety and equipment; and
  10. any FLEXIBLE PIPE after use is drained and purged of the liquid BULK DANGEROUS CARGO and that in cases where this is not possible or has not been carried out, the FLEXIBLE PIPE is provided at each free end with a suitable means to prevent the escape of vapour or admission of air. Such equipment should always be provided on FLEXIBLE PIPES used for the HANDLING of highly toxic liquids or liquefied gas.


8.4.2 Loading arms

8.4.2.1 The MASTER of a SHIP and the BERTH OPERATOR within their respective areas of responsibility should ensure that:
  1. there are adequate procedures for the operation, supervision and disconnection of LOADING ARMS in the event of an emergency, to protect the environment, personnel safety and equipment;
  2. no LOADING ARM is used for substances other than those for which it is suitable, having regard to the temperature and compatibility of such substances and the working pressure or flow rate for which it is suitable;
  3. in an emergency there are adequate means for draining the inner and outer arms after normal use and before disconnection;
  4. the operating envelope of the LOADING ARM is suitable for the SHIP; vthe manifold spacing is satisfactory when more than one LOADING ARM is connected; veach LOADING ARM has been periodically maintained and has a current certificate for its fitness for use; and
  5. there are adequate electrical insulation flanges.


8.4.3 Preliminary precautions

8.4.3.1 The MASTER of a SHIP and the BERTH OPERATOR within their respective areas of responsibility should ensure that cargo handling controls, gauging systems, emergency shut-down and alarm systems, where applicable, have been tested and found to be satisfactory before cargo handling operations begin.

8.4.3.2 The MASTER of a SHIP and the BERTH OPERATOR should before liquid BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES are pumped into or out of a SHIP from or into a shore installation:
  1. agree in writing on the handling procedures including the maximum loading or unloading rates taking into account:
    .1.1 the arrangement, capacity and maximum allowable pressure of the SHIP's cargo lines and the shore PIPELINES;
    .1.2 the arrangement and capacity of the vapour venting system;
    .1.3 the possible pressure increase due to emergency shut-down procedures;
    .1.4 the possibility of the accumulation of electrostatic charge; and
    .1.5 the presence of RESPONSIBLE PERSONS during start up operations on board SHIP and ashore;
  2. complete and sign an appropriate safety check list showing the main safety precautions to be taken before and during such handling operations;
  3. agree in writing on the action to be taken and the signals to be used in the event of an emergency during handling operations; and
  4. ensure appropriate safety equipment and clothing are used.


8.4.4 Pumping

8.4.4.1 The MASTER of a SHIP and the BERTH OPERATOR within their respective areas of responsibility should ensure that:
  1. frequent checks are made to ensure that the agreed back-pressures and loading or unloading rates are not exceeded;
  2. all reasonable care is taken to prevent all relevant PIPELINES, LOADING ARMS, FLEXIBLE PIPES and associated equipment on board the SHIP and ashore from developing a leak, and that they are kept under adequate supervision during the HANDLING of liquid BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES;
  3. effective communication between the SHIP and the shore installation is maintained throughout the handling operations;
  4. the safety check list mentioned in 8.4.3.2.2 is available for inspection throughout the handling operations;
  5. simultaneous working of SHIPS' STORES with the HANDLING of DANGEROUS CARGOES, gas-freeing, purging or tank cleaning is only carried out when permitted by the PORT AUTHORITY and all practicable precautions are taken to avoid damage to connecting LOADING ARMS, FLEXIBLE PIPES or associated equipment or any other hazards;
  6. during the HANDLING of liquid BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES, arrangements are made for the gauging of SHIPS' tanks and shore tanks to ensure that no tank is overfilled;
  7. RESPONSIBLE PERSONS are present during operations on board SHIP and ashore; and
  8. appropriate safety equipment and clothing are used.


8.4.5 Completion of operation

8.4.5.1 The MASTER of a SHIP and the BERTH OPERATOR within their respective areas of responsibility should ensure that after the completion of every transfer of liquid BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES the valves of the discharging and receiving cargo spaces and tanks are closed and any residual pressure in the relevant PIPELINES, LOADING ARMS and FLEXIBLE PIPES is released, unless the same valves are required to be open for normal plant or SHIP operations. They should also ensure that:
  1. prior to the disconnection of the shore PIPELINES from the SHIP, the LOADING ARMS, FLEXIBLE PIPES and piping are drained of liquids, the pressure relieved and the piping vented;
  2. all safety precautions are taken, including the blanking off of the SHIP manifold connection and the shore PIPELINE; and
  3. appropriate safety equipment and clothing are used.


8.4.6 Ship to ship transfer

8.4.6.1 The SHIP to SHIP transfer of liquid BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES should be subject to the authorization of the PORT AUTHORITY and, where appropriate, the permission of the BERTH OPERATOR. If the PORT AUTHORITY permits SHIP to SHIP transfer, it should impose conditions such as special safety check lists and control of the place where the operation may be undertaken, taking into account the particular hazards involved.

8.5 Special categories


8.5.1 Excess pressure in tanks containing liquefied gas

8.5.1.1 The MASTER of a SHIP and the BERTH OPERATOR within their respective areas of responsibility should ensure that excess pressure does not develop in the tanks containing liquefied gas under pressure in the SHIP or on the BERTH. Where appropriate, the surroundings should be cooled by whatever means are available, including the use of water spray.


8.5.2 Refrigerated liquefied gas

8.5.2.1 The MASTER of a SHIP, the PORT AUTHORITY and the BERTH OPERATOR within their respective areas of responsibility should ensure that the loading or unloading of liquefied gas at low temperature is only carried out if:
  1. all relevant shore and SHIP tanks, PIPELINES, LOADING ARMS and relevant SHIPS' piping are gradually and evenly cooled to prevent thermal stress;
  2. all automatic controls, gas detectors and other associated instruments are in working order; and
  3. suitable protective equipment and clothing is available and used as appropriate.

8.6 Combination carriers


8.6.1 A combination carrier which has previously carried crude oil or petroleum products having a flashpoint not exceeding 60 degrees C c.c. as a cargo, should be subject to Section 8 of these Recommendations unless it can be proved that no liquid, solid or gaseous residues of such cargo remain in any of the SHIP's tanks, holds, void spaces, cargo or ballast lines, pumps or pump rooms.

8.6.2 When a combination carrier, referred to in 8.6.1, is moored in a port terminal other than an oil terminal and the SHIP is not gas-free:
  1. the area 25 metres around the SHIP should be regarded as a hazardous area where special precautions against fire should be taken;
  2. the tanks should be inerted;
  3. a SHIP/shore safety check list should be completed; and
  4. the area should be watched by a special shore safety guard in addition to the SHIP's deck watch.

9 Solid bulk dangerous cargoes


9.1 Documentation

9.1.1 SHIPS built on or after 1 September 1984 and carrying DANGEROUS CARGOES are required to carry on board a DOCUMENT OF COMPLIANCE in accordance with SOLAS 1974, regulation II-2/54.3 as evidence that the SHIP complies with the special requirements for SHIPS carrying DANGEROUS CARGOES stipulated in SOLAS regulation II-2/54.

