of this section is to ensure a consistent level of
structural fire protection. The principles of the
section aim to achieve a level of fire protection
compatible with the requirements of SOLAS for
passenger ships carrying up to 36 passengers. These
have been adapted where appropriate to fit the
general yacht design philosophy. Much emphasis is
placed on the provision of sprinkler/mist systems as
trade-off for certain
Terms used in this section should have the same meaning as defined in
SOLAS, except as defined in Section 14.1 and as follows:
"Not readily ignitable" means that the surface thus described will
not continue to burn for more than 20 seconds after removal of a
suitable impinging test flame;
14B.2 Table 14B.2 is a guide to
the major requirements of this Section. The Table is intended as a
quick reference to the requirements and is not to be used in
isolation when designing the fire safety arrangements.
All vessels should comply with the following: -
Form of construction (see 14B.2.1)
|Steel or equivalent, or
alternative forms of construction may be accepted
subject to requirements.
|Passive fire protection (see 14B.2.1 to
Tables 1 and 2
Means of escape (see 14B.2.12).
Fixed fire detection system (see 14B.2.15).
Fire extinguishing arrangements in Category ‘A’
machinery spaces (see 15B)
- Fitted in machinery spaces.
- Fitted in service spaces, control stations and
- As per SOLAS II-2/10.5
sprinkler system or equivalent (see 14B.2.14)
||Fitted in all vessels
The purpose of this section is to contain a fire in the space of
origin. For this purpose, the following functional requirements
should be met:
- the ship should be subdivided by thermal and structural
- thermal insulation of boundaries should have due regard to the
fire risk of the space and adjacent spaces;
- the fire integrity of the divisions should be maintained at
openings and penetrations.
14B.2.2.1 The hull, superstructures, structural
bulkheads, decks and deckhouses should be constructed of steel or
other equivalent material.
14B.2.2.2 However, in cases where any part of the
structure is of aluminium alloy, the following should apply: -
- Insulation of aluminium alloy components of "A" or "B" class
divisions, except structure which, in the opinion of the
Administration, is non-load-bearing, should be such that the
temperature of the structural core does not rise more than 200°C
above the ambient temperature at any time during the applicable
fire exposure to the standard fire test. This insulation is to
be applied on all sides except for the upper sides of decks and
the outside of the vessel
- Special attention should be given to the insulation of aluminium
alloy components of columns, stanchions and other structural
members required to support lifeboat and liferaft stowage,
launching and embarkation areas, and "A" and "B" class divisions
to ensure that for members:
lifeboat and liferaft areas and "A" class divisions, the
temperature rise limitation specified in .1 above should apply
at the end of one hour; and
(b) supporting "B" class divisions, the
temperature rise limitation specified in .1 above should apply
at the end of half an hour.
- Aluminium alloy components of divisions that are required to be
equivalent to steel (identified by an * in tables 1 and 2)
should be insulated with 25mm of mineral wool approved for use
in A class divisions or with an equivalent insulation acceptable
to the administration.
14B.2.2.3 For composite structures, the insulation
is to be such that the temperature of the laminate does not rise
more than the minimum temperature of deflection under load of the
resin at any time during the specified fire exposure. The
temperature of deflection under load is to be determined in
accordance with the requirements of a recognised international
standard. This insulation is to be applied on all sides except for
the upper sides of decks and the outside of the vessel.
- Special attention should be given to the insulation of composite
components of columns, stanchions and other structural members
required to support lifeboat and liferaft stowage, launching and
embarkation areas, and "A" and "B" class divisions to ensure
that for members:
(a) supporting lifeboat and
liferaft areas and "A" class divisions, the temperature rise
limitation specified in .1 above should apply at the end of one
(b) supporting "B"
class divisions, the temperature rise limitation specified in .1
above should apply at the end of half an hour.
Special attention is to be given to the fixing of
fire door frames in bulkheads constructed of materials other than
steel. Measures are to be taken to ensure that the temperature of
the fixings when exposed to fire does not exceed the temperature at
which the bulkhead itself looses strength.
14B.2.2.4 Crowns and casings of a machinery space of
category A should be A60 divisions and openings therein, if any,
should be suitably arranged and protected to prevent the spread of
14B.2.2.5 For structures in contact with sea-water,
the required insulation should extend to at least 300 mm below the
14B.2.2.6 Fire divisions using steel equivalent, or
alternative forms of construction may be accepted if it can be
demonstrated that the material by itself, or due to non-combustible
insulation provided, has the fire resistance properties equivalent
to the A or B class standard required.
14B.2.2.7 Insulation required by 14B.2.2.6 is to be
such that the temperature of the structural core does not rise above
the point at which the structure would begin to lose its strength at
any time during the applicable exposure to the standard fire test.
For 'A' Class divisions, the applicable exposure is 60 minutes, and
for 'B' Class divisions, the applicable exposure is 30 minutes.
