RECALLING Article 15(j) of the Convention on the International Maritime Organization concerning the functions of the Assembly in relation to regulations and guidelines concerning maritime safety and the prevention and control of marine pollution from ships,
RECOGNIZING that maritime pilots play an important role in promoting maritime safety and protecting the marine environment,
BELIEVING that maintaining a proper working relationship between the pilot, the master and, as appropriate, the officer in charge of a navigational watch is important in ensuring the safety of shipping,
NOTING that, since each pilotage area needs highly specialized experience and local knowledge on the part of the pilot, IMO does not intend to become involved with either the certification or the licensing of pilots or with the systems of pilotage practised in various States,
RECOGNIZING ALSO the high standards of pilotage services already established in many States and the need for these standards to be maintained,
CONSIDERING that in those States that are developing pilotage services, the establishment of practical minimum training standards, certification requirements and operational procedures to provide effective co-ordination between pilots and ship personnel, taking due account of ship bridge procedures and ship equipment, would contribute to maritime safety,
HAVING CONSIDERED the recommendation made by the Maritime Safety Committee at its seventy-fifth session,
1. ADOPTS: (a) the Recommendation on Training and Certification of Maritime Pilots other than Deep-sea Pilots set out in Annex 1 to the present resolution; (b) the Recommendation on Operational Procedures for Maritime Pilots other than Deep-sea Pilots set out in Annex 2 to the present resolution;
2. URGES Governments to give effect to these Recommendations as soon as possible;
3. REQUESTS the Maritime Safety Committee to keep the Recommendations under review and to amend them as necessary in the light of experience gained from their implementation;
4. REVOKES resolution A.485(XII).
Annex 1 Recommendation on training and certification of maritime pilots other than deep-sea pilots
1.1 It is recognised that pilotage requires specialised knowledge and experience of a specific
area and that States with many diverse waterways and ports have found it appropriate to
administer pilotage on a regional or local basis.
1.2 The maritime pilots referred to in this Recommendation do not include deep-sea pilots or
shipmasters or crew who are certificated or licensed to carry out pilotage duties in particular
1.3 Governments should encourage the establishment or maintenance of competent pilotage
authorities to administer safe and efficient pilotage systems.
2 Competent pilotage authority
2.1 Competent pilotage authority means either the national or regional Governments or local
groups or organizations that by law or tradition, administer or provide a pilotage system.
Governments should inform competent pilotage authorities of the provisions of this document
and encourage their implementation.
2.2 The assessment of the experience, qualifications and suitability of an applicant for
certification or licensing, as a pilot, is the responsibility of each competent pilotage authority.
2.3 The competent pilotage authority in co-operation with the national and local pilots’
.1 establish the entry requirements and develop the standards for obtaining a
certificate or licence in order to perform pilotage services within the area under its
.2 enforce the maintenance of developed standards;
.3 specify whatever prerequisites, experience or examinations are necessary to
ensure that applicants for certification or licensing as pilots are properly trained
and qualified; and
.4 arrange that reports on investigations of incidents involving pilotage are taken into
account in maritime pilots’ training programmes.
3 Pilotage certificate or licence
Every pilot should hold an appropriate pilotage certificate or licence issued by the competent
pilotage authority. In addition to stating the pilotage area for which it is issued, the certificate or
licence should also state any requirements or local limitations that the competent pilotage
authority may specify such as maximum size, draught or tonnage of vessels that the holder is
qualified to pilot.
4 Medical fitness
4.1 Each pilot should satisfy the competent pilotage authority that his or her medical fitness,
particularly regarding eyesight, hearing and physical fitness meets the standards required for
certification of masters and officers in charge of a navigational watch under the international
Convention on Standards of Training, Certification and Watchkeeping for Seafarers, 1978, as
amended, or such other standards as the competent pilotage authority considers appropriate.
4.2 If a pilot has experienced a serious injury or illness, there should be a re-evaluation of his
or her medical fitness prior to return to duty.
5 Training and certification or licensing standards
5.1 The competent pilotage authority is responsible for training and certification or licensing
standards. The standards should be sufficient to enable pilots to carry out their duties safely and
5.2 Standards for initial training should be designed to develop in the trainee pilot the skills
and knowledge determined by the competent pilotage authority to be necessary for obtaining a
pilot certificate or license. The training should include practical experience gained under the
close supervision of experienced pilots. This practical experience gained on vessels under actual
piloting conditions may be supplemented by simulation, both computer and manned model,
classroom instruction, or other training methods.
5.3 Every pilot should be trained in bridge resource management with an emphasis on the
exchange of information that is essential to a safe transit. This training should include a
requirement for the pilot to assess particular situations and to conduct an exchange of information
with the master and/or officer in charge of navigational watch. Maintaining an effective working
relationship between the pilot and the bridge team in both routine and emergency conditions
should be covered in training. Emergency conditions should include loss of steering, loss of
propulsion, and failures of radar, vital systems and automation, in a narrow channel or fairway.
5.4 Initial and continuing training in the master-pilot information exchange should also cover:
.1 regulatory requirements governing the exchange;
.2 recognition of language, cultural, psychological and physiological impediments to
effective communication and interaction and techniques for overcoming these
.3 best practices in the specific pilotage area.