9.1.2 The DOCUMENT OF COMPLIANCE furthermore provides information on the classes of DANGEROUS CARGOES that may be carried on deck and in each compartment.

9.1.3 Also, on board a SHIP carrying solid BULK DANGEROUS CARGO, a list, a manifest or a detailed stowage plan detailing the DANGEROUS CARGO and its location on board is required.

9.1.4 The REGULATORY AUTHORITY should establish appropriate arrangements for the inspection of the SHIP, to ensure, where appropriate, that the DANGEROUS CARGOES have been loaded and stowed in accordance with the DOCUMENT OF COMPLIANCE.


9.2 Responsibility for compliance

9.2.1 When solid BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES are carried, handled or stowed, the MASTER of a SHIP and the BERTH OPERATOR, within their respective areas of responsibility, should ensure that the following recommendations are complied with.


9.3 Emission of harmful dusts

9.3.1 Where the TRANSPORT, HANDLING or STOWAGE of a solid BULK DANGEROUS CARGO may give rise to the emission of dust, all necessary practicable precautions should be taken to prevent and minimize the emission of such dusts and to protect persons from contact with such dusts.

9.3.2 The precautions should include the use of appropriate protective clothing, respiratory protection, and barrier creams, when needed; as well as personal washing and hygiene and laundering of clothing.


9.4 Emissions of dangerous vapour/oxygen deficiency

9.4.1 Where the TRANSPORT or HANDLING of a solid BULK DANGEROUS CARGO may give rise to the emission of a toxic or flammable vapour, all necessary practicable precautions should be taken to prevent and minimize the emission of such vapours and to protect persons from toxic vapours.

9.4.2 Whenever a solid BULK DANGEROUS CARGO which may emit a toxic or flammable vapour is stowed or carried, an appropriate instrument for measuring the concentration of the toxic or flammable vapour should be provided. Enclosed spaces used for such cargoes and adjacent spaces should be provided with effective ventilation.

9.4.3 Except in an emergency, no person should enter an enclosed space in which a solid BULK DANGEROUS CARGO that may emit toxic or flammable vapour is stowed or is deficient in oxygen unless the atmosphere in the space has been determined not to be hazardous to human health or safety. If entry is necessary during an emergency, a person who enters the space should wear appropriate self-contained air breathing apparatus (see 6.2.11.2).


9.5 Emission of explosive dusts

9.5.1 Where the TRANSPORT or HANDLING of a solid BULK DANGEROUS CARGO may give rise to the emission of dust that is liable to explode on ignition, all necessary practicable precautions should be taken to prevent such an explosion and to minimize the effects of an explosion if one should occur.

9.5.2 Precautions include ventilating an enclosed space to limit the concentration of dust in the atmosphere, avoiding sources of ignition, minimizing the heights of walls of materials, and hosing down rather than sweeping.


9.6 Spontaneously combustible substances and substances that react with water

9.6.1 A solid BULK DANGEROUS CARGO which, on contact with water, may evolve flammable or toxic vapours or become liable to spontaneous combustion, should be kept as dry as reasonably practicable. Such cargoes should be handled only during dry weather conditions.


9.7 Oxidizing substances

9.7.1 A solid BULK DANGEROUS CARGO that is an oxidizing substance should be transported, handled and stowed in a manner that prevents, in so far as reasonably practicable, contamination with combustible or carbonaceous materials. Oxidizing substances should be kept away from any source of heat or ignition.


9.8 Incompatible materials

9.8.1 Solid BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES should be carried, handled and stowed in a manner that prevents any dangerous interaction with incompatible materials. This should apply between BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES mutually as well as between solid BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES and DANGEROUS CARGOES in packaged form.

Annex 1 Advance notification


The information provided to the port authority before dangerous cargoes are brought into or moved out of a port area should include:

1 ARRIVAL BY WATER

1.1 Packaged dangerous cargoes:
  1. the name of the ship and ship's IMO number, agent and estimated time of arrival (ETA), normally not less than 24 hours before arrival;
  2. a list showing the proper shipping name of the dangerous cargoes, the UN number, the IMDG Code classification (if applicable), any subsidiary risk, number and type of packages, packaging group, the flashpoint or flashpoint range (as appropriate), the quantity and, in the case of dangerous cargoes of classes 1, 2, 6.2 and 7, such additional information as specified in section 9 of the General Introduction to the IMDG Code;
  3. the precise stowage of the dangerous cargoes on board, indicating those to be unloaded and those to be left on board;
  4. the condition of the dangerous cargoes if any undue hazard is likely to arise; and
  5. any known defect which may substantially affect the safety of the port area or the ship.

1.2 Bulk dangerous cargoes:
  1. name of the ship and ship's IMO number, agent and estimated time of arrival (ETA), normally not less than 24 hours before arrival;
  2. a list showing the proper shipping name of the dangerous cargoes, the UN number, the MARPOL NLS category, the flashpoint or flashpoint range (if appropriate) and the quantity;
  3. whether a valid International Certificate of Fitness, International Certificate for the Carriage of Noxious Liquid Substances in Bulk or International Oil Pollution Prevention Certificate, as appropriate, is held for the cargo;
  4. stowage of the dangerous cargoes on board, indicating those to be unloaded and those to be left on board;
  5. the condition of the dangerous cargoes and any known defect in the cargo containment and handling system, equipment or instrumentation related to the cargo carried in bulk which may lead to any undue hazard; and
  6. any known defect which may substantially affect the safety of the port area or the ship.


2 ARRIVAL BY LAND

2.1 Packaged dangerous cargoes and bulk dangerous cargoes:
  1. name of the shipper and date of delivery to the port area, normally not less than 24 hours before arrival;
  2. the proper shipping name of the dangerous cargoes, the UN number, the IMDG Code classification (if applicable), subsidiary risk, the flashpoint or flashpoint range (as appropriate), the quantity and, in the case of packaged dangerous cargoes of class 1, 2, 6.2 and 7, such additional information as specified in section 9 of the General Introduction to the IMDG Code;
  3. the number and type of packages and packaging group (if applicable); and
  4. the name of the ship into which the dangerous cargoes are to be loaded (if available), the ship's agent and the berth.


3 DEPARTURE BY WATER

3.1 Packaged dangerous cargoes:
  1. the name of the ship and ship's IMO number, agent and estimated time of departure (ETD), normally not less than 3 hours before sailing;
  2. a list showing the proper shipping name of the dangerous cargoes, the UN number, the IMDG Code classification (if applicable), any subsidiary risk, number and type of packages, packaging group, the flashpoint or flashpoint range (if appropriate), the quantity and, in the case of dangerous cargoes of class 1, 2, 6.2 and 7, such additional information as specified in section 9 of the General Introduction to the IMDG Code; and
  3. the precise stowage of the dangerous cargoes on board.

3.2 Bulk dangerous cargoes
  1. the name of the ship and ship's IMO number, agent and estimated time of departure (ETD), normally not less than 3 hours before sailing;
  2. a list showing the proper shipping name of the dangerous cargoes, the UN number, the MARPOL NLS category, the flashpoint or flashpoint range (if appropriate) and the quantity;
  3. whether a valid International Certificate of Fitness, International Certificate for the Carriage of Noxious Liquid Substances in Bulk or International Oil Pollution Prevention Certificate, as appropriate, is held by the ship for the cargo; and
  4. the stowage of the dangerous cargoes on board.

