|The purpose of this section is to ensure a consistent level of structural fire protection. The principles of the section aim to achieve a level of fire protection compatible with the requirements of SOLAS for passenger ships carrying up to 36 passengers. These have been adapted where appropriate to fit the general yacht design philosophy. Much emphasis is placed on the provision of sprinkler/mist systems as trade-off for certain aspects. |
Terms used in this section should have the same meaning as defined in SOLAS, except as defined in Section 14.1 and as follows:
"Not readily ignitable" means that the surface thus described will not continue to burn for more than 20 seconds after removal of a suitable impinging test flame;
14B.2 Table 14B.2 is a guide to the major requirements of this Section. The Table is intended as a quick reference to the requirements and is not to be used in isolation when designing the fire safety arrangements.
All vessels should comply with the following: -
Form of construction (see 14B.2.1)
|Steel or equivalent, or alternative forms of construction may be accepted subject to requirements. |
|Passive fire protection (see 14B.2.1 to 14B.2.7) ||See Tables 1 and 2 |
Means of escape (see 14B.2.12).
Fixed fire detection system (see 14B.2.15).
Fire extinguishing arrangements in Category ‘A’ machinery spaces (see 15B)
- Fitted in machinery spaces.
- Fitted in service spaces, control stations and accommodation spaces.
- As per SOLAS II-2/10.5
|Automatic sprinkler system or equivalent (see 14B.2.14) ||Fitted in all vessels |
The purpose of this section is to contain a fire in the space of origin. For this purpose, the following functional requirements should be met:
- the ship should be subdivided by thermal and structural boundaries;
- thermal insulation of boundaries should have due regard to the fire risk of the space and adjacent spaces;
- the fire integrity of the divisions should be maintained at openings and penetrations.
14B.2.2.1 The hull, superstructures, structural bulkheads, decks and deckhouses should be constructed of steel or other equivalent material.
14B.2.2.2 However, in cases where any part of the structure is of aluminium alloy, the following should apply: -
- Insulation of aluminium alloy components of "A" or "B" class divisions, except structure which, in the opinion of the Administration, is non-load-bearing, should be such that the temperature of the structural core does not rise more than 200°C above the ambient temperature at any time during the applicable fire exposure to the standard fire test. This insulation is to be applied on all sides except for the upper sides of decks and the outside of the vessel
- Special attention should be given to the insulation of aluminium alloy components of columns, stanchions and other structural members required to support lifeboat and liferaft stowage, launching and embarkation areas, and "A" and "B" class divisions to ensure that for members:
(a) supporting lifeboat and liferaft areas and "A" class divisions, the temperature rise limitation specified in .1 above should apply at the end of one hour; and
(b) supporting "B" class divisions, the temperature rise limitation specified in .1 above should apply at the end of half an hour.
- Aluminium alloy components of divisions that are required to be equivalent to steel (identified by an * in tables 1 and 2) should be insulated with 25mm of mineral wool approved for use in A class divisions or with an equivalent insulation acceptable to the administration.
14B.2.2.3 For composite structures, the insulation is to be such that the temperature of the laminate does not rise more than the minimum temperature of deflection under load of the resin at any time during the specified fire exposure. The temperature of deflection under load is to be determined in accordance with the requirements of a recognised international standard. This insulation is to be applied on all sides except for the upper sides of decks and the outside of the vessel.
- Special attention should be given to the insulation of composite components of columns, stanchions and other structural members required to support lifeboat and liferaft stowage, launching and embarkation areas, and "A" and "B" class divisions to ensure that for members:
(a) supporting lifeboat and liferaft areas and "A" class divisions, the temperature rise limitation specified in .1 above should apply at the end of one hour; and
(b) supporting "B" class divisions, the temperature rise limitation specified in .1 above should apply at the end of half an hour.
Special attention is to be given to the fixing of fire door frames in bulkheads constructed of materials other than steel. Measures are to be taken to ensure that the temperature of the fixings when exposed to fire does not exceed the temperature at which the bulkhead itself looses strength.
14B.2.2.4 Crowns and casings of a machinery space of category A should be A60 divisions and openings therein, if any, should be suitably arranged and protected to prevent the spread of fire.
14B.2.2.5 For structures in contact with sea-water, the required insulation should extend to at least 300 mm below the lightest waterline.
14B.2.2.6 Fire divisions using steel equivalent, or alternative forms of construction may be accepted if it can be demonstrated that the material by itself, or due to non-combustible insulation provided, has the fire resistance properties equivalent to the A or B class standard required.
14B.2.2.7 Insulation required by 14B.2.2.6 is to be such that the temperature of the structural core does not rise above the point at which the structure would begin to lose its strength at any time during the applicable exposure to the standard fire test. For 'A' Class divisions, the applicable exposure is 60 minutes, and for 'B' Class divisions, the applicable exposure is 30 minutes.
14B.2.3 Main vertical zones and horizontal zones
14B.2.3.1 Hull, superstructure and deckhouses in way of accommodation and service spaces should be subdivided into main vertical zones by "A" class divisions. These divisions should have insulation values in accordance with tables 1 and 2.