14B.2.3 Main vertical zones and horizontal zones
14B.2.3.1 Hull, superstructure and deckhouses in way
of accommodation and service spaces should be subdivided into main
vertical zones by "A" class divisions. These divisions should have
insulation values in accordance with tables 1 and 2.
14B.2.3.2 As far as practicable, the bulkheads
forming the boundaries of the main vertical zones above the bulkhead
deck should be in line with watertight subdivision bulkheads
situated immediately below the bulkhead deck. The length and width
of main vertical zones may be extended to a maximum of 48 m in order
to bring the ends of main vertical zones to coincide with watertight
subdivision bulkheads or in order to accommodate a large public
space extending for the whole length of the main vertical zone
provided that the total area of the main vertical zone is not
greater than 800 m2 on any deck. The length or width of a main
vertical zone is the maximum distance between the furthermost points
of the bulkheads bounding it.
14B.2.3.3 Such bulkheads should extend from deck to
deck and to the shell or other boundaries.
14B.2.3.4 When a main vertical zone is subdivided by
"A" class divisions for the purpose of providing an appropriate
barrier between spaces protected and not protected by a sprinkler
system, the divisions should be insulated in accordance with the
fire insulation and integrity values given in tables 1 and 2.
14B.2.4 Bulkheads within a main vertical zone
14B.2.4.1 All bulkheads within accommodation and
service spaces which are not required to be "A" class divisions
should be at least "B" class or "C" class divisions as prescribed in
the tables 1 and 2 .
14B.2.4.2 All such divisions may be faced with
14B.2.4.3 All corridor bulkheads, where not required
to be "A" class should be "B" class divisions which should extend
from deck to deck except:
- when continuous "B" class ceilings or linings are fitted on both
sides of the bulkhead, the portion of the bulkhead behind the
continuous ceilings or lining should be of material which, in
thickness and composition, is acceptable in the construction of
"B" class divisions but which should be required to meet "B"
class integrity standards only in so far as is reasonable and
practical in the opinion of the Administration;
- the corridor bulkheads of "B" class materials may terminate at a
ceiling in the corridor provided such a ceiling is of material
which, in thickness and composition, is acceptable in the
construction of "B" class divisions. All doors and frames in
such bulkheads should be so constructed and erected to provide a
“B” class standard.
14B.2.4.4 All bulkheads required to be "B" class
divisions, except corridor bulkheads, should extend from deck to
deck and to the shell or other boundaries unless continuous "B"
class ceilings or linings are fitted on both sides of the bulkhead,
in which case the bulkhead may terminate at the continuous ceiling
14B.2.5 Fire integrity of bulkheads and decks
14B.2.5.1 In addition to complying with the specific
provisions for fire integrity of bulkheads and decks mentioned
elsewhere in this section, the minimum fire integrity of bulkheads
and decks should be as prescribed in tables 1 and 2.
14B.2.5.2 The following requirements should govern
application of the tables:
- Tables 1 and 2 should apply respectively to the bulkheads and
decks separating adjacent spaces.
- For determining the appropriate fire integrity standards to be
applied to divisions between adjacent spaces, such spaces are
classified according to their fire risk as shown in categories
(1) to (9) below. The title of each category is intended to be
typical rather than restrictive. The number in parentheses
preceding each category refers to the applicable column or row
in the tables.
(1) Control stations
- Spaces containing emergency sources of power and lighting.
- Wheelhouse and chartroom.
- Spaces containing the vessel's radio equipment.
- Fire-extinguishing rooms.
- Fire control rooms and fire-recording stations
- Control room for propulsion machinery when located outside the
- Spaces containing centralized fire alarm equipment.
(2) Corridors and lobbies
(3) Accommodation spaces
- Cabins, dining rooms, lounges, offices, pantries containing no
cooking appliances (other than equipment such as microwave
cookers and toasters), and similar spaces.
- Interior stairways, lifts and escalators (other than those
wholly contained within the machinery space(s)) and enclosures
- In this connection, a stairway which is enclosed only at one
level should be regarded as part of the space from which it is
not separated by a fire door.
(5) Service spaces (low risk)
- Lockers and store-rooms not having provisions for the storage of
flammable liquids and having areas less than 4m², and drying
rooms and laundries.
(6) Machinery spaces of category A,
(7) Other machinery spaces
- Spaces so defined, excluding machinery spaces of category A.
- Sprinkler, drencher or fire pump spaces.
(8) Service spaces (high risk)
- Galleys, pantries containing cooking appliances, paint and
lamp rooms, lockers and store-rooms having areas of 4m² or more,
spaces for the storage of flammable liquids, workshops other
than those forming part of the machinery spaces, and spaces
containing vehicles or craft with fuel in their tanks, or
lockers storing such fuels storage lockers for gaseous fuels for
(9) Open decks
- Open deck spaces and enclosed promenades having no fire risk.