Annex 2 Transport and handling of explosives of class 1


Additional basic items for consideration by the Regulatory Authority

1 GENERAL

1.1 It should be ensured that relevant instructions are given to control the movement of any means of transport involved in the transport of explosives in the port area.

1.2 It should be ensured that there is at all times a responsible person in charge of any cargo of explosives in the port area.


2 Explosives in compatibility group L

2.1 Explosives in compatibility group L should not be handled in a port area unless the special permission of the port authority has been obtained and any special precautions, required by the port authority, have been taken.


3 Handling of deteriorated explosives

3.1 Because of the sensitivity of many explosives, special conditions should be considered and agreed before any explosives, which for any reason may have deteriorated or undergone a change of condition that may materially increase the hazards attendant upon their transport or handling, are moved in the port area. Such special conditions should be agreed in writing between the port authority and the responsible person having charge of the explosives.


4 Loading and unloading of explosives

4.1 No explosives should be brought to a berth for loading into a ship unless the ship is ready to receive them. No explosives should be unloaded from a ship at a berth, unless the means of transport by which they are to be removed from the port area is ready to receive them. Once the handling of explosives has begun, it should proceed with due diligence.

4.2 The area of the berth where the explosives are being handled should be clearly marked out as a protected area in which the provisions of 3.3.2, 6.2.6.1 and 6.3.7.2 are strictly enforced. The limits of the area should extend at least 10 metres from the immediate handling area.

4.3 The space in the ship or cargo transport unit in which explosives are to be loaded should be carefully cleaned and maintained in a clean condition and particular attention should be paid to the provisions of 6.3.7.1.4.

4.4 Explosives should not be handled during the hours of darkness unless prior consent has been obtained from the port authority which should take into account all relevant considerations, including the standard of illumination, security, safety, fatigue of workers and weather conditions.

4.5 Equipment for handling explosives should be of an approved type, properly maintained and tested in accordance with national and international standards.


5 Weather conditions

5.1 Because of the nature of explosives, the provisions of 6.2.15 and 6.3.18 with respect to the handling of dangerous cargoes in adverse weather conditions need careful attention, particularly in respect of wet conditions.


6 Additional fire precautions

6.1 No source of ignition should be brought into or near to a place where explosives are being handled. The wearing of shoes or boots with unprotected metal nails, heels or tips of any kind should be prohibited except where the consignment consists only of articles of class 1 and care should be taken to ensure that any portable lights and other electrical equipment are of a type safe for use in a flammable atmosphere.


7 Radio or radar transmitting

7.1 During the handling of explosives no radar or radio transmitter should be used within 50 metres of the cargo handling area, except under such conditions, including power outlet limitations, frequency and other factors, as may be established by the regulatory authority. The regulatory authority should be guided by explosives and radio experts on the minimum distance between the handling of various types of explosives and operational transmitters.


8 Bunkering

8.1 No bunkering should be permitted during the handling of explosives or while the hatches of cargo spaces containing explosives are open, unless the permission of the port authority has been obtained.


9 Damaged packages

9.1 If in the course of handling explosives in the port area any package of explosives, or the seal of any such package, appears to be damaged, that package should be set aside for examination and repair or other safe disposal.

9.2 If any explosives are spilled or escape from a package, the responsible person supervising the handling should ensure that such spillage is immediately collected and safe arrangements are made for its repacking or disposal. Every such incident should be immediately reported to the port authority.


10 Completion of loading

10.1 When loading is completed the loaded ship or vehicle should depart from the port area as soon as is reasonably practicable.


11 Security

11.1 As the safety of the handling of explosives is affected by the degree of security attained, consideration should be given to all measures necessary to prevent unauthorized access to explosives including appropriate checks that all packages are received in good order and condition at all stages of the handling operation.


12 Explosives in class 1, division 1.4, compatibility group S

12.1 The regulatory authority should grant any exemption necessary from their requirements in the case of explosives in Class 1, Division 1.4, Compatibility Group S in accordance with the IMDG Code.

Annex 3 Segregation for radioactive materials on shore


1 Application

1.1 Any material with a specific activity greater than 70 kBq/kg should be declared as a radioactive material.


2 Segregation from persons

2.1 Limitation of the radiation exposure of persons should be based on keeping doses as low as reasonably practicable within the current maximum annual dose-equivalent limit recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) for members of the public and workers.

2.2 The ICRP recommended dose limits are revised from time to time. The 1990 recommendations are for a maximum annual dose - equivalent limit of 20 mSv averaged over 5 years with 50 mSv in any one year for occupationally exposed workers and 1 mSv for members of the general public.

2.3 Members of the general public should normally not have access to or near areas of ports where radioactive materials are kept.

2.4 Category II or III (yellow label) packages, overpacks, freight containers or tanks containing radioactive materials which are not taken directly to or from a ship should be kept in areas or stores separated from any place regularly frequented by workers by at least the distances given in the table below, unless measurements taken by using an appropriate instrument show clearly that the radiation level at all points inside that place is less than 7.5 microSv/h. Where members of the general public necessarily require access to the vicinity of such areas or stores it should be for short periods only.

TABLE:

Segregation of category II or III packages, overpacks, freight containers or tanks from workers.
Sum of transport indices Minimum segregation
distances in metres
Up to 54
Over 5 to 106
Over 10 to 208
Over 20 to 3010
Over 30 to 4012
Over 40 to 5013
Over 50 to 100(For 2 or more stacks of18
Over 100 to 150packages etc. see22
Over 150 to 2004.1.2 below)26
The segregation distance should be adhered to regardless of whether walls or ceilings intervene between the storage area and the occupied place.

2.5 Where the package, overpack, freight container or tank is not in a special store, the area covered by applying the table above should be barriered or marked off. Entry into the special store or barriered off area should be for the purpose of essential duties only and the time spent in handling packages, overpacks, freight containers or tanks containing radioactive materials should be kept to the minimum necessary. If the frequency of keeping packages, overpacks, freight containers or tanks of radioactive materials on the premises is such that persons on average over the year spend more than 10 hours per week in the vicinity of the special store or barriered off area where such materials are present, more stringent measures should be adopted, possibly including monitoring of radiation doses received. Guidance on this should be sought from the regulatory authority.

2.6 These criteria should be regarded as minimum standards. In some countries the regulatory authority has made national legislation requiring higher standards. In such cases it will be necessary to comply with the provisions of such legislation.

2.7 No person under 18 years of age should be employed in the handling of Category II or III packages, overpacks, freight containers or tanks, or remain in their vicinity for significant periods. The regulatory authority should consider the need for any restriction on the employment of pregnant women.


3 Segregation from undeveloped film

3.1 Radioactive materials should be segregated from undeveloped film and mailbags (which should be assumed to contain undeveloped film) by at least the distances given in the table in 2.4 of this annex.