14B.2.3.2 As far as practicable, the bulkheads forming the boundaries of the main vertical zones above the bulkhead deck should be in line with watertight subdivision bulkheads situated immediately below the bulkhead deck. The length and width of main vertical zones may be extended to a maximum of 48 m in order to bring the ends of main vertical zones to coincide with watertight subdivision bulkheads or in order to accommodate a large public space extending for the whole length of the main vertical zone provided that the total area of the main vertical zone is not greater than 800 m2 on any deck. The length or width of a main vertical zone is the maximum distance between the furthermost points of the bulkheads bounding it.
14B.2.3.3 Such bulkheads should extend from deck to deck and to the shell or other boundaries.
14B.2.3.4 When a main vertical zone is subdivided by "A" class divisions for the purpose of providing an appropriate barrier between spaces protected and not protected by a sprinkler system, the divisions should be insulated in accordance with the fire insulation and integrity values given in tables 1 and 2.
14B.2.4 Bulkheads within a main vertical zone
14B.2.4.1 All bulkheads within accommodation and service spaces which are not required to be "A" class divisions should be at least "B" class or "C" class divisions as prescribed in the tables 1 and 2 .
14B.2.4.2 All such divisions may be faced with combustible materials
14B.2.4.3 All corridor bulkheads, where not required to be "A" class should be "B" class divisions which should extend from deck to deck except:
- when continuous "B" class ceilings or linings are fitted on both sides of the bulkhead, the portion of the bulkhead behind the continuous ceilings or lining should be of material which, in thickness and composition, is acceptable in the construction of "B" class divisions but which should be required to meet "B" class integrity standards only in so far as is reasonable and practical in the opinion of the Administration;
- the corridor bulkheads of "B" class materials may terminate at a ceiling in the corridor provided such a ceiling is of material which, in thickness and composition, is acceptable in the construction of "B" class divisions. All doors and frames in such bulkheads should be so constructed and erected to provide a “B” class standard.
14B.2.4.4 All bulkheads required to be "B" class divisions, except corridor bulkheads, should extend from deck to deck and to the shell or other boundaries unless continuous "B" class ceilings or linings are fitted on both sides of the bulkhead, in which case the bulkhead may terminate at the continuous ceiling or lining.
14B.2.5 Fire integrity of bulkheads and decks
14B.2.5.1 In addition to complying with the specific provisions for fire integrity of bulkheads and decks mentioned elsewhere in this section, the minimum fire integrity of bulkheads and decks should be as prescribed in tables 1 and 2.
14B.2.5.2 The following requirements should govern application of the tables:
- Tables 1 and 2 should apply respectively to the bulkheads and decks separating adjacent spaces.
- For determining the appropriate fire integrity standards to be applied to divisions between adjacent spaces, such spaces are classified according to their fire risk as shown in categories (1) to (9) below. The title of each category is intended to be typical rather than restrictive. The number in parentheses preceding each category refers to the applicable column or row in the tables.
(1) Control stations
- Spaces containing emergency sources of power and lighting.
- Wheelhouse and chartroom.
- Spaces containing the vessel's radio equipment.
- Fire-extinguishing rooms.
- Fire control rooms and fire-recording stations
- Control room for propulsion machinery when located outside the machinery space.
- Spaces containing centralized fire alarm equipment.
(2) Corridors and lobbies
(3) Accommodation spaces
- Cabins, dining rooms, lounges, offices, pantries containing no cooking appliances (other than equipment such as microwave cookers and toasters), and similar spaces.
- Interior stairways, lifts and escalators (other than those wholly contained within the machinery space(s)) and enclosures thereto.
- In this connection, a stairway which is enclosed only at one level should be regarded as part of the space from which it is not separated by a fire door.
(5) Service spaces (low risk)
- Lockers and store-rooms not having provisions for the storage of flammable liquids and having areas less than 4m², and drying rooms and laundries.
(6) Machinery spaces of category A,
(7) Other machinery spaces
- Spaces so defined, excluding machinery spaces of category A.
- Sprinkler, drencher or fire pump spaces.
(8) Service spaces (high risk)
- Galleys, pantries containing cooking appliances, paint and lamp rooms, lockers and store-rooms having areas of 4m² or more, spaces for the storage of flammable liquids, workshops other than those forming part of the machinery spaces, and spaces containing vehicles or craft with fuel in their tanks, or lockers storing such fuels storage lockers for gaseous fuels for domestic purposes.
(9) Open decks
- Open deck spaces and enclosed promenades having no fire risk. Air spaces (the space outside superstructures and deckhouses).
14B.2.5.3 Continuous "B" class ceilings or linings, in association with the relevant decks or bulkheads, may be accepted as contributing, wholly or in part, to the required insulation and integrity of a division.
14B.2.5.4 External boundaries which are required to be of steel or other equivalent material may be pierced for the fitting of windows and portlights provided that there is no requirement for such boundaries to have "A" class integrity elsewhere in this section. Similarly, in such boundaries which are not required to have "A" class integrity, doors may be of combustible materials, substantially constructed.