Air spaces (the space outside superstructures and
14B.2.5.3 Continuous "B" class ceilings or linings,
in association with the relevant decks or bulkheads, may be accepted
as contributing, wholly or in part, to the required insulation and
integrity of a division.
14B.2.5.4 External boundaries which are required to
be of steel or other equivalent material may be pierced for the
fitting of windows and portlights provided that there is no
requirement for such boundaries to have "A" class integrity
elsewhere in this section. Similarly, in such boundaries which are
not required to have "A" class integrity, doors may be of
combustible materials, substantially constructed.
Table 1 - Fire integrity of bulkheads separating adjacent
spaces (low risk) (5)
Machinery spaces of
category A (6)
(high risk) (8)
Table 2 - Fire integrity of decks separating adjacent
(low risk) (5)
spaces of category A (6)
(high risk) (8)
Notes: To be applied to both tables 1 and 2, as appropriate.
||For clarification on which
applies, see 14B.2.4 and 14B.2.6.
||Where spaces are of the same
numerical category and subscript b appears, a
bulkhead or deck of the rating shown in the tables
is only required when the adjacent spaces are for a
different purpose, e.g in category (9). a galley
next to a galley does not require a bulkhead but a
galley next to a paint room requires an "A-0"
||Bulkheads separating the
wheelhouse and chartroom from each other may be
||For the application of
14B.2.3.1, "B-O" and "C", where appearing in table
1, should be read as "A-0".
||Fire insulation need not be
fitted if the machinery space in category (7), in
the opinion of the Administration, has little or no
||Where an asterisk appears in
the tables, the division is required to be of steel
or other equivalent material but is not required to
be of "A" class standard.
For the application of 14B.2.3.1 an asterisk, where appearing in
table 2, except for category (9), should be read as "A-0".
14B.2.6 Protection of stairways and lifts in accommodation
and service spaces
14B.2.6.1 A stairway should be of steel frame
construction except where the Administration sanctions the use of
other equivalent material, and should be within enclosures formed of
"A" class divisions, with positive means of closure at all openings,
- an isolated stairway which penetrates a single deck only may be
protected at one level only by at least "B" class divisions and
self-closing door(s); and
- stairways may be fitted in the open in a public space, provided
they lie wholly within such public space.
14B.2.6.2 A stairway enclosure should have direct
communication with the corridors and be of sufficient area to
prevent congestion, having in view the number of persons likely to
use them in an emergency. In so far as is practical, stairway
enclosures should not give direct access to galleys, machinery
spaces, service lockers, or other enclosed spaces containing
combustibles in which a fire is likely to originate.
14B.2.6.3 A lift trunk should be so fitted to
prevent the passage of flame from one 'tween-deck to another and
should be provided with means of closing to permit the control of
draught and smoke.
14B.2.7 Openings in "A" class divisions
14B.2.7.1 Except for hatches between store and
baggage spaces, and between such spaces and the weather decks, all
openings should be provided with permanently attached means of
closing which should be at least as effective for resisting fires as
the divisions in which they are fitted.
14B.2.7.2 The construction of all doors and door
frames in "A" class divisions, with the means of securing them when
closed, should provide resistance to fire as well as the passage of
smoke and flame, as far as practical, equivalent to that of the
bulkheads in which the doors are situated. Such doors and door
frames should be constructed of steel or other equivalent material.
Steel watertight doors need not be insulated.
14B.2.7.3 It should be possible for each door to be
opened and closed from each side of the bulkhead by one person
14B.2.7.4 Fire doors in main vertical zone
bulkheads, galley boundaries and stairway enclosures other than
power-operated watertight doors and those which are normally locked,
should satisfy the following requirements:
should be self-closing and be capable of closing
with an angle of inclination of up to 3.5º opposing
||the approximate time of
closure for hinged fire doors should be no more than
40 seconds and no less than 10 seconds from the
beginning of their movement with the ship in the
upright position. The approximate uniform rate of
closure for sliding doors should be of no more than
0.2 m/s and no less than 0.1 m/s with the ship in
the upright position;
doors, except those for emergency escape trunks,
should be capable of remote release from the
continuously manned central control station, either
simultaneously or in groups and should also be
capable of release, individually, from a position at
the door. Release switches should have an on-off
function to prevent automatic resetting of the
||hold-back hooks not subject
to central control station release are prohibited;
closed remotely from the central control station
should be capable of being re-opened from both sides
of the door by local control. After such local
opening, the door should automatically close
||indication must be provided
at the fire door indicator panel in the continuously
manned central control station whether each door is
||the release mechanism should
be so designed that the door will automatically
close in the event of disruption of the control
system or central power supply;
||local power accumulators for power-operated doors
should be provided in the immediate vicinity of the
doors to enable the doors to be operated after
disruption of the control system or central power
supply at least ten times (fully opened and closed)
using the local controls;
the control system or central power supply at one
door should not impair the safe functioning of the
||remote-released sliding or
power-operated doors should be equipped with an
alarm that sounds at least 5 s but no more than 10s
after the door being released from the central
control station and before the door begins to move
and continues sounding until the door is completely
||a door designed to re-open
upon contacting an object in its path should re-open
not more than 1 m from the point of contact
||double-leaf doors equipped with a latch
necessary for their fire integrity should have a
latch that is automatically activated by the
operation of the doors when released by the
||the components of the local
control system should be accessible for maintenance
||power-operated doors should
be provided with a control system of an approved
type which should be able to operate in case of fire
and be in accordance with the Fire Test Procedures
Code. This system should satisfy the following
- the control system should be able to operate
the door at the temperature of at least 200°C for
at least 60 min, served by the power supply;
- the power supply for all other doors not
subject to fire should not be impaired; and
- at temperatures exceeding 200°C the
control system should be automatically isolated
from the power supply and should be capable of
keeping the door closed up to at least
14B.2.7.5 Where 'A' Class divisions are penetrated
for the passage of electric cables, pipes, trunks, ducts, etc., or
for girders, beams or other structural members, arrangements are to
be made to ensure that the fire resistance is not impaired.