4 General stowage requirements

4.1 Unless authorized under special arrangements by the regulatory authority:
.1 the radiation doses levels likely to be encountered from any package, "overpack", freight container or tank in a port area should not exceed 2 mSv/h at the external surface or 0.1 mSv/h at 2 metres from the surface of any conveyance used in routine transport; and
.2 the total number of packages, overpacks, freight containers or tanks aboard a single conveyance or in a single stack in a port area should be so limited that the total sum of the transport indices does not exceed 50.

4.2 The total sum of the transport indices of any individual group of packages, overpacks, freight containers or tanks stowed in a port area should not exceed 100. An intervening space of at least 6 m should be left between groups. A number of stacks may be included in the same group.

4.3 Stowage of packages, overpacks, freight containers and tanks aboard ships should be in accordance with the requirements for class 7 and section 15 of the General Introduction to the IMDG Code.


5 Customs facilities

5.1 Consideration should be given to the need for the provision of appropriately separated areas for any customs examination of packages, overpacks, freight containers or tanks containing radioactive materials that may be necessary in the port area. Any customs officer likely to examine packages, etc. should receive appropriate training in basic radiation protection.

Annex 4 Minimum safety requirements for carrying out hot work


1 Before starting any hot work, on board a ship or on a berth, the responsible person of the company to carry out the hot work must be in possession of written authorization to carry out such hot work issued by the port authority. Such authorization should include details of the specific location of the hot work as well as safety precautions to be followed.

2 In addition to the safety precautions required by the port authority, before starting any hot work, the responsible person of the company to carry out the hot work together with the responsible person(s) of the ship and/or berth, should add any additional safety precautions/procedures required by the ship and/or berth.
These should include:
  1. the examination, and frequency of re-examination of local areas and adjacent areas, including tests to ensure the areas are free, and continue to be free, of flammable and/or explosive atmospheres and, where appropriate, are not deficient in oxygen;
  2. the removal of dangerous cargoes and other flammable substances and objects away from the working and adjacent areas. This includes scale, sludge, sediment and other possible flammable material;
  3. efficient protection of flammable structural members, e.g. beams, wooden walls, floors, doors, wall and ceiling coverings against accidental ignition; and
  4. the sealing of open pipes, pipe lead-throughs, valves, joints, gaps and open parts to prevent the transfer of flames, sparks and hot particles from the working areas to adjacent or other areas.

3 A duplicate of the hot work authorization and safety precautions should be posted adjacent to the work area as well as at each entrance to the work area. The authorization and safety precautions should be readily visible to, and clearly understood by, all persons engaged in the hot work.

4 While carrying out hot work it is essential that:
  1. checks are carried out to ensure that conditions have not changed; and
  2. at least one suitable fire extinguisher, or other suitable fire extinguishing equipment is readily available for immediate use at the location of the hot work.

5 During hot work, on completion and for a sufficient time after completion of such work, an effective fire-watch should be maintained in the area of the hot work as well as adjacent areas where a hazard resulting from the transfer of heat may be created.

6 Reference should also be made to the appropriate publications listed in the bibliography where additional valuable guidance on hot work procedures may be found. In particular, the International Safety Guide for Oil Tankers and Terminals (ISGOTT) should be consulted.

Annex 5 Bunkering precautions, including bunkering checklist


1 The master of a ship involved in bunkering shall ensure that bunkering will only take place if:
  1. notification of the intention to bunker is given to the port authority well in advance, stating the place, type of bunker oil to be transhipped and the expected time that bunkering will commence; and
  2. the questions on the attached bunkering check list are answered truthfully and affirmatively.

2 The master of the ship shall not begin bunkering unless he has ensured that:
  1. the scuppers are firmly closed;
  2. bunker pipes which are not in use are well blanked;
  3. the bunker hoses are properly supported;
  4. the bunker hoses have sufficient play;
  5. the bunker connection has been provided with a good seal;
  6. there is a well-tightened bolt in every bolt hole in the bunker pipe connection flanges;
  7. there is a sufficiently large overflow basin under the bunker pipe connection(s); and
  8. any cargo handling operations in progress will not hazard the bunker operations.

3 The master of a bunker vessel shall not begin bunkering unless he has ensured that:
  1. the bunker vessel is securely moored;
  2. the bunker hoses are in good condition;
  3. the bunker hoses have sufficient play;
  4. the bunker connection has been provided with a good seal; and
  5. there is a well-tightened bolt in every bolt hole of the bunker pipe connection flanges.

4 The master of a ship involved in bunkering shall ensure that the conditions described in paragraphs 2 and 3 remain fulfilled during the entire bunkering procedure.

5 Both, the master of a ship and the master of a bunker vessel should ensure, that a constant visual watch is maintained throughout the whole transfer operation.

6 Both, the master of a ship and the master of a bunker vessel have to ensure that all scuppers are closed and that sufficient absorbing materials are available in case of an accidental spillage.

7 If it cannot be ensured during the whole bunkering operation that the requirements laid down in this annex are fulfilled, the master of a ship and/or the bunker vessel shall cease bunker the operation immediately.

8 In this annex, bunkering is taken to mean the transfer of bunker oil, that is a flammable liquid intended for the propulsion and or the auxiliary operation of a ship or liquid intended for lubricating the ship's engine or her other machinery.


PRE-TRANSFER BUNKER CHECK LIST


Name of Bunker Barge .................... Name of Vessel taking Bunker ........
Licence Plate ...................................... Master's Name .......................
Master's/Driver's Name ...................... Date of Transhipment ................
Time of Transhipment ....................... Place of Transhipment ...............

Bunker Barge/Truck

Vessel taking Bunker
1. How much bunker oil will be transhipped:
    Fuel ... m/tons actual .. cbm
    Gas oil ... m/tons actual .. cbm
    Lub oil ... m/tons actual .. cbm
    1. Who measured the contents of the bunker tanks:
      Name ...................

      Position ...............
      2. What are the means of communication between the barge/truck and the vessel taking bunkers:...........................2. The measures were: Tank Actual Free space contents (up to 98% filling)
      3. Who is responsible for communications with the vessel taking 
      bunkers:
           Name
           Position
           No. ... m/tons ... cbm
           No. ... m/tons ... cbm
           No. ... m/tons ... cbm
           No. ... m/tons ... cbm
      4. Who is in charge of supervising the operation and taking immediate action in case of malfunction:

      3. How often will the contents of the bunker tanks be cheched during the bunker operations:

      Name
      Position


      Every ..... minutes
      5.(a) Is there an emergency stop facility: 4. Who is responsible for taking the measurements referred to in point 3:
      Yes/No

      Where

      Name

      Position
      (b) Has the emergency stopping procedure been discussed and agreed with the vessel taking bunkers:

      Yes/No

      5. How much bunker oil will be transhipped:
      Fuel m/tons actual cbm
      Gas oil m/tons actual cbm
      Lub oil m/tons actual cbm
       6. What are the means of communication between the barge/truck and the vessel taking bunkers: ..........................