Table 1 - Fire integrity of bulkheads separating adjacent spaces
| Spaces || (1) || (2) || (3) || (4) || (5) || (6) || (7) || (8) || (9) |
| Control stations (1) || A-0c || A-0 || A-60 || A-0 || A-15 || A-60 || A-15 || A-60 || * |
| Corridors and lobbies (2) || || Cd || B-0d || A-0a |
| B-0d || A-60 || A-0 || A-0 || * |
| Accommodation spaces (3) || || || Cd || A-0a |
| B-0d || A-60 || A-0 || A-0 || * |
| Stairways (4) || || || || A-0a |
| A-0a |
| A-60 || A-0 || A-0 || |
| Service spaces (low risk) (5) || || || || || Cd || A-60 || A-0 || A-0 || * |
| Machinery spaces of category A (6) || || || || || || * || A-0 || A-60 || * |
| Other machinery spaces (7) || || || || || || || A-0b || A-0 || * |
| Service spaces (high risk) (8) || || || || || || || || A-0b || * |
| Open decks (9) || || || || || || || || || |
Table 2 - Fire integrity of decks separating adjacent spaces
| Spaces ||(1) ||(2) ||(3) ||(4) ||(5) ||(6) ||(7) ||(8) ||(9) |
|Control stations (1) ||A-0 ||A-0 ||A-0 ||A-0 ||A-0 ||A-60 ||A-0 ||A-0 ||* |
|Corridors and lobbies (2) ||A-0 ||* ||* ||A-0 || * ||A-60 ||A-0 ||A-0 ||* |
|Accommodation spaces (3) ||A-60 ||A-0 || * ||A-0 || * ||A-60 ||A-0 ||A-0 ||* |
|Stairways (4) ||A-0 ||A-0 ||A-0 || * || A-0 ||A-60 ||A-0 ||A-0 || |
|Service spaces (low risk) (5) ||A-15 ||A-0 ||A-0 ||A-0 || * ||A-60 ||A-0 ||A-0 ||* |
|Machinery spaces of category A (6) ||A-60 ||A-60 ||A-60 ||A-60 ||A-60 ||* ||A-60e ||A-60 ||* |
|Other machinery spaces (7) ||A-15 ||A-0 ||A-0 ||A-0 ||A-0 ||A-0 || * ||A-0 ||* |
|Service spaces (high risk) (8) ||A-60 ||A-0 ||A-0 ||A-0 ||A-0 ||A-60 ||A-0 ||A-0 ||* |
|Open decks (9) ||* ||* ||* ||* ||* ||* ||* ||* ||- |
Notes: To be applied to both tables 1 and 2, as appropriate.
|a ||For clarification on which applies, see 14B.2.4 and 14B.2.6. |
|b ||Where spaces are of the same numerical category and subscript b appears, a bulkhead or deck of the rating shown in the tables is only required when the adjacent spaces are for a different purpose, e.g in category (9). a galley next to a galley does not require a bulkhead but a galley next to a paint room requires an "A-0" bulkhead. |
|c ||Bulkheads separating the wheelhouse and chartroom from each other may be "B-0" rating. |
|d ||For the application of 14B.2.3.1, "B-O" and "C", where appearing in table 1, should be read as "A-0". |
|e ||Fire insulation need not be fitted if the machinery space in category (7), in the opinion of the Administration, has little or no fire risk. |
|* ||Where an asterisk appears in the tables, the division is required to be of steel or other equivalent material but is not required to be of "A" class standard. |
For the application of 14B.2.3.1 an asterisk, where appearing in table 2, except for category (9), should be read as "A-0".
14B.2.6 Protection of stairways and lifts in accommodation and service spaces
14B.2.6.1 A stairway should be of steel frame construction except where the Administration sanctions the use of other equivalent material, and should be within enclosures formed of "A" class divisions, with positive means of closure at all openings, except that:
- an isolated stairway which penetrates a single deck only may be protected at one level only by at least "B" class divisions and self-closing door(s); and
- stairways may be fitted in the open in a public space, provided they lie wholly within such public space.
14B.2.6.2 A stairway enclosure should have direct communication with the corridors and be of sufficient area to prevent congestion, having in view the number of persons likely to use them in an emergency. In so far as is practical, stairway enclosures should not give direct access to galleys, machinery spaces, service lockers, or other enclosed spaces containing combustibles in which a fire is likely to originate.
14B.2.6.3 A lift trunk should be so fitted to prevent the passage of flame from one 'tween-deck to another and should be provided with means of closing to permit the control of draught and smoke.
14B.2.7 Openings in "A" class divisions
14B.2.7.1 Except for hatches between store and baggage spaces, and between such spaces and the weather decks, all openings should be provided with permanently attached means of closing which should be at least as effective for resisting fires as the divisions in which they are fitted.
14B.2.7.2 The construction of all doors and door frames in "A" class divisions, with the means of securing them when closed, should provide resistance to fire as well as the passage of smoke and flame, as far as practical, equivalent to that of the bulkheads in which the doors are situated. Such doors and door frames should be constructed of steel or other equivalent material. Steel watertight doors need not be insulated.
14B.2.7.3 It should be possible for each door to be opened and closed from each side of the bulkhead by one person only.
