Ingangsdatum: 01-07-1994
4.4.1 Integral tanks.
The structural analysis of integral tanks should be in accordance with recognized
standards. The tank boundary scantlings should meet at least the requirements for deep
tanks taking into account the internal pressure as indicated in 4.3.2, but the resulting
scantlings should not be less than normally required by such