      7. Who is responsible for communications with the vessel taking bunkers:

      Name

      Position

      8. Who is in charge of supervising the operation and taking immediate action in case of malfunction:

      Name

      Position
      6. Nominated volume to be transhipped:

        Grade       Volume
      9. Accepted Volume to be transhipped:

        Grade       Volume
      Marine m/tons cbm
      Gas Oil
      LFO m/tons cbm
      LFO m/tons cbm
      LFO m/tons cbm
      Lub oil m/tons cbm

      7. Agreed maximum pumping rates and line pressures:
      Marine m/tons cbm
      Gas Oil
      LFO m/tons cbm
      LFO m/tons cbm
      Lub oil m/tons cbm

      10. Agreed maximum pumping rates and line pressures:
      I confirm that I shall not exceed above volumes pumping rates and line pressures* and that my crew will remain on duty close to the hose connection in order to oversee the safe bunker operation and to be able to respond to an emergency throughout the delivery. I confirm that I am able to receive the above volumes at the pumping rates and line pressures* agreed to above that the ship's engineers in charge of the receiving operation will not close any valve which will restrict the flow of the product without adequate notice to the barge or truck personnel, and that my crew will remain on duty close to the hose connection in order to oversee the safe bunker operation and to be able to respond to an emergency throughout the delivery.
      __________________________________________
      Barge Master/Truck Driver

      * if applicable
      Master/Chief Engineer

      * if applicable

      THIS CHECKLIST HAS TO BE COMPLETED PRIOR TO COMMENCEMENT OF BUNKER OPERATIONS

      Annex 6 Alphabetical index of cross references between recommendations in sections 3 and 6


      SectionInfra-
      structure
      authorities
      Regulatory
      and port
      ShipsShore
      instal-
      lations
      Cargo
      interests
       36.16.26.36.4
      Acceptability
      of dangerous
      cargoes
       6.1.1   
      Advanced
      notification
       6.1.2   
      Alcohol and
      drug abuse
        6.2.146.3.17 
      Berting 6.1.36.2.36.3.1 
      Bilge water,
      waste ballast
      or slops
        6.2.13  
      Bunkering 6.1.14   
      Communications 6.1.19   
      Container
      Areas
      3.4    
      Contaminated
      waste
         6.3.16 
      Dangerous
      cargoes areas
      3.4.1    
      Documents and
      certificates
          6.4.1
      Emergency
      information
        6.2.56.3.6 
      Emergency
      procedures
       6.1.46.2.46.3.5 
      Entering the
      port area
        6.2.1  
      Entry into
      confined or
      enclosed spaces
       6.1.106.2.116.3.14 
      Environment
      precautions
      3.3.16.1.66.2.76.3.9 
      Exemptions 6.1.22   
      Explosives3.3.26.1.15   
      F. Containers,
      portable tanks,
      vehicles
          6.4.3
      Facilities for
      damaged cargo
      3.4.4    
      Fire fighting   6.3.8 
      Fire
      precautions
       6.1.56.2.66.3.7 
      Fumigation of
      ships, sheds,
      CTUs, etc.
      3.4.36.1.116.2.126.3.15 
      General3.1    
      Handling
      equipment
        6.2.176.3.20 
      Identification,
      packing,
      marking,
      labelling
        6.3.36.4.2 
      Infectious
      substances
       6.1.17   
      Inspections 6.1.186.2.96.3.126.4.4
      Knowledge of
      rules and
      regulations
       6.1.23   
      Land use
      planning
      3.2    
      Lighting 6.2.166.3.19  
      Pilotage
      and tug
      assistance
       6.1.20   
      Pollution
      combating
        6.3.10  
      Protective
      equipment
       6.2.186.3.21  
      Radioactive
      materials
      3.3.46.1.16   
      Reception
      facilities for
      slops, etc.
      3.4.66.1.12   
      References 6.1.24   
      Repair or
      maintenance
      work
      3.4.56.1.9;6.2.106.3.13 
      Reporting of
      incidents
       6.1.76.2.86.3.11 
      Safe transport,
      handling and
      segregation
       6.1.13 6.3.4 
      Signals 6.1.18   
      Specific
      areas
      3.4    
      Supervision   6.3.2 
      Tank storage
      and pipelines
      3.4.7    
      Temperature
      controlled
      dangerous
      cargoes
      3.3.3    
      Unmanned
      barges
       6.1.21   
      Watchkeeping  6.2.2  
      Weather
      conditions
        6.2.156.3.18 

      Appendix 1 Selected bibliography list of internationally recognized codes and guides, relevant to the transport and handling of dangerous cargoes in port areas


      Selected bibliography list of internationally recognized codes and guides, relevant to the transport and handling of dangerous cargoes in port areas

      PIANC: Dangerous Goods in Ports - Recommendations for port designers and port operators.

      NEP: APELL - Awareness and preparedness for emergencies at local level

      ILO: Code of Practice on Safety and Health in Dock Work Guide to Safety and Health in Dock Work.

      ICS/OCIMF/IAPH: International Safety Guide for Oil Tankers and Terminals (ISGOTT)

      ICS/OCIMF Ship to Ship Transfer Guide (Liquefied Gases) - 1980 Prevention of Oil Spillages through Cargo Pumproom Sea Valves (1991) Ship to Ship Transfer Guide (Petroleum) - 1988

      ICS/OCIMF/SIGTTO: A Guide to Contingency Planning for the Gas Carrier Alongside and Within Port Limits - 1989 A Guide to Contingency Planning for Marine Terminals Handling Liquefied Gases in Bulk - 1989

      OCIMF/SIGTTO: Inspection Guidelines for Ships Carrying Liquefied Gases in Bulk - 1990

      ICS: Tanker Safety Guide (Chemicals) Tanker Safety Guide (Liquefied Gas)

      OCIMF: Safety Guide for Terminals Handling Ships Carrying Liquefied Gases in Bulk - 1993 Effective Mooring - 1989 Guide on Marine Terminal Fire Protection and Emergency Evacuation - 1987 Inspection Guidelines for Bulk Oil Carriers - 1994 Marine and Terminal Operations Survey Guidelines - 1983 Mooring Equipment Guidelines - 1992 Recommendations for Equipment Employed in the Mooring of Ships at Single Point Moorings - 1993 Recommendations for Oil Tanker Manifolds and Associated Equipment - 1991 Ship Information Questionnaire for Bulk Oil Carriers - 1989 Recommendations for Manifolds for Refrigerated Liquefied Gas Carriers for Cargoes from 0 degrees C to minus 104 degrees C - 1987 Recommendations for Manifolds for Refrigerated Liquefied Gas Carriers (LNG) - 1994

      SIGTTO: Guidelines for Hazard Analysis as an Aid to Management of Safe Operations - 1992 Safe Havens for Disabled Gas Carriers - 1982 Liquefied Gas Handling Principles on Ships and in Terminals - 1986

      OECD: Guiding Principles for Chemical Accident Prevention, Preparedness and Response.

      ICHCA: International Cargo Handling Co-ordination Association

      Appendix 2 General information on seaborne dangerous cargoes

      1 General


      1.1 In the IMO rules and recommendations a distinction is made between dangerous goods in packaged form, in solid form in bulk and in liquid form in bulk. The latter category in turn is divided into oil, dangerous chemicals and liquefied gas. Regulations covering the dangerous goods and the ships that carry the goods may be found in the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS, 1974), as amended, and the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution of Ships, 1973, as modified by the Protocol of 1978 relating thereto (MARPOL 73/78) as amended, and associated codes.