14B.2.7.4 Fire doors in main vertical zone bulkheads, galley boundaries and stairway enclosures other than power-operated watertight doors and those which are normally locked, should satisfy the following requirements:
|(a) ||the doors should be self-closing and be capable of closing with an angle of inclination of up to 3.5º opposing closure; |
|(b) ||the approximate time of closure for hinged fire doors should be no more than 40 seconds and no less than 10 seconds from the beginning of their movement with the ship in the upright position. The approximate uniform rate of closure for sliding doors should be of no more than 0.2 m/s and no less than 0.1 m/s with the ship in the upright position; |
|(c) ||the doors, except those for emergency escape trunks, should be capable of remote release from the continuously manned central control station, either simultaneously or in groups and should also be capable of release, individually, from a position at the door. Release switches should have an on-off function to prevent automatic resetting of the system; |
|(d) ||hold-back hooks not subject to central control station release are prohibited; |
|a door closed remotely from the central control station should be capable of being re-opened from both sides of the door by local control. After such local opening, the door should automatically close again; |
|(f) ||indication must be provided at the fire door indicator panel in the continuously manned central control station whether each door is closed; |
|(g) ||the release mechanism should be so designed that the door will automatically close in the event of disruption of the control system or central power supply; |
|(h) ||local power accumulators for power-operated doors should be provided in the immediate vicinity of the doors to enable the doors to be operated after disruption of the control system or central power supply at least ten times (fully opened and closed) using the local controls; |
|(i) ||disruption of the control system or central power supply at one door should not impair the safe functioning of the other doors |
|(j) ||remote-released sliding or power-operated doors should be equipped with an alarm that sounds at least 5 s but no more than 10s after the door being released from the central control station and before the door begins to move and continues sounding until the door is completely closed; |
|(k) ||a door designed to re-open upon contacting an object in its path should re-open not more than 1 m from the point of contact |
|(l) ||double-leaf doors equipped with a latch necessary for their fire integrity should have a latch that is automatically activated by the operation of the doors when released by the system |
|(m) ||the components of the local control system should be accessible for maintenance and adjusting; |
|(n) ||power-operated doors should be provided with a control system of an approved type which should be able to operate in case of fire and be in accordance with the Fire Test Procedures Code. This system should satisfy the following requirements: |
| || |
- the control system should be able to operate the door at the temperature of at least 200°C for at least 60 min, served by the power supply;
- the power supply for all other doors not subject to fire should not be impaired; and
- at temperatures exceeding 200°C the control system should be automatically isolated from the power supply and should be capable of keeping the door closed up to at least 945°C.
14B.2.7.5 Where 'A' Class divisions are penetrated for the passage of electric cables, pipes, trunks, ducts, etc., or for girders, beams or other structural members, arrangements are to be made to ensure that the fire resistance is not impaired.
14B.2.8 Openings in "B" class divisions
14B.2.8.1 Doors and door frames in "B" class divisions and means of securing them should provide a method of closure which should have resistance to fire as far as practical equivalent to that of the divisions except that a ventilation opening may be permitted in the lower portion of such doors. When such an opening is in or under a door the total net area of the opening(s) should not exceed 0.05m². When such an opening is cut in a door it should be fitted with a grill made of non-combustible material. Doors should be non-combustible or of substantial construction.
14B.2.8.2 Where 'B' Class divisions are penetrated for the passage of electric cables, pipes, trunks, ducts, etc., or for the fitting of ventilation terminals, lighting fixtures and similar devices, arrangements are to be made to ensure that the fire resistance is not impaired.
14B.2.9 Windows and portlights (Also see 5.4 and 5.5)
14B.2.9.1 All windows and portlights in bulkheads within accommodation spaces, service spaces and control stations should be so constructed to preserve the integrity requirements of the type of bulkheads in which they are fitted.
14B.2.9.2 Glass is not to be installed as an interior main vertical zone, stairway enclosure bulkhead, or within machinery space boundaries.
14B.2.10 Details of construction
14B.2.10.1 In accommodation and service spaces, control stations, corridors and stairways:
- air spaces enclosed behind ceilings, panelling or linings should be suitably divided by close-fitting draught stops not more than 14m apart; and
- in the vertical direction, enclosed air spaces, including those behind linings of stairways, trunks, etc. should be closed at each deck.
14B.2.10.2 The draught stops are to be non-combustible and are to form a continuation above the ceiling of the bulkhead below or the other side of the panelling or lining to the bulkhead, as far as possible.
14B.2.10.3 Where the structure or 'A' Class divisions are required to be insulated, it is to be ensured that the heat from a fire is not transmitted through the intersections and terminal points of the divisions or penetrations to uninsulated boundaries. Where the insulation installed does not achieve this, arrangements are to be made to prevent this heat transmission by insulating the horizontal and vertical boundaries or penetrations for a distance of 450 mm.
14B.2.10.4 Without impairing the efficiency of the fire protection, the construction of ceilings and bulkheads should allow a fire patrol to detect any smoke originating in concealed and inaccessible places, except where there is no risk of fire originating in such places.
14B.2.10.5 When gaseous fuel is used for domestic purposes, the arrangements for the storage, distribution and utilisation of the fuel should be such that, having regard to the hazards of fire and explosion which the use of such fuel may entail, the safety of the vessel and the persons onboard are preserved.