5.5 Competent pilotage authorities should be encouraged to provide updating and refresher
training conducted for certified or licensed pilots to ensure the continuation of their proficiency
and updating of their knowledge, and could include the following;
.1 courses to improve proficiency in the English language where necessary;
.2 sessions to enhance the ability to communicate with local authorities and other
vessels in the area;
.3 meetings with local authorities and other responsible agencies to envisage
emergency situations and contingency plans;
.4 refresher or renewal courses in bridge resource management for pilots to facilitate
communication and information exchange between the pilot and the master and to
increase efficiency on the bridge.
.5 simulation exercises, which may include radar training and emergency
.6 courses in shiphandling training centres using manned models;
.7 seminars on new bridge equipment with special regard to navigation aids;
.8 sessions to discuss relevant issues connected with the pilotage service including
laws, rules and regulations particular to the pilotage area;
.9 personal safety training;
.10 techniques for personal survival at sea; and
.11 emergency first aid, including cardio-pulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and
6 Continued proficiency
6.1 In order to ensure the continued proficiency of pilots and updating of their knowledge, the
competent pilotage authority should satisfy itself, at regular intervals not exceeding five years,
that all pilots under its jurisdiction:
.1 continue to possess recent navigational knowledge of the local area to which the
certificate of licence applies;
.2 continue to meet the medical fitness standards of paragraph 4 above; and
.3 possess knowledge of the current international, national and local laws,
regulations and other requirements and provisions relevant to the pilotage area and
the pilots’ duties.
6.2 Possession of knowledge required by subparagraphs 6.1.1 and 6.1.3 may be proved by an
appropriate method such as personal service records, completion of continuing professional
development courses or by an examination.
6.3 Where a pilot in cases of absence from duty, for whatever reason, is lacking recent
experience in the pilotage area, the competent pilotage authority should satisfy itself that the pilot
regains familiarity with the area on his or her return to duty.
7 Syllabus for pilotage certification or licensing
7.1 In the syllabus, area means the waters for which the applicant is to be certified or
licensed. Each applicant for a pilot certificate or license should demonstrate that he or she has
necessary knowledge of the following:
.1 limits of local pilotage areas;
.2 International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea, 1972 as amended, and
also such other national and local navigational safety and pollution prevention
rules as may apply in the area;
.3 system of buoyage in the area;
.4 characteristics of the lights and their angles of visibility and the fog signals, racons
and radio beacons and other electronic aids in use in the area;
.5 names, positions and characteristics of the light vessels, buoys, beacons, structures
and other marks in the area;
.6 names and characteristics of the channels, shoals, headlands and points in the area;
.7 bridge and similar obstruction limitations including air draughts;
.8 depths of water throughout the area, including tidal effects and similar factors;
.9 general set, rate, rise and duration of the tides and use of the tide tables and
real-time and current data systems, if available, for the area;
.10 proper courses and distances in the area;
.11 anchorages in the area;
.12 shiphandling for piloting, anchoring, berthing and unberthing, manoeuvring with
and without tugs, and emergency situations;
.13 communications and availability of navigational information;
.14 systems of radio navigational warning broadcasts in the area and the type of
information likely to be included;
.15 traffic separation schemes, vessel traffic services and similar vessel management
systems in the area;
.16 bridge equipment and navigational aids;
.17 use of radar and other electronic devices; their limitations and capabilities as
navigation and collision avoidance aids;
.18 manoeuvring behaviour of the types of ships expected to be piloted and the
limitations imposed by particular propulsion and steering systems;
.19 factors affecting ship performance such as wind, current, tide, channel
configuration, water depth, bottom, bank and ship interaction including squat;
.20 use and limitation of various types of tugs;
.21 the English language to a standard adequate to enable the pilot to express
.22 IMO Standard Marine Communication Phrases;
.23 IMO Code for the investigation of marine casualties and incidents;
.24 Master-Pilot Relationship, Pilot Card, operational procedures;
.25 pollution prevention;
.26 emergency and contingency plans for the area;
.27 safe embarking and disembarking procedures; and
.28 any other relevant knowledge considered necessary.
Annex 2 Recommendations on operational procedures for maritime pilots other than deep-sea pilots
Efficient pilotage depends, among other things, upon the effectiveness of the
communications and information exchanges between the pilot, the master and the bridge
personnel and upon the mutual understanding each has for the functions and duties of the other.
Establishment of effective co-ordination between the pilot, the master and the bridge personnel,
taking due account of the ship’s systems and equipment available to the pilot, will aid a safe and
2 Duties of master, bridge officers and pilot
2.1 Despite the duties and obligations of a pilot, the pilot’s presence on board does not relieve
the master or officer in charge of the navigational watch from their duties and obligations for the
safety of the ship. It is important that, upon the pilot boarding the ship and before the pilotage
commences, the pilot, the master and the bridge personnel are aware of their respective roles in
the safe passage of the ship.