      1.2 The codes referred to in 1.1 are:
      1. the International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code (IMDG Code);
      2. the Code of Safe Practice for Solid Bulk Cargoes (BC Code);
      3. the International Code for the Construction and Equipment of Ships Carrying Dangerous Chemicals in Bulk (International Bulk Chemical Code or IBC Code *);
      4. the International Code for the Construction and Equipment of Ships Carrying Liquefied Gases in Bulk (International Gas Carrier Code or IGC Code **);

      1.3 Solid bulk cargoes pose hazards to ships additional to those associated with the properties of dangerous goods. These hazards include overstressing the ship and loss of stability. Cargoes posing dangers similar to those listed in the IMDG Code are incorporated in Appendix B of the BC Code.


      * For ships built before July 1986 the Bulk chemical Code (BCH Code) applies.
      ** For ships built before July 1986 the Gas Carrier Code and the Code for Existing Ships Carrying Liquefied Gases, as appropriate, apply.

      2 Dangerous goods in packaged form


      2.1 IMDG Code

      2.1.1 The IMDG Code was first adopted by means of IMO resolution A.81(IV) in 1965. The latest consolidated version is published in four loose leaf volumes so that amendments can be easily effected. The Code is also published in French and in Spanish.

      2.1.2 A fifth volume, the Supplement to the IMDG Code, contains the Emergency Schedules for Ships Carrying Dangerous Goods (EmS), the Medical First Aid Guide for Use in Accidents Involving Dangerous Goods (MFAG), the Code of Safe Practice for Solid Bulk Cargoes (BC Code), the Reporting Procedures under SOLAS 74 and MARPOL 73/78, the IMO/ILO Guidelines for Packing Cargo in Freight Containers or Vehicles, the Recommendations on the Safe Use of Pesticides in Ships and other relevant recommendations.

      2.1.3 Although designed primarily for mariners the provisions of the IMDG Code affect industries, storage, warehousing, handling and transport services from manufacturers to consignees and all should be guided by its provisions on classification, terminology, identification, packing, marking, labelling and placarding and documentation of dangerous cargoes for transport by sea.


      2.2 Classification

      2.2.1 The IMDG Code lists the following classes and divisions
        Class 1 - Explosives
          Division 1.1: Substances and articles which have a mass explosion hazard
          Division 1.2: Substances and articles which have a projection hazard but not a mass explosion hazard
          Division 1.3: Substances and articles which have a fire hazard and either a minor blast hazard or a minor projection hazard or both, but not a mass explosion hazard
          Division 1.4: Substances and articles which present no significant hazard
          Division 1.5: Very insensitive substances which have a mass explosion hazard
          Division 1.6: Extremely insensitive articles which do not have a mass explosion hazard
          Class 2 - Gases: compressed, liquefied or dissolved under pressure
          Class 2.1 - Flammable gases
          Class 2.2 - Non-flammable, non-poisonous gases
          Class 2.3 - Poisonous gases
          Class 3 Flammable liquids
          Class 4.1 - Flammable solids
          Class 4.2 - Substances liable to spontaneous combustion
          Class 4.3 - Substances which, in contact with water, emit flammable gases
          Class 5.1 - Oxidizing substances (agents)
          Class 5.2 - Organic peroxides
          Class 6.1 - Toxic substances
          Class 6.2 - Infectious substances
          Class 7 - Radioactive materials
          Class 8 - Corrosives
          Class 9 - Miscellaneous dangerous substances and articles

          2.3 Packing

          2.3.1 The types of packages and packagings recommended in the IMDG Code are those which, based on extensive past experience, ensure a high degree of safety. Detailed specifications and a number of performance tests applicable to a wide range of packagings are to be found in Annex I to the Code.

          2.3.2 Intermediate Bulk Containers (IBCs) are rigid, semi rigid, or flexible portable packagings other than those specified in Annex I to the Code which have specified maximum capacities, are designed for mechanical handling and are resistant to the stresses produced in handling and transport. Detailed specifications and tests are given in section 26 of the General Introduction to the IMDG Code.

          2.3.3 Requirements for portable tanks and road tank vehicles for dangerous substances are given in section 13 of the General Introduction to the IMDG Code which distinguishes between types 1, 2 and 4 tanks for liquids other than liquefied gases, types 5 and 6 for non-refrigerated liquefied gases and types 7 and 8 tanks intended for refrigerated liquefied gases.

          2.3.4 Further detailed provisions in the General Introduction to the IMDG Code may be found on freight container traffic (section 12), the carriage of dangerous goods on roll-on roll-off ships (section 17) and the carriage of dangerous goods in shipborne barges on barge carrying ships (section 19).

          2.3.5 The IMDG Code requires written statements in the form of declarations or certificates that packages, freight containers and/or vehicles are properly packed.


          2.4 Identification, marking, labelling and placarding

          2.4.1 When dangerous goods are offered for transport, it is essential that they be identified as such in accordance with section 7 of the General Introduction to the IMDG Code in order to allow those involved to take the necessary care and precautions. For that purpose, the proper shipping name, UN number and, in the case of Marine Pollutants, the addition of "MARINE POLLUTANT" should be used on documentation accompanying a consignment of dangerous goods. This facilitates reference to the IMDG Code which uses identical names and numbers.

          2.4.2 Similarly, each package containing dangerous goods should be durably marked, if so required by the IMDG Code, with the proper shipping name and, if assigned, the UN Number. Marine Pollutants should be durably marked, if so required by the IMDG Code, with the marine pollutant mark.

          2.4.3 Furthermore, each package should be durably identified, if so required by the IMDG Code, with (a) distinctive label(s) or stencil(s) of the label(s). In the case of cargo transport units enlarged labels, placards, should be used. These should be fixed to each cargo transport unit as required by the IMDG Code.


          2.5 Marine Pollutants

          2.5.1 Marine Pollutants are harmful substances, as defined in Article 2 of MARPOL 73/78, carried by sea in packaged form, identified as such in the IMDG Code and carried under the terms of Annex III of that Convention. Certain marine pollutants have an extreme pollution potential and are identified as severe marine pollutants.

          2.5.2 Marine Pollutants which are also dangerous are included in the appropriate class of the IMDG Code. Those that do not possess any other hazard are included in class 9.

          2.5.3 The requirements of Annex III of MARPOL 73/78 follow closely those of chapter VII of SOLAS 74 as regards labelling, marking and documentation of the goods and the reporting of incidents involving the goods.


          2.6 Compatibility and segregation

          2.6.1 Two substances or articles are considered mutually incompatible when their stowage together may result in undue hazards in case of leakage or spillage. The extent of the hazard may vary and so the segregation arrangements vary as appropriate. The segregation is obtained by maintaining certain distances between incompatible dangerous goods or by requiring the presence of one of more steel bulkheads or decks between them.

          2.6.2 The following segregation terms are used throughout the IMDG Code:
          1. away from;
          2. separated from;
          3. separated by a complete compartment or hold from; and
          4. separated longitudinally by an intervening compartment or hold from.

          2.6.3 The terms are further defined in the Code where a distinction is made between packaged dangerous goods carried in traditional general cargo ships, containerships, shipborne barges on barge carrying ships and roll-on roll-off ships and dangerous substances carried in solid form in bulk.