In particular, open flame gas appliances provided for cooking, heating or any other purposes, should comply with the requirements of EC directive 90/396/EEC or equivalent and, the installation of open flame gas appliances should comply with the appropriate provisions of Section 14A.5
14B.2.11 Restricted use of combustible materials
14B.2.11.1 Except in spaces protected by an automatic sprinkler system and fully addressable fire detection system in accordance with 14B.2.14, all linings, grounds, and ceilings should be of non-combustible materials
14B.2.11.2 The use of combustible materials is to be kept to a minimum. Insulation materials should be non-combustible.
14B.2.11.3 The following surfaces should be low flame spread:
- exposed surfaces in corridors and stairway enclosures, and of bulkheads, wall and ceiling linings in all service spaces and control stations; and
- concealed or inaccessible spaces in accommodation, service spaces and control stations.
As an alternative to .1 and .2 above, these spaces may contain surfaces that are not low flame spread, provided
- adequate barriers of low flame spread surfaces are arranged to restrict the spread of flame areas at distances not greater than 5m, or
- these spaces are protected by an automatic sprinkler system and fully addressable fire detection system in accordance with 14B.2.14.
14B.2.11.4 Pipes penetrating 'A' or 'B' Class divisions are to be of approved materials having regard to the temperature such divisions are required to withstand.
14B.2.11.5 Pipes conveying oil or combustible liquids through accommodation and service spaces are to be of approved materials having regard to the fire risk.
14B.2.11.6 Materials readily rendered ineffective by heat are not to be used for overboard scuppers, sanitary discharges, and other outlets which are close to the waterline and where the failure of the material in the event of fire would give rise to the danger of flooding.
14B.2.11.7 Furniture in the corridors and escape routes should be of a type and quantity not likely to obstruct access. Additionally, furniture along escape routes should be secured in place to prevent shifting if the vessel rolls or lists.
14B.2.11.8 Primary deck coverings within accommodation spaces, service spaces and control stations are to be of a type which will not readily ignite, or give rise to toxic or explosive hazards at elevated temperatures. Reference is also to be made to the IMO FTP Code, Annex 1, Parts 2 and 6.
14B.2.11.9 Vapour barriers and adhesives used in conjunction with insulation, as well as insulation of pipe fittings for cold service systems need not be non-combustible, but they should be kept to the minimum quantity practicable and their exposed surfaces should have low flame spread characteristics.
14B.2.11.10 Except when a fully addressable fire detection system is fitted, upholstery composites (fabric in association with any backing or padding material) used throughout the vessel should be approved in accordance with the IMO FTP Code, Annex 1, Part 8 or an equivalent standard acceptable to the administration.
14B.2.11.11 Except when a fully addressable fire detection system is fitted bedding components should be approved in accordance with the IMO FTP Code, Annex 1, Part 9 or an equivalent standard acceptable to the administration
14B.2.11.12 Except when a fully addressable fire detection system is fitted Suspended textile materials such as curtains and drapes should be approved in accordance with the IMO FTP Code, Annex 1, Part 7, or an equivalent standard acceptable to the administration
14B.2.11.13 Upholstery, bedding components and suspended textiles required to comply with the IMO FTP code or an equivalent standard are to be clearly labelled by the manufacturer stating the standard that they meet and any washing or cleaning instructions needed to maintain their fire resistance. These labels are not to be removed.
14B.2.11.14 In spaces where penetration of oil products is possible, the surface of insulation is to be impervious to oil or oil vapours. Insulation boundaries are to be arranged to avoid immersion in oil spillages so far as is practicable.
14B.2.12 Means of escape
The purpose of this section is to provide means of escape so that persons onboard can safely and swiftly escape to the lifeboat and liferaft embarkation deck. For this purpose, the following functional requirements should be met:
- safe escape routes should be provided;
- escape routes should be maintained in a safe condition, clear of obstacles; and
- additional aids for escape should be provided as necessary to ensure accessibility, clear marking, and adequate design for emergency situations.
14B.2.12.1 Stairways and ladders should be arranged to provide ready means of escape to the lifeboat and liferaft embarkation deck from all guest and crew accommodation spaces and service spaces in which the crew are normally employed, other than machinery spaces. In particular, the following provisions should be complied with:
- Below the bulkhead deck two means of escape, at least one of which should be independent of watertight doors, should be provided from each watertight compartment, main vertical zone or similarly restricted group of spaces. Exceptionally one of the means of escape may be dispensed with, due regard being paid to the nature and location of spaces and to the number of persons who might normally be accommodated or employed there.
- Above the bulkhead deck, there are to be at least two means of escape from each vertical fire zone or similarly restricted spaces or group of spaces, at least one of which is to give access to an readily accessible escape which will provide continuous fire shelter from the level of its origin to the appropriate survival craft embarkation deck
- Within each main vertical zone there should be at least one readily accessible enclosed stairway providing continuous fire shelter, where practical, at all levels up to the appropriate lifeboat and liferaft embarkation decks or the highest level served by the stairway, whichever level is the highest. The width, number and continuity of the stairways should be satisfactory for the number of persons likely to use them.
