Onderwerp: Bezoek-historie

101(48) Identification of the Wadden Sea as a particularly sensitive sea area
Geldigheid:11-10-2002 t/m Status: Geldig vandaag

Dit onderwerp bevat de volgende rubrieken.


BEING AWARE of the ecological, social, economic, cultural, scientific and educational value of the Wadden Sea, as well as its vulnerability to damage by international shipping traffic and activities in the area and the steps taken by Denmark, Germany and the Netherlands to address that vulnerability,

NOTING that the Guidelines for the Identification and Designation of Particularly Sensitive Sea Areas adopted under resolution A.927(22) set out procedures for the designation of particularly sensitive sea areas,

HAVING CONSIDERED the proposal from Denmark, Germany and the Netherlands to designate the Wadden Sea as a Particularly Sensitive Sea Area,

HAVING AGREED that criteria for identification of a Particularly Sensitive Sea Area provided in resolution A.927(22) are fulfilled for the Wadden Sea,

1. DESIGNATES the Wadden Sea as defined in Annexes 1, 2 and 3 to this resolution as a Particularly Sensitive Sea Area.

Annex 1 Description of the particularly sensitive sea area Wadden Sea co-ordinates

a. Description

In order to avoid the risk of pollution and damage to this exceptional, highly dynamic tidal ecosystem of world importance, mariners should exercise extreme care when navigating in the area bounded by a line connecting the following geographical positions which is designated as a Particularly Sensitive Sea Area and in the adjacent area:

The PSSA Wadden Sea is bordered:

Seawards: by an offshore line defined by a set of geographical co-ordinates (see co-ordinates listed under c.),

Landwards: by the main dikes, or where the main dikes are absent, by the spring-high-tidewater line, and in the rivers, by the brackish-water limit.

The inhabited islands are excluded from the PSSA. These islands are in:

Denmark: Rømø, Mandø, Fanø

    Schleswig-Holstein : Pellworm, Nordstrandischmoor, Hooge, Gröde, Langeneß-Oland, Föhr, Amrum, Sylt, Norderoog, Habel, Süderoog

    Hamburg: Neuwerk

    Lower Saxony: Borkum, Juist, Norderney, Baltrum, Langeoog, Spiekeroog, Wangerooge The Netherlands: Texel, Vlieland, Terschelling, Ameland, Schiermonnikoog

    b. Illustrative overview

    The illustrative overview shows the different parts (1-12) of the offshore line of the proposed PSSA Wadden Sea. The numbers and names pointing to the different parts refer to the list of co-ordinates given in the tables under c.

    c. List of geographical co-ordinates (projection WGS84) for the bordering offshore line of the proposed PSSA Wadden Sea


    The proposed PSSA in the Danish Wadden Sea is divided into a northern part and a southern part by the Esbjerg Harbour shipping lane and the outer area of Esbjerg Harbour.


    Below are the coordinates for the seven parts (3-9) representing the delimitation of the proposed PSSA for Germany.

    The Netherlands

    Below are the co-ordinates representing the delimitation of the proposed PSSA for the Netherlands.

    • Point 433 until 440 represent the eastern boundary, Ems Dollard, of the area (part 10).

    • Point 441 until 453 represent the delimitation of the northern part of the area. It consists of the three nautical miles line from the baseline. Because this is a curved line, there are at least 1900 coordinates, but only some characterizing coordinates have been listed below. The map in annex 2 has been compiled on the basis of detailed information on the 3 nautical miles line (available from the Dienst der Hydrografie, the Hydrographical Service in the Hague, Netherlands) (part 11).

    • Point 454 and 455 represent the western boundary of the area. It is the line from Den Helder towards the West, crossing the three nautical miles line (part 12).

    Annex 2 PSSA Chart Proposed particularly sensitive sea area

    Annex 3 Existing measures

    Measures adopted by IMO and at the national and EC levels

    I General measures

    IMO measures

    The IMO has issued numerous conventions to improve maritime safety and prevent pollution from ships, for example the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea, 1972 (as amended by Resolutions A.464 (XII), A.626 (15), A.678 (16) and A.736 (18)), COLREGs and SOLAS V.

    EC measures

    Also the European Union has already issued numerous Directives corresponding to IMO measures, including e.g. directives on port State control, marine equipment, notification obligations, and on the management of ship generated waste and cargo residues. These are continually being updated and implemented into national legislation.

    According to the EC Habitat Directive (Council Directive 92/43/EEC) and the EC Bird Directive (Council Directive 79/409/EEC) Member States shall list areas of Community Interest respectively Special Protection Areas. These areas constitute the Natura 2000 network. Basically, the Wadden Sea, until 3 sea miles offshore except for the main shipping routes, has been listed as habitat areas according to the Habitat Directive and as Special Protection Areas according to the Bird Directive.

    Other regional measures

    Radio navigational warnings contain information that directly affects safety of life at sea and the protection of the environment. They are issued by NAVTEX, MRCC.s, VTS centers or other services.

    Bilateral (NL & D) Local Rules and Traffic Regulations for the Ems estuary.