          3 Solid bulk materials


          3.1 Introduction

          3.1.1 In general the hazards associated with the shipment of solid bulk materials may be considered to come under the following main categories:
          1. structural damage due to improper distribution of the cargo, not only on completion but also during cargo operations;
          2. loss or reduction of stability during the voyage, either due to a shift of cargo or to the cargo liquefying under the combined factors of vibration and motion of the ship; and
          3. chemical reaction such as spontaneous combustion, emission of toxic or explosive gases, corrosion or oxygen depletion.
          It should be noted that some solid bulk materials may be innocuous when stowed in small quantities ashore and only pose the above hazards when stowed in large quantities in bulk aboard ships. To safeguard against such dangers statements are frequently required from shippers of certain physical or chemical properties of the cargoes they wish to ship.

          3.1.2 The BC Code makes three broad distinctions which are listed in the appendices of the Code, i.e.:
          1. bulk materials which may liquefy (Appendix A);
          2. bulk materials possessing chemical hazards (Appendix B); and
          3. bulk materials which are neither liable to liquefy nor to possess chemical hazards (Appendix C).
          The carriage of grain is regulated under the International Code for the Safe Carriage of Grain in Bulk (Grain Code).


          3.2 High density cargoes

          3.2.1 Solid bulk materials having a high density require careful distribution within prescribed limits to prevent overstressing. The danger of overstressing is particularly relevant when the ship is moving in a seaway. However, in port careful consideration must be given to the sequence of loading and the quantity of materials loaded at each pour. Experience has shown that a relatively fast sequence of bending and hogging stresses, the chemical reaction of some cargoes with the ship's material and the techniques used for unloading the ship can result in considerable structural damage which, unless discovered in time, may result in the loss of ships.

          3.2.2 An additional hazard posed by high density cargoes is that loading these into a ship results in a relatively large metacentric height with consequential violent movements in a seaway, which not only is extremely uncomfortable for those on board but also adds to the stresses on a ship's structure.


          3.3 Cargoes liable to liquefy

          3.3.1 Liquefaction of cargoes results in loss of a ship's stability and possible consequential loss of the ship. Cargoes which may liquefy may be perfectly safe to carry in a dry or near dry state but with an increase of moisture content above the transportable moisture limit a shift of cargo may occur as a result of liquefaction.

          3.3.2 Ideally such cargoes should be carried by specially fitted ships or specially constructed cargo ships, provided with specially designed portable or permanent divisions. Other ships may only carry the cargoes when the moisture content is below the transportable moisture limit. The shipper should provide the necessary information on the cargo. Sampling procedures are specified in the Code.


          3.4 Cargoes liable to shift

          3.4.1 The BC Code makes a distinction between cohesive and non-cohesive cargoes. The measure of the danger of shifting to which a non-cohesive cargo is subject is given in its angle of repose which can be established by methods specified in the Code. Trimming instructions are specified for cargoes with an angle of repose less than or equal to 30 degrees, 30 degrees to 35 degrees inclusive and greater than 35 degrees, the former category requiring the greatest care.


          3.5 Cargoes posing chemical hazards

          3.5.1 These cargoes are subject to classification in a similar way to packaged dangerous goods:
            Class 4.1: Flammable solids
            Class 4.2: Substances liable to spontaneous combustion
            Class 4.3: Substances which, in contact with water, emit flammable gases
            Class 5.1: Oxidizing substances (agents)
            Class 6.1: Toxic (poisonous) substances
            Class 6.2: nfectious substances
            Class 7: Radioactive materials
            Class 8: Corrosives
            Class 9: Miscellaneous dangerous substances and articles
            MHB: Materials hazardous only in bulk
            3.5.2 Stowage and segregation requirements also apply similarly to packaged dangerous goods. These apply between bulk materials mutually as well as between bulk materials and dangerous goods in packaged form.


            3.6 Dust

            3.6.1 Dust is inherent to cargo operations with many bulk materials. Dust should be reduced to the minimum practicable level. Precautions are necessary to minimize the risks due to exposure to the residual dust of certain materials carried in bulk. These include a high standard of personal hygiene, the use of protective clothing and, when needed, barrier creams. This is particularly important in the case of toxic materials.

            3.6.2 Dust created by certain cargoes may constitute an explosion hazard especially during cargo operations or when cleaning holds. This risk can be minimized by ventilating spaces with dust laden atmospheres and by hosing down rather than sweeping.


            3.7 Information for ships

            3.7.1 In order to assess the dangers for those on board a shipmaster must be provided with the information essential for him to load and unload the ship safely. SOLAS 74, regulation VI/2 and the BC Code put the onus of providing that information on the shipper who should provide such details as chemical hazards (toxicity, corrosivity, etc.) flow moisture point, stowage factor, moisture content, angle of repose, etc.

            3.7.2 To do this the shipper will need to arrange for the material to be properly sampled and tested. Furthermore, the shipper should provide the shipmaster with the appropriate certificates of test, applicable for a given material. Sampling procedures and laboratory test procedures are specified in the BC Code.

            4 Bulk liquids


            4.1 Introduction

            4.1.1 Details of the SOLAS 74 requirements are set out in appendix 3 and in the context of this appendix it may suffice to state that chapter VII addresses the carriage of dangerous cargoes and parts B and C of chapter VII concern the construction and equipment of ships carrying liquid chemicals and liquefied gases in bulk respectively.

            4.1.2 The construction, equipment and to some extent the operation of oil tankers is further elaborated in MARPOL 73/78, Annex I of which defines oil as any mineral oil.

            4.1.3 For detailed requirements for the carriage of liquid chemicals in bulk, chapter VII of SOLAS 74 refers to the International Bulk Chemical (IBC) Code.1 The carriage of liquid chemicals comes also under the provisions of MARPOL 73/78 - Annex II and its associated Standards for Procedures and Arrangements for the Discharge of Noxious Liquid Substances.

            4.1.4 The carriage of liquefied gas in bulk is further regulated in the International Gas Carrier (IGC) Code.2


            4.2 Oil

            4.2.1 Oil, in particular oil as defined in MARPOL 73/78, poses hazards both to human life and the environment.

            4.2.2 Hazard to human life is caused in the first place by the threat of fire and explosion.3 Depending on volatility most oils pose the threat of fire and explosion. It is usual to make a distinction between oil posing a great threat, medium threat and little or no threat as expressed by the flashpoint, which is the temperature at which an oil emits sufficient flammable gas such as to flash. However, it is known that flammable atmospheres can be generated from residual fuel oils even when stored at temperatures below their flashpoint, consequently it is wise to take precautions when handling such oils.

            4.2.3 Highly volatile oils such as crude oil and aviation fuel pose considerably more fire risk than for instance heavy fuel oils or lubricating oils.

            4.2.4 It should be noted that it is not the oil that burns but rather the vapour generated by oil. The flammability range of mineral oil lies in general between 1 percent and 10 percent of hydrocarbon gas by volume. If the vapour concentration is below 1 percent, referred to as the lower flammable limit (LFL) the air/vapour mixture will not burn (the mixture is too lean), if more than 10 percent, referred to as the upper flammable limit (UFL), the mixture, again, will not burn (the mixture is too rich).