- Access from the stairway enclosures to the lifeboat and liferaft embarkation areas should avoid high fire risk areas.
- Stairways serving only a space and a balcony in that space should not be considered as forming one of the required means of escape.
- If a radio room or wheelhouse has no direct access to the open deck, two means of escape should be provided, one of which may be a window of sufficient size or another means.
- Stairways are not to exceed 3,5 m vertical rise without the provision of a landing.
- In the case where direct access to the appropriate survival craft embarkation deck as required by .1 and .2 is not practical, a ready accessible escape which will provide continuous fire shelter from the level of its origin to the appropriate open deck with subsequent direct passage to the embarkation deck can be accepted provided that these escape routes including external staircases, have emergency lighting and slip free surfaces under foot.
- Protection of access from the stairway enclosures to the lifeboat and liferaft embarkation areas should be provided either directly or through protected internal routes which have fire integrity and insulation values for stairway enclosures as determined by tables 1 and 2, as appropriate.
- Where public spaces span three or more open decks and contain combustibles such as furniture and give access to other enclosed spaces, each level within the space is to have two means of escape, one of which is to give access to a readily accessible escape which will provide continuous fire shelter from the level of its origin to the appropriate survival craft embarkation deck.
14B.2.12.2 Two means of escape should be provided from each machinery space. In particular, the following provisions should be complied with:
- The two means of escape should consist of either:
(a) two sets of steel ladders as widely separated as possible, leading to doors in the upper part of the space similarly separated and from which access is provided to the appropriate survival craft embarkation decks. One of these ladders should provide continuous fire shelter from the lower part of the space to a safe position outside the space. This shelter is to be of steel or equivalent material, insulated where necessary, and provided with a self closing door at the lower end. If access is provided at other levels each level is to be provided with a steel or equivalent material self-closing door; or
(b) one steel ladder leading to a door in the upper part of the space from which access is provided to the embarkation deck and additionally, in the lower part of the space and in a position well separated from the ladder referred to, a steel door capable of being operated from each side and which provides access to a safe escape route from the lower part of the space to the embarkation deck.
- One of the means of escape from any such space required by 14B.220.127.116.11 may be dispensed with on sailing vessels with small machinery spaces, so long as either a door or a steel ladder and walkways provide a safe escape route to the embarkation deck with due regard being paid to the nature and location of the space and whether persons are normally employed in that space.
- Two means of escape should be provided from a machinery control room located within a machinery space, at least one of which should provide continuous fire shelter to a safe position outside the machinery space.
14B.2.12.3 Lifts should not be considered as forming one of the required means of escape.
14B.2.12.4 In exceptional circumstances a single means of escape may be accepted for spaces other than accommodation spaces that are entered only occasionally, if the escape route does not pass through a galley, machinery space or watertight door.
14B.2.12.5 Adequate deck area is to be provided at assembly stations and embarkation areas having due regard to the expected number of persons. Generally, assembly stations should be provided close to the embarkation stations. Each assembly station should have sufficient clear deck space to accommodate all persons assigned to assemble at that station, but at least 0.35 m2 per person.
14B.2.12.6 Emergency Escape Breathing Devices
Emergency escape breathing devices (EEBD’s) should comply with the Fire Safety Systems Code. At least one spare emergency escape breathing device should be kept onboard.
14B.18.104.22.168 All vessels should carry at least two EEBD’s within accommodation spaces, and at least two EEBD’s should be carried in each main vertical zone.
14B.22.214.171.124 On all vessels, within the machinery spaces, EEBD’s should be situated ready for use at easily visible locations, which can be reached quickly and easily at any time in the event of fire. The number and location should take into account the layout of the machinery space and the number of persons normally working in the space. The number and location of these devices should be indicated in the fire control plan.
14B.2.13 Ventilation systems
14B.2.13.1 Ventilation ducts should be of non-combustible material. Short ducts, however, not generally exceeding 2m in length and with a cross-section not exceeding 0.02m² need not be non-combustible, subject to the following conditions:
- they should be of a suitable material having regard to the risk of fire;
- they should be used only at the end of the ventilation device; and
- they should not be situated less than 600mm, measured along the duct, from an opening in an "A" or "B" class division including continuous "B" class ceilings.
14B.2.13.2 Where ventilation ducts with a free cross-sectional area exceeding 0.02m² pass through class "A" bulkheads or decks, the opening should be lined with a steel sheet sleeve unless the ducts passing through the bulkheads or decks are of steel in the vicinity of passage through the deck or bulkhead and the ducts and sleeves should comply in this part with the following:
- Sleeves should have a thickness of at least 3mm and a length of at least 900mm. When passing through bulkheads, this length should be divided preferably into 450mm on each side of the bulkhead. The ducts, or sleeves lining such ducts, should be provided with fire insulation. The insulation should have at least the same fire integrity as the bulkhead or deck through which the duct passes.