    II Collision avoidance, navigation, routing measures

    IMO measures IMO routeing schemes are in place in the North Sea to simplify traffic flows to reduce the collision hazard and to keep ships carrying certain dangerous or polluting goods away from the Wadden Sea coast. Traffic Separation Schemes in the concerned area adopted by the IMO are:

    - At West Hinder - Off Brown Ridge
    - Off Botney Ground - West Friesland
    - East Friesland - Off Friesland
    - North Hinder - Off Vlieland,Vlieland North and Friesland Junction
    - Off Texel - In the approaches to Hook of Holland
    - Jade Approach - German Bight Western Approach
    - Terschelling-German Bight - In the approaches to river Elbe

    The Deep-Water Route and Traffic Separation Scheme (TSS) from North Hinder to the German Bight via the Frisian Junction, is mandatory for the following classes of ships:

    • Tankers of 10,000 GT + carrying oils as defined under Annex 1 of MARPOL 73/78;

    • Ships of 5,000 GT+ carrying noxious liquid substances in bulk categories A or B of Annex II of MARPOL 73/78;

    • Ships of 10,000 GT+ carrying noxious liquid substances in bulk categories C or D of Annex II of MARPOL 73/78; and

    • Ships of 10,000 GT + carrying liquefied gases in bulk.

      EC measures

      Reference to paragraph V.

      Other regional measures


      National measures


    III Pilotage, port entry and departure

    IMO measures

    Ships using the mandatory route for tankers from the North Hinder to the German Bight are recommended to use adequately qualified deep-sea pilots in the North Sea.

    EC measures

    European Directive 93/75/EEC requires the Master and Operator of vessels carrying dangerous or polluting goods to report cargo details entering or leaving EC ports.

    Dangerous goods are defined in:

    • The International Maritime Dangerous Goods (IMDG) Code

    • The International Gas Carrier (IGC) Code

    • The International Bulk Carrier (IBC) Code

      Polluting goods are defined in MARPOL Annexes I, II & III.

      European Directive 95/21/EEC (Port State Control)

      Other regional measures


    IV Vessel traffic services (VTS)

    IMO measures


    EC measures


    Other regional measures


    V Environmental protection measures intended to reduce or combat pollution

    IMO measures

    Denmark, Germany and the Netherlands are Parties to MARPOL 73/78.

    The designation of the North Sea and its coastal waters west of Great Britain and Ireland (North West European Waters) as a Special Area under MARPOL Annex I. This was implemented on a national level and entered into force in all three concerned countries.

    The designation of the North Sea as a special area under MARPOL Annex V. Annex V entered into force in all three States concerned.

    The designation of the North Sea as a Sox Emission Control Area under Annex VI of MARPOL 73/78 (not yet in force).

    The 1990 London International Convention on Pollution Preparedness, Response and Cooperation (OPRC) promotes international co-operation in the event of a major oil pollution threat between all North Sea countries. The OPRC-HNS Protocol (not yet in force) establishes a framework for international co-operation in the event of incidents involving hazardous and noxious substances.

    EC measures

    Council Directive 93/75/ECC of 13 September 1993 concerning minimum requirements for vessels bound for or leaving Community ports and carrying dangerous or polluting goods (known as the HAZMAT Directive) has been in force since 1995.

    The EC Directive 2000/59/EEC on port reception facilities for ship-generated waste and cargo residues, which entered into force in 2000, should be implemented by the concerned States by the end of 2002. It is the aim of the Directive to reduce the discharges of ship-generated waste and cargo residue into the sea, especially discharges, from ships using ports in the Community, by improving the availability and use of port reception facilities for ship-generated waste and cargo residues.

    The EC Directive 1999/32/EC relating to a reduction in the sulphur content of certain liquid fuels.

    As a follow up to the Erika incident, two other packages of measures are in the legislative procedure. Package ’Erika I’ is completed and contains the following elements:

    - further development of Port State Control;
    - strengthening of provisions for and the control of Classification Societies;
    - initiative for early phasing out of single hull tankers, mentioned in paragraph 8 above and being implemented in the EU by a regulation. The proposals concerning package ’Erika II’, passed on to the Council on 8 December 2000, consist of the following elements:
    - setting up a common monitoring and information system for maritime traffic, which will in due course replace EC-directive 93/75/EEC;
    - initiative for an additional compensation fund for damage by oil pollution;
    - establishment of the European Maritime Safety Agency (EMSA). Other regional measuresBonn Agreement: basic agreement for co-operation in dealing with Pollution of the North Sea by Oil and other Harmful Substances. Close co-operation between B, DK, F, D, NL, N, S and UK. Zones of responsibility are established under the Bonn Agreement, for co-operation in terms of aerial surveillance and dealing with pollution of the North Sea by oil and other harmful substances. Joint Maritime Contingency Plans on Combating Oil and Other Harmful Substances agreed between D and DK resp. NL (DENGER- resp. NETHGER-Plans), concerning bilateral co-operation especially in defined exterior and quick Response Zones. Bilateral Administrative Agreements between D and DK resp. NL on co-operation in the field of aerial surveillance (coordination of flight times and corridors, joint flights, mutual assistance by aircraft of the other party). Bilateral arrangements also apply between the Wadden Sea states in terms of Joint Maritime Contingency Plans. D-NL-Memorandum of Understanding on Mutual Support in the Field of North Sea Emergency Towing Capacity (March 2000): mutual assistance by emergency towing vessels in an area between the outer limitation of the VTS-schemes and the coastline, incl. approaches to the seaports. National measuresThere are lots of different national measures regarding preventing and combating marine pollution.
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