14B.2.8 Openings in "B" class divisions
14B.2.8.1 Doors and door frames in "B" class
divisions and means of securing them should provide a method of
closure which should have resistance to fire as far as practical
equivalent to that of the divisions except that a ventilation
opening may be permitted in the lower portion of such doors. When
such an opening is in or under a door the total net area of the
opening(s) should not exceed 0.05m². When such an opening is cut in
a door it should be fitted with a grill made of non-combustible
material. Doors should be non-combustible or of substantial
14B.2.8.2 Where 'B' Class divisions are penetrated
for the passage of electric cables, pipes, trunks, ducts, etc., or
for the fitting of ventilation terminals, lighting fixtures and
similar devices, arrangements are to be made to ensure that the fire
resistance is not impaired.
14B.2.9 Windows and portlights (Also see 5.4 and
14B.2.9.1 All windows and portlights in bulkheads
within accommodation spaces, service spaces and control stations
should be so constructed to preserve the integrity requirements of
the type of bulkheads in which they are fitted.
14B.2.9.2 Glass is not to be installed as an
interior main vertical zone, stairway enclosure bulkhead, or within
machinery space boundaries.
14B.2.10 Details of construction
14B.2.10.1 In accommodation and service spaces,
control stations, corridors and stairways:
- air spaces enclosed behind ceilings, panelling or linings should
be suitably divided by close-fitting draught stops not more than
14m apart; and
- in the vertical direction, enclosed air spaces, including those
behind linings of stairways, trunks, etc. should be closed at
14B.2.10.2 The draught stops are to be
non-combustible and are to form a continuation above the ceiling of
the bulkhead below or the other side of the panelling or lining to
the bulkhead, as far as possible.
14B.2.10.3 Where the structure or 'A' Class
divisions are required to be insulated, it is to be ensured that the
heat from a fire is not transmitted through the intersections and
terminal points of the divisions or penetrations to uninsulated
boundaries. Where the insulation installed does not achieve this,
arrangements are to be made to prevent this heat transmission by
insulating the horizontal and vertical boundaries or penetrations
for a distance of 450 mm.
14B.2.10.4 Without impairing the efficiency of the
fire protection, the construction of ceilings and bulkheads should
allow a fire patrol to detect any smoke originating in concealed and
inaccessible places, except where there is no risk of fire
originating in such places.
14B.2.10.5 When gaseous fuel is used for domestic
purposes, the arrangements for the storage, distribution and
utilisation of the fuel should be such that, having regard to the
hazards of fire and explosion which the use of such fuel may entail,
the safety of the vessel and the persons onboard are preserved.
In particular, open flame gas appliances provided for cooking,
heating or any other purposes, should comply with the requirements
of EC directive 90/396/EEC or equivalent and, the installation of
open flame gas appliances should comply with the appropriate
provisions of Section 14A.5
14B.2.11 Restricted use of combustible materials
14B.2.11.1 Except in spaces protected by an
automatic sprinkler system and fully addressable fire detection
system in accordance with 14B.2.14, all linings, grounds, and
ceilings should be of non-combustible materials
14B.2.11.2 The use of combustible materials is to be
kept to a minimum. Insulation materials should be
14B.2.11.3 The following surfaces should be low
- exposed surfaces in corridors and stairway enclosures, and of
bulkheads, wall and ceiling linings in all service spaces and
control stations; and
- concealed or inaccessible spaces in accommodation, service
spaces and control stations.
As an alternative to .1 and .2 above,
these spaces may contain surfaces that are not low flame spread,
- adequate barriers of low flame spread surfaces are arranged to
restrict the spread of flame areas at distances not greater than
- these spaces are protected by an automatic sprinkler system and
fully addressable fire detection system in accordance with
14B.2.11.4 Pipes penetrating 'A'
or 'B' Class divisions are to be of approved materials having
regard to the temperature such divisions are required to
14B.2.11.5 Pipes conveying oil or combustible
liquids through accommodation and service spaces are to be of
approved materials having regard to the fire risk.