- Ducts with a free cross-sectional area exceeding 0.075m² should be fitted with fire dampers in addition to the requirements of .1 above. The fire damper should operate automatically but should also be capable of being closed manually from both sides of the bulkhead or deck. The damper should be provided with an indicator which shows whether the damper is open or closed. Fire dampers are not required, however, where ducts pass through spaces surrounded by "A" class divisions, without serving those spaces, provided those ducts have the same fire integrity as the divisions which they pierce.
14B.2.13.3 Ducts provided for the ventilation of a machinery space of category A, machinery spaces, galley, spaces containing vehicles or craft with fuel in their tanks or lockers storing such fuel, should not pass through accommodation spaces, service spaces or control stations unless they comply with the conditions specified in .1 to .4 or .5 and .6 below:
- they are constructed of steel having a thickness of at least 3mm and 5mm for duct widths or diameters of up to and including 300mm and 760mm and over respectively and, in the case of ducts with widths or diameters between 300mm and 760mm, thickness should be obtained by interpolation;
- they are suitably supported and stiffened;
- they are fitted with automatic fire dampers close to the boundaries penetrated; and
- they are insulated to "A-60" standard from a machinery space or galley to a point at least 5m beyond each fire damper;
- they are constructed of steel in accordance with .1 and .2 above; and
- they are insulated to "A-60" standard throughout accommodation spaces, service spaces or control stations; except that penetrations of main zone divisions should also comply with the requirements of 14B.2.13.8.
14B.2.13.4 Ducts provided for ventilation to accommodation spaces, service spaces or control stations should not pass through a machinery space of category A machinery spaces, galley, spaces containing vehicles or craft with fuel in their tanks or lockers storing such fuel, unless they comply with the conditions specified in .1 to .3 or .4 and .5 below:
- where they pass through a machinery space of category A or galley, ducts are constructed of steel in accordance with 14B.126.96.36.199 & .2;
- automatic fire dampers are fitted close to the boundaries penetrated; and
- the integrity of the machinery space or galley boundaries is maintained at penetrations;
- where they pass through a machinery space of category A or galley, ducts are constructed of steel in accordance with 14B.188.8.131.52 & .2; and
- within a machinery space or galley, ducts are insulated to "A-60" standard; except that penetrations of main zone divisions should also comply with the requirements of 14B.2.13.8.
14B.2.13.5 Ventilation ducts with a free cross-sectional area exceeding 0.02m² passing through "B" class bulkheads should be lined with steel sheet sleeves of 900mm in length divided preferably into 450mm on each side of the bulkheads, unless the duct is of steel for this length.
14B.2.13.6 For a control station outside machinery spaces and other normally manned control stations, practical measures should be taken to ensure that ventilation, visibility and freedom from smoke are maintained so that, in the event of fire, the machinery and equipment contained in the control station may be supervised and continue to function effectively. Alternative and separate means of air supply should be provided; air inlets of the two sources of supply should be so disposed that the risk of both inlets drawing in smoke simultaneously is minimized. These requirements need not apply to control stations situated on, and opening on to, an open deck, or where local closing arrangements would be equally effective.
14B.2.13.7 Exhaust duct(s) from a galley range should be constructed of "A" class divisions where passing through accommodation spaces and/or spaces containing combustible materials. In addition to the requirements of 14B.2.13.3 An exhaust duct should be fitted with:
- a grease trap readily removable for cleaning;
- a fire damper located in the lower end of the duct;
- arrangements for shutting off the exhaust fans, operable from within the galley; and
- fixed means for extinguishing a fire within the duct.
14B.2.13.8 When it is necessary for a ventilation duct to pass through a main vertical zone division, a fail-safe automatic closing fire damper should be fitted adjacent to the division. The damper should also be capable of being manually closed from each side of the division. The operating position should be readily accessible and be marked in red light-reflecting colour. The duct between the division and the damper should be of steel or other equivalent material and, if necessary, insulated to comply with the requirements of SOLAS regulation II-2/9.3.1. The damper should be fitted on at least one side of the division with a visible indicator showing whether the damper is in the open position.
14B.2.13.9 Inlets and outlets of ventilation systems should be capable of being closed from outside the space being ventilated.
14B.2.13.10 Power ventilation of accommodation spaces, service spaces, control stations and machinery spaces should be capable of being stopped from an easily accessible position outside the space being served. This position should not be readily cut off in the event of a fire in the spaces served. The means provided for stopping the power ventilation of a machinery space should be entirely separate from the means provided for stopping ventilation of other spaces.
14B.2.13.11 Where public spaces span three or more open decks and contain combustibles such as furniture and other enclosed spaces, the space is to be equipped with a smoke extraction system. The smoke extraction system is to be activated by the smoke detection system required by 14B.2.14 and is to be capable of manual control. The fans are to be capable of exhausting the entire volume within the space in not more than 10 min.
14B.2.13.12 Store-rooms containing highly flammable products are to be provided with ventilation arrangements that are separate from other ventilation systems. Ventilation is to be arranged to prevent the build up of flammable vapours at high and low levels. The inlets and outlets of ventilators are to be positioned so that they do not draw from or vent into an area which would cause undue hazard, and are to be fitted with spark arresters.
14B.2.13.13 Ventilation systems serving Category 'A' machinery spaces are to be independent of systems serving other spaces.