2.2 The master, bridge officers and pilot share a responsibility for good communications and
understanding of each other’s role for the safe conduct of the vessel in pilotage waters.
2.3 Masters and bridge officers have a duty to support the pilot and to ensure that his/her
actions are monitored at all times.
3 Pilot boarding point
3.1 The appropriate competent pilotage authority* should establish and promulgate the
location of safe pilot embarkation and disembarkation points.
3.2 The pilot boarding point should be at a sufficient distance from the commencement of the
act of pilotage to allow safe boarding conditions.
3.3 The pilot boarding point should also be situated at a place allowing for sufficient time and
sea room to meet the requirements of the master-pilot information exchange (see paragraphs 5.1
* ”Competent pilotage authority” has the same meaning as in annex 1.
4 Procedures for requesting pilot
4.1 The appropriate competent pilotage authority should establish, promulgate and maintain
procedures for requesting a pilot for an inbound or outbound ship, or for shifting a ship.
4.2 As human resources and technical means have to be planned well in advance, the
operation of an efficient pilotage service requires information on the Estimated Time of Arrival
(ETA) or Departure (ETD) to be furnished by the ship as early as possible with frequent updates
4.3 Communication by VHF or other dedicated means should be established as soon as
possible to enable the master to confirm the ship’s ETA and the Pilot Station to furnish relevant
information regarding pilot boarding.
4.4 The initial ETA message to the Pilot Station should include all the information required
by local regulations, including:
.1 ship’s name, call sign, ship’s agent;
.2 ship’s characteristics: length, beam, draught, air draught if relevant, speed,
.3 date and time expected at the pilot boarding point;
.4 destination, berth (if required, side alongside); and
.5 other relevant requirements and information.
5 Master - pilot information exchange
5.1 The master and the pilot should exchange information regarding navigational procedures,
local conditions and rules and the ship’s characteristics. This information exchange should be a
continuous process that generally continues for the duration of the pilotage.
5.2 Each pilotage assignment should begin with an information exchange between the pilot
and the master. The amount and subject matter of the information to be exchanged should be
determined by the specific navigation demands of the pilotage operation. Additional information
can be exchanged as the operation proceeds.
5.3 Each competent pilotage authority should develop a standard exchange of information
practice, taking into account regulatory requirements and best practices in the pilotage area.
Pilots should consider using an information card, form, checklist or other memory aid to ensure
that essential exchange items are covered. If an information card or standard form is used by
pilots locally regarding the anticipated passage, the layout of such a card or form should be easy
to understand. The card or form should supplement and assist, not substitute for, the verbal
5.4 This exchange of information should include at least:
.1 presentation of a completed standard Pilot Card. In addition, information should
be provided on rate of turn at different speeds, turning circles, stopping distances
and, if available, other appropriate data;
.2 general agreement on plans and procedures, including contingency plans, for the
.3 discussion of any special conditions such as weather, depth of water, tidal currents
and marine traffic that may be expected during the passage;
.4 discussion of any unusual ship-handling characteristics, machinery difficulties,
navigational equipment problems or crew limitations that could affect the
operation, handling or safe manoeuvring of the ship;
.5 information on berthing arrangements; use, characteristics and number of tugs;
mooring boats and other external facilities;
.6 information on mooring arrangements; and
.7 confirmation of the language to be used on the bridge and with external parties.
5.5 It should be clearly understood that any passage plan is a basic indication of preferred
intention and both the pilot and the master should be prepared to depart from it when
circumstances so dictate.
5.6 Pilots and competent pilotage authorities should be aware of the voyage planning
responsibilities of masters under applicable IMO instruments*.
* Refer to SOLAS regulation V/34 and resolution A.893(21) on Guidelines for voyage planning and STCW Code,
Section A-VIII/2, Part 2
6 Communications language
6.1 Pilots should be familiar with the IMO Standard Marine Communication Phrases and use
them in appropriate situations during radiocommunications as well as during verbal exchanges on
the bridge. This will enable the master and officer in charge of the navigational watch to better
understand the communications and their intent.
6.2 Communications on board between the pilot and bridge watchkeeping personnel should
be conducted in the English language or in a language other than English that is common to all
those involved in the operation.
6.3 When a pilot is communicating to parties external to the ship, such as vessel traffic
services, tugs or linesmen and the pilot is unable to communicate in the English language or a
language that can be understood on the bridge, the pilot should, as soon as practicable, explain
what was said to enable the bridge personnel to monitor any subsequent actions taken by those
7 Reporting of incidents and accidents
When performing pilotage duties, the pilot should report or cause to be reported to the
appropriate authority, anything observed that may affect safety of navigation or pollution
prevention. In particular, the pilot should report, as soon as practicable, any accident that may
have occurred to the piloted ship and any irregularities with navigational lights, shapes and
8 Refusal of pilotage services
The pilot should have the right to refuse pilotage when the ship to be piloted poses a danger to
the safety of navigation or to the environment. Any such refusal, together with the reason,
should be immediately reported to the appropriate authority for action as appropriate.
9 Fitness for duty
Pilots should be adequately rested and mentally alert in order to provide undivided attention to
pilotage duties for the duration of the passage.