14B.2.11.6 Materials readily rendered ineffective by
heat are not to be used for overboard scuppers, sanitary discharges,
and other outlets which are close to the waterline and where the
failure of the material in the event of fire would give rise to the
danger of flooding.
14B.2.11.7 Furniture in the corridors and escape
routes should be of a type and quantity not likely to obstruct
access. Additionally, furniture along escape routes should be
secured in place to prevent shifting if the vessel rolls or
14B.2.11.8 Primary deck coverings within accommodation
spaces, service spaces and control stations are to be
of a type which will not readily ignite, or give rise to toxic or
explosive hazards at elevated temperatures. Reference is also to be
made to the IMO FTP Code, Annex 1, Parts 2 and 6.
14B.2.11.9 Vapour barriers and adhesives used in
conjunction with insulation, as well as insulation of pipe fittings
for cold service systems need not be non-combustible, but they
should be kept to the minimum quantity practicable and their exposed
surfaces should have low flame spread characteristics.
14B.2.11.10 Except when a fully addressable fire
detection system is fitted, upholstery composites (fabric in
association with any backing or padding material) used throughout
the vessel should be approved in accordance with the IMO FTP Code,
Annex 1, Part 8 or an equivalent standard acceptable to the
14B.2.11.11 Except when a fully addressable fire
detection system is fitted bedding components should be approved in
accordance with the IMO FTP Code, Annex 1, Part 9 or an equivalent
standard acceptable to the administration
14B.2.11.12 Except when a fully addressable fire
detection system is fitted Suspended textile materials such as
curtains and drapes should be approved in accordance with the IMO
FTP Code, Annex 1, Part 7, or an equivalent standard acceptable to
14B.2.11.13 Upholstery, bedding components and
suspended textiles required to comply with the IMO FTP code or an
equivalent standard are to be clearly labelled by the manufacturer
stating the standard that they meet and any washing or cleaning
instructions needed to maintain their fire resistance. These labels
are not to be removed.
14B.2.11.14 In spaces where penetration of oil
products is possible, the surface of insulation is to be impervious
to oil or oil vapours. Insulation boundaries are to be arranged to
avoid immersion in oil spillages so far as is practicable.
14B.2.12 Means of escape
The purpose of this section is to provide means of escape so that
persons onboard can safely and swiftly escape to the lifeboat and
liferaft embarkation deck. For this purpose, the following
functional requirements should be met:
- safe escape routes should be provided;
- escape routes should be maintained in a safe condition, clear of
- additional aids for escape should be provided as necessary to
ensure accessibility, clear marking, and adequate design for
14B.2.12.1 Stairways and ladders should be arranged
to provide ready means of escape to the lifeboat and liferaft
embarkation deck from all guest and crew accommodation spaces and
service spaces in which the crew are normally employed, other than
machinery spaces. In particular, the following provisions should be
Below the bulkhead deck two means of escape, at least one
of which should be independent of watertight doors, should be
provided from each watertight compartment, main vertical zone or
similarly restricted group of spaces. Exceptionally one of the
means of escape may be dispensed with, due regard being paid to
the nature and location of spaces and to the number of persons
who might normally be accommodated or employed there.
Above the bulkhead deck, there are to be at least two
means of escape from each vertical fire zone or similarly
restricted spaces or group of spaces, at least one of which is
to give access to an readily accessible escape which will
provide continuous fire shelter from the level of its origin to
the appropriate survival craft embarkation deck
- Within each main vertical zone there should be at least one
readily accessible enclosed stairway providing continuous fire
shelter, where practical, at all levels up to the appropriate
lifeboat and liferaft embarkation decks or the highest level
served by the stairway, whichever level is the highest. The
width, number and continuity of the stairways should be
satisfactory for the number of persons likely to use them.
- Access from the stairway enclosures to the lifeboat and liferaft
embarkation areas should avoid high fire risk areas.
- Stairways serving only a space and a balcony in that space
should not be considered as forming one of the required means of
- If a radio room or wheelhouse has no direct access to the open
deck, two means of escape should be provided, one of which may
be a window of sufficient size or another means.
- Stairways are not to exceed 3,5 m vertical rise without the
provision of a landing.
- In the case where direct access to the appropriate survival
craft embarkation deck as required by .1 and .2 is not
practical, a ready accessible escape which will provide
continuous fire shelter from the level of its origin to the
appropriate open deck with subsequent direct passage to the
embarkation deck can be accepted provided that these escape
routes including external staircases, have emergency lighting
and slip free surfaces under foot.
- Protection of access from the stairway enclosures to the
lifeboat and liferaft embarkation areas should be provided
either directly or through protected internal routes which have
fire integrity and insulation values for stairway enclosures as
determined by tables 1 and 2, as appropriate.