14B.2.13.14 All enclosed spaces containing free standing fuel tanks are to be ventilated independently of systems serving other spaces.
14B.2.13.15 Ventilation is to be provided to prevent the accumulation of dangerous concentrations of flammable gas which may be emitted from batteries.
14B.2.13.16 Ventilation openings may be fitted in and under the lower parts of cabin and public space doors in corridor bulkheads. The total net area of any such openings is not to exceed 0,05 m2.
14B.2.13.17 For spaces containing vehicles or craft with fuel in their tanks or lockers storing such fuels, see 14B.1. For additional requirements for the ventilation of domestic gaseous fuel, see 14B.2.20.
14B.2.13.18 Ducts provided for exhaust ventilation from laundries are to be fitted with suitable located cleaning and inspection openings.
14B.2.13.19 All fire dampers should comply with IMO FTP Code, Annex 1, Part 3.
14B.2.14 Fixed fire detection and fire alarm systems and automatic sprinkler, fire detection and fire alarm systems
The purpose of this section is to detect a fire in the space of origin and to provide for alarm for safe escape and fire-fighting activity. For this purpose, the following functional requirements should be met:
- fixed fire detection and fire alarm system installations should be suitable for the nature of the space, fire growth potential and potential generation of smoke and gases; and
- manually operated call points should be placed effectively to ensure a readily accessible means of notification.
14B.2.14.1 Each separate zone in all accommodation and service spaces, except spaces which afford no substantial fire risk such as void spaces, sanitary spaces, etc., should be provided throughout with an automatic sprinkler, fire detection and fire alarm system of an approved type and complying with the requirements of SOLAS, Part C. regulation II-2/7 and the IMO FSS Code, Chapter 8, or an equivalent standard acceptable to the administration. The system should be designed to enable simultaneous operation of all sprinklers fitted in the most hydraulically demanding area. The minimum area for simultaneous operation may be taken as the largest area bounded by A0 class divisions or the breadth of the vessel squared, whichever is the greater. In addition, a fixed fire detection and fire alarm system of an approved type complying with the requirements of SOLAS II-2/7 and the IMO FSS Code, Chapter 9 should be installed and arranged to provide smoke detection in corridors, stairways and escape routes within accommodation spaces;
14B.2.15 Fire detection and alarms
14B.2.15.1 Manually operated call points complying with the requirements of SOLAS II-2/7 and the IMO FSS Code, Chapter 9 should be installed.
14B.2.15.2 For vessels having a freeboard length of 85 m or more, a public address system complying with the requirements of SOLAS III/6.5 is to be available throughout the accommodation and service spaces and control stations and open decks.
14B.2.16 Oil fuel arrangements
14B.2.16.1 Arrangements for the storage, distribution and utilisation of oil fuel are to be such as to minimise the risk of fire or explosion.
14B.2.16.2 As far as practicable, oil fuel tanks are to be part of the vessel's structure and are to be located outside Category 'A' machinery spaces.
14B.2.16.3 Where oil fuel tanks, other than double bottom tanks, are necessarily located adjacent to or within Category 'A' machinery spaces, at least one of their vertical sides is to be contiguous to the machinery space boundaries, and is preferably to have a common boundary with the double bottom tanks, and the area of the tank boundary common with the machinery spaces is to be kept to a minimum. Where the vertical boundary of a tank directly exposed to a machinery space meets the vessel's side plating at an acute angle, a small horizontal surface at the base of the tank, necessary to accommodate practical constructional considerations may be permitted. If the arrangement of the machinery is such that a tank with a large horizontal surface at the base is necessary then a cofferdam with suitable ventilation arrangements, to protect the base of the tank from the effect of a machinery space fire, will be specially considered. Oil fuel tanks situated within the boundaries of Category 'A' machinery spaces are not to contain oil fuel having a flashpoint of less than 60°C. Except for vessels constructed of materials other than steel, where steel tanks should be provided, the use of free standing oil fuel tanks is prohibited.
14B.2.17 Lubricating oil arrangements
Arrangements for the storage, distribution and utilisation of oil used in pressure lubrication systems are to be such as to minimise the risk of fire or explosion.
14B.2.18 Arrangements for other flammable oils
Arrangements for the storage, distribution and utilisation of other flammable oils employed under pressure in power transmission systems, control and activating systems and heating systems are to be such as to minimise the risk of fire or explosion.
14B.2.19 Prohibition of carriage of flammable oils in forepeak tanks
Oil fuel, lubricating oil and other flammable oils are not to be carried in forepeak tanks.
14B.2.20 Arrangements for gaseous fuel for domestic purposes
Where gaseous fuel is used for domestic purposes, the arrangements for the storage, distribution and utilization of the fuel are to be such that, having regard to the hazards of fire and explosion which the use of such fuel may entail, the safety of the vessel and the persons on board is preserved. The installation is to be in accordance with recognised National or International Standards and is to meet the requirements contained in 14A.5.
14B.2.21 Space heaters
Space heaters, if used, are to be fixed in position and so constructed as to reduce fire risks to a minimum. The design and location of these units is to be such that clothing, curtains or other similar materials cannot be scorched or set on fire by heat from the unit.