            4.2.5 Another hazard is toxicity. At extremely low concentrations hydrocarbon gas affects the respiratory system and persons exposed to these concentrations may die after even a short exposure. In addition hydrocarbon gas may contain components of even greater toxicity such as hydrogen sulphide.

            4.2.6 Oil is also considered a main marine polluter and stringent rules are in place to prevent such pollution. Even so many incidents are still reported where oil slicks reach beaches or fish spawning grounds or where large numbers of contaminated birds wash ashore. Large oil spills caused by the stranding or collision of tankers are relatively rare, although usually given a high profile by the media. The quantities of oil spilt as a result of such accidents may cause great problems locally but are in fact only a fraction of the amount that enters the sea as a result of day to day operations.

            4.2.7 Where oil causes pollution to a State's natural resources or industry, international regimes are in place for mutual assistance in combating the pollution or for the recovery of the cost of the damages. For the former this is the Oil Pollution Preparedness and Response Convention, 1990, (OPRC)4 and for the latter the Civil Liability Convention (CLC)5 of 1969, and Fund Convention of 19716.

            4.2.8 MARPOL 73/78, Annex I, makes no distinction between oils as regards the severity of threat they pose to the marine environment. The so-called white oils (clean products) are considered the same as black oils (persistent oils).

            4.2.9 Operations on oil tankers designed to protect the environment include crude oil washing (COW), aimed at reducing sludge and deposits after unloading, dedicated clean ballast tank (CBT) operations, aimed at reducing the need to put water ballast in dirty cargo tanks, and load-on-top (LOT) operations aimed at keeping tank washing slops on board.

            4.2.10 COW operations necessitate a longer time at berth and LOT operations necessitate the co-mingling of tank cleaning slops with cargo and the eventual discharge to the terminal. For both operations, therefore, the co-operation of the terminal is required.


            4.3 Liquid chemicals in bulk

            4.3.1 OLAS regulation VII/10 requires a chemical tanker to comply with he International Code for the Construction and Equipment of Ships Carrying Dangerous Chemicals in Bulk or International Bulk Chemical (IBC) Code 7. A chemical tanker is defined as a cargo ship constructed or adapted and used for the carriage in bulk of any liquid product listed in chapter 17 of the IBC Code.

            4.3.2 Regulation 2 of Annex II of MARPOL 73/78 states that the provisions of the Annex shall apply to ships carrying noxious liquid substances in bulk. A chemical tanker in this Annex is defined as a ship constructed or adapted primarily to carry a cargo of noxious liquid substances in bulk.

            4.3.3 Criteria for inclusion in chapter 17 are set out in the IBC Code. Liquid substances carried in bulk and not coming under the criteria are listed in chapter 18.

            4.3.4 For marine pollution prevention purposes liquid chemicals are divided into categories A, B, C and D and Appendix III substances. Criteria for this division are derived from Appendix I of Annex II of MARPOL 73/78 and include such parameters as bioaccumulation, toxicity to marine life, toxicity by oral intake and damage to amenities. Chemicals that come under the categories A, B, C and D (noxious liquid substances) are included in Appendix II of Annex II. Those that are not considered harmful in accordance with the criteria are included in Appendix III.

            4.3.5 In order to ensure a safer carriage of the worst categories of noxious liquid substances, substances of categories A, B and C are listed in chapter 17 of the IBC Code regardless of whether they are dangerous and noxious, or noxious only. Substances of category D and those included in Appendix III of Annex II appear in chapter 17 only when dangerous to man.

            4.3.6 The carriage of chapter 17 chemicals takes place under the International Certificate of Fitness for the Carriage of Dangerous Chemicals in Bulk. The certificate ensures that the chemicals listed in it can be carried in compliance with the relevant construction and equipment requirements of the Code.

            4.3.7 The carriage of noxious liquid substances not listed in chapter 17 of the IBC Code is covered by the International Certificate for the Carriage of Noxious Liquid Substances in Bulk (NLS certificate) unless the ship has already been issued with an International Certificate of Fitness. In the latter case the noxious liquid substances are also included in the list. Like the international Certificate of Fitness, the NLS certificate has a list of (noxious liquid) substances which the ship is permitted to carry.


            4.4 Liquefied gases in bulk

            4.4.1 By definition liquids covered by the IBC Code are those having a vapour pressure not exceeding 2.8 bar at a temperature of 37.8 degrees C. Those that have a vapour pressure exceeding that value must be carried under pressure, refrigerated or a combination of both so as to liquefy them. The carriage of such liquefied gases comes under the International Code for the Carriage of Liquefied Gases, or International Gas Carrier (IGC) Code or Code for Existing Ships Carrying Liquified Gases.

            4.4.2 Like the IBC Code, the IGC Code contains a list of substances which come under the provisions of the Code. Apart from listing the gases chapter 19 of the IGC Code shows the minimum construction and equipment requirements against each of the listed gases.

            4.4.3 The carriage of chapter 19 gases takes place under the International Certificate of Fitness for the Carriage of Liquefied Gases in Bulk. The certificate ensures that the gases listed in it can be carried in a ship holding the certificate in compliance with the relevant requirements of the Code.


            4.5 Oil like substances

            4.5.1 Oil like substances are defined in MARPOL 73/78 as noxious liquid substances designated in Appendix II of Annex II as falling under categories C or D and identified by the Organization as oil like substances under the following criteria:
            1. the substance's mass density (specific gravity) is less than 1.0 at 20 degrees C;
            2. the substance's solubility in seawater at 20 degrees C is less than 0.1 per cent;
            3. the substance can be monitored by an oil content meter;
            4. in the case of category C substances, ship type requirement as specified by the IBC Code, is type 3; and
            5. the substance is not regulated by the IBC Code for safety purposes as indicated in chapter 17 of the Code.

            4.5.2 Oil like substances may be carried and their wastes may be disposed of as oil, in which case they are carried under the IOPP certificate, or as category C or D substances as appropriate in which case they are carried under the International Certificate of Fitness or NLS certificate.


            4.6 Mandatory prewash

            4.6.1 For category A and for high viscosity or solidifying substances of categories B and C the mandatory prewash applies, in that a tank after having carried these substances must be prewashed in the unloading port with the prewash slops being discharged to reception facilities in the port.


            1 For ships built before July 1986 the Bulk Chemical (BCH) Code applies.
            2 For ships built before July 1986 the Gas Carrier Code and the Code for Existing Ships Carrying Liquefied Gases, as appropriate, apply.
            3 It should be noted that flammable liquids are those with a flashpoint of less then 60 degrees C c.c. for bulk cargoes and less than or equal to 61 degrees C c.c. for packaged cargoes.
            4 Not yet in force; however, refer to resolution 10 of the conference on International Co-operation on Oil Pollution Preparedness and Response.
            5 International Convention on Civil Liability for Oil Pollution Damage, 1969.
            6 International Convention for the Establishment of a Fund for Oil Pollution Damage, 1971.
            7 For ships built before July 1986 the Bulk Chemical (BCH) code applies.

            Appendix 3 General information on convention requirements relating to ships carrying dangerous Cargoes


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