- Where public spaces span three or more open decks and contain
combustibles such as furniture and give access to other enclosed
spaces, each level within the space is to have two means of
escape, one of which is to give access to a readily accessible
escape which will provide continuous fire shelter from the level
of its origin to the appropriate survival craft embarkation
14B.2.12.2 Two means of escape should be provided
from each machinery space. In particular, the following provisions
should be complied with:
- The two means of escape should consist of either:
(a) two sets of steel ladders as widely
separated as possible, leading to doors in the upper part of the
space similarly separated and from which access is provided to
the appropriate survival craft embarkation decks. One of these
ladders should provide continuous fire shelter from the lower
part of the space to a safe position outside the space. This
shelter is to be of steel or equivalent material, insulated
where necessary, and provided with a self closing door at the
lower end. If access is provided at other levels each level is
to be provided with a steel or equivalent material self-closing
(b) one steel ladder leading to a door in the upper part of
the space from which access is provided to the embarkation deck
and additionally, in the lower part of the space and in a
position well separated from the ladder referred to, a steel
door capable of being operated from each side and which provides
access to a safe escape route from the lower part of the space
to the embarkation deck.
- One of the means of escape from any such space required by
14B.18.104.22.168 may be dispensed with on sailing vessels with small
machinery spaces, so long as either a door or a steel ladder and
walkways provide a safe escape route to the embarkation deck
with due regard being paid to the nature and location of the
space and whether persons are normally employed in that
- Two means of escape should be provided from a machinery control
room located within a machinery space, at least one of which
should provide continuous fire shelter to a safe position
outside the machinery space.
14B.2.12.3 Lifts should not be considered as forming
one of the required means of escape.
14B.2.12.4 In exceptional circumstances a single
means of escape may be accepted for spaces other than accommodation
spaces that are entered only occasionally, if the escape route does
not pass through a galley, machinery space or watertight door.
14B.2.12.5 Adequate deck area is to be provided at
assembly stations and embarkation areas having due regard to the
expected number of persons. Generally, assembly stations should be
provided close to the embarkation stations. Each assembly station
should have sufficient clear deck space to accommodate all persons
assigned to assemble at that station, but at least 0.35 m2 per
14B.2.12.6 Emergency Escape Breathing Devices
Emergency escape breathing devices (EEBD’s) should comply with the
Fire Safety Systems Code. At least one spare emergency escape
breathing device should be kept onboard.
14B.22.214.171.124 All vessels should carry at least two
EEBD’s within accommodation spaces, and at least two EEBD’s should
be carried in each main vertical zone.
14B.126.96.36.199 On all vessels, within the machinery
spaces, EEBD’s should be situated ready for use at easily visible
locations, which can be reached quickly and easily at any time in
the event of fire. The number and location should take into account
the layout of the machinery space and the number of persons normally
working in the space. The number and location of these devices
should be indicated in the fire control plan.
14B.2.13 Ventilation systems
14B.2.13.1 Ventilation ducts should be of
non-combustible material. Short ducts, however, not generally
exceeding 2m in length and with a cross-section not exceeding 0.02m²
need not be non-combustible, subject to the following
- they should be of a suitable material having regard to the risk
- they should be used only at the end of the ventilation device;
- they should not be situated less than 600mm, measured along the
duct, from an opening in an "A" or "B" class division including
continuous "B" class ceilings.
14B.2.13.2 Where ventilation ducts with a free
cross-sectional area exceeding 0.02m² pass through class "A"
bulkheads or decks, the opening should be lined with a steel sheet
sleeve unless the ducts passing through the bulkheads or decks are
of steel in the vicinity of passage through the deck or bulkhead and
the ducts and sleeves should comply in this part with the
- Sleeves should have a thickness of at least 3mm and a length of
at least 900mm. When passing through bulkheads, this length
should be divided preferably into 450mm on each side of the
bulkhead. The ducts, or sleeves lining such ducts, should be
provided with fire insulation. The insulation should have at
least the same fire integrity as the bulkhead or deck through
which the duct passes.
- Ducts with a free cross-sectional area exceeding 0.075m² should
be fitted with fire dampers in addition to the requirements of
.1 above. The fire damper should operate automatically but
should also be capable of being closed manually from both sides
of the bulkhead or deck. The damper should be provided with an
indicator which shows whether the damper is open or closed.
Fire dampers are not required, however, where ducts pass through
spaces surrounded by "A" class divisions, without serving those
spaces, provided those ducts have the same fire integrity as the
divisions which they pierce.
14B.2.13.3 Ducts provided for the ventilation of a
machinery space of category A, machinery spaces, galley, spaces
containing vehicles or craft with fuel in their tanks or lockers
storing such fuel, should not pass through accommodation spaces,
service spaces or control stations unless they comply with the
conditions specified in .1 to .4 or .5 and .6 below:
- they are constructed of steel having a thickness of at least 3mm
and 5mm for duct widths or diameters of up to and including
300mm and 760mm and over respectively and, in the case of ducts
with widths or diameters between 300mm and 760mm, thickness
should be obtained by interpolation;
- they are suitably supported and stiffened;
- they are fitted with automatic fire dampers close to the
boundaries penetrated; and
- they are insulated to "A-60" standard from a machinery space or
galley to a point at least 5m beyond each fire damper;
- they are constructed of steel in accordance with .1 and .2
- they are insulated to "A-60" standard throughout accommodation
spaces, service spaces or control stations; except that
penetrations of main zone divisions should also comply with the
requirements of 14B.2.13.8.
14B.2.13.4 Ducts provided for ventilation to
accommodation spaces, service spaces or control stations should not
pass through a machinery space of category A machinery spaces,
galley, spaces containing vehicles or craft with fuel in their tanks
or lockers storing such fuel, unless they comply with the conditions
specified in .1 to .3 or .4 and .5 below:
- where they pass through a machinery space of category A or
galley, ducts are constructed of steel in accordance with
14B.188.8.131.52 & .2;
- automatic fire dampers are fitted close to the boundaries
- the integrity of the machinery space or galley boundaries is
maintained at penetrations;
- where they pass through a machinery space of category A or
galley, ducts are constructed of steel in accordance with
14B.184.108.40.206 & .2; and
- within a machinery space or galley, ducts are insulated to
"A-60" standard; except that penetrations of main zone divisions
should also comply with the requirements of 14B.2.13.8.
14B.2.13.5 Ventilation ducts with a free
cross-sectional area exceeding 0.02m² passing through "B" class
bulkheads should be lined with steel sheet sleeves of 900mm in
length divided preferably into 450mm on each side of the bulkheads,
unless the duct is of steel for this length.
14B.2.13.6 For a control station outside machinery
spaces and other normally manned control stations, practical
measures should be taken to ensure that ventilation, visibility and
freedom from smoke are maintained so that, in the event of fire, the
machinery and equipment contained in the control station may be
supervised and continue to function effectively. Alternative and
separate means of air supply should be provided; air inlets of the
two sources of supply should be so disposed that the risk of both
inlets drawing in smoke simultaneously is minimized. These
requirements need not apply to control stations situated on, and
opening on to, an open deck, or where local closing arrangements
would be equally effective.
14B.2.13.7 Exhaust duct(s) from a galley range
should be constructed of "A" class divisions where passing through
accommodation spaces and/or spaces containing combustible
materials. In addition to the requirements of 14B.2.13.3 An exhaust
duct should be fitted with:
- a grease trap readily removable for cleaning;
- a fire damper located in the lower end of the duct;
- arrangements for shutting off the exhaust fans, operable from
within the galley; and
- fixed means for extinguishing a fire within the duct.
14B.2.13.8 When it is necessary for a ventilation
duct to pass through a main vertical zone division, a fail-safe
automatic closing fire damper should be fitted adjacent to the
division. The damper should also be capable of being manually
closed from each side of the division. The operating position
should be readily accessible and be marked in red light-reflecting
colour. The duct between the division and the damper should be of
steel or other equivalent material and, if necessary, insulated to
comply with the requirements of SOLAS regulation II-2/9.3.1. The
damper should be fitted on at least one side of the division with a
visible indicator showing whether the damper is in the open
14B.2.13.9 Inlets and outlets of ventilation systems
should be capable of being closed from outside the space being
14B.2.13.10 Power ventilation of accommodation
spaces, service spaces, control stations and machinery spaces should
be capable of being stopped from an easily accessible position
outside the space being served. This position should not be readily
cut off in the event of a fire in the spaces served. The means
provided for stopping the power ventilation of a machinery space
should be entirely separate from the means provided for stopping
ventilation of other spaces.
14B.2.13.11 Where public spaces span three or more
open decks and contain combustibles such as furniture and other
enclosed spaces, the space is to be equipped with a smoke extraction
system. The smoke extraction system is to be activated by the smoke
detection system required by 14B.2.14 and is to be capable of manual
control. The fans are to be capable of exhausting the entire volume
within the space in not more than 10 min.
14B.2.13.12 Store-rooms containing highly flammable
products are to be provided with ventilation arrangements that are
separate from other ventilation systems. Ventilation is to be
arranged to prevent the build up of flammable vapours at high and
low levels. The inlets and outlets of ventilators are to be
positioned so that they do not draw from or vent into an area which
would cause undue hazard, and are to be fitted with spark
14B.2.13.13 Ventilation systems serving Category 'A'
machinery spaces are to be independent of systems serving other
14B.2.13.14 All enclosed spaces containing free
standing fuel tanks are to be ventilated independently of systems
serving other spaces.
14B.2.13.15 Ventilation is to be provided to prevent
the accumulation of dangerous concentrations of flammable gas which
may be emitted from batteries.
14B.2.13.16 Ventilation openings may be fitted in
and under the lower parts of cabin and public space doors in
corridor bulkheads. The total net area of any such openings is not
to exceed 0,05 m2.
14B.2.13.17 For spaces containing vehicles or craft
with fuel in their tanks or lockers storing such fuels, see 14B.1.
For additional requirements for the ventilation of domestic gaseous
fuel, see 14B.2.20.
14B.2.13.18 Ducts provided for exhaust ventilation
from laundries are to be fitted with suitable located cleaning and
14B.2.13.19 All fire dampers should comply with IMO
FTP Code, Annex 1, Part 3.
14B.2.14 Fixed fire detection and fire alarm systems and
automatic sprinkler, fire detection and fire alarm
The purpose of this section is to detect a fire in the space of
origin and to provide for alarm for safe escape and fire-fighting
activity. For this purpose, the following functional requirements
should be met:
- fixed fire detection and fire alarm system installations should
be suitable for the nature of the space, fire growth potential
and potential generation of smoke and gases; and
- manually operated call points should be placed effectively to
ensure a readily accessible means of notification.
14B.2.14.1 Each separate zone in all accommodation
and service spaces, except spaces which afford no substantial fire
risk such as void spaces, sanitary spaces, etc., should be provided
throughout with an automatic sprinkler, fire detection and fire
alarm system of an approved type and complying with the requirements
of SOLAS, Part C. regulation II-2/7 and the IMO FSS Code, Chapter 8,
or an equivalent standard acceptable to the administration. The
system should be designed to enable simultaneous operation of all
sprinklers fitted in the most hydraulically demanding area. The
minimum area for simultaneous operation may be taken as the largest
area bounded by A0 class divisions or the breadth of the vessel
squared, whichever is the greater. In addition, a fixed fire
detection and fire alarm system of an approved type complying with
the requirements of SOLAS II-2/7 and the IMO FSS Code, Chapter 9
should be installed and arranged to provide smoke detection in
corridors, stairways and escape routes within accommodation spaces;
detection and alarms
14B.2.15.1 Manually operated call points complying
with the requirements of SOLAS II-2/7 and the IMO FSS Code, Chapter
9 should be installed.
14B.2.15.2 For vessels having a freeboard length of 85 m or more, a
public address system complying with the requirements of SOLAS
III/6.5 is to be available throughout the accommodation and service
spaces and control stations and open decks.
14B.2.16 Oil fuel arrangements
14B.2.16.1 Arrangements for the storage,
distribution and utilisation of oil fuel are to be such as to
minimise the risk of fire or explosion.
14B.2.16.2 As far as practicable, oil fuel tanks are
to be part of the vessel's structure and are to be located outside
Category 'A' machinery spaces.
14B.2.16.3 Where oil fuel tanks, other than double
bottom tanks, are necessarily located adjacent to or within Category
'A' machinery spaces, at least one of their vertical sides is to be
contiguous to the machinery space boundaries, and is preferably to
have a common boundary with the double bottom tanks, and the area of
the tank boundary common with the machinery spaces is to be kept to
a minimum. Where the vertical boundary of a tank directly exposed to
a machinery space meets the vessel's side plating at an acute angle,
a small horizontal surface at the base of the tank, necessary to
accommodate practical constructional considerations may be
permitted. If the arrangement of the machinery is such that a tank
with a large horizontal surface at the base is necessary then a
cofferdam with suitable ventilation arrangements, to protect the
base of the tank from the effect of a machinery space fire, will be
specially considered. Oil fuel tanks situated within the boundaries
of Category 'A' machinery spaces are not to contain oil fuel having
a flashpoint of less than 60°C. Except for vessels constructed of
materials other than steel, where steel tanks should be provided,
the use of free standing oil fuel tanks is prohibited.
14B.2.17 Lubricating oil arrangements
Arrangements for the storage, distribution and utilisation of oil
used in pressure lubrication systems are to be such as to minimise
the risk of fire or explosion.
14B.2.18 Arrangements for other flammable oils
Arrangements for the storage, distribution and utilisation of other
flammable oils employed under pressure in power transmission
systems, control and activating systems and heating systems are to
be such as to minimise the risk of fire or explosion.
14B.2.19 Prohibition of carriage of flammable oils in
Oil fuel, lubricating oil and other flammable oils are not to be
carried in forepeak tanks.
14B.2.20 Arrangements for gaseous fuel for domestic
Where gaseous fuel is used for domestic purposes, the arrangements
for the storage, distribution and utilization of the fuel are to be
such that, having regard to the hazards of fire and explosion which
the use of such fuel may entail, the safety of the vessel and the
persons on board is preserved. The installation is to be in
accordance with recognised National or International Standards and
is to meet the requirements contained in 14A.5.
14B.2.21 Space heaters
Space heaters, if used, are to be fixed in position and so
constructed as to reduce fire risks to a minimum. The design and
location of these units is to be such that clothing, curtains or
other similar materials cannot be scorched or set on fire by heat
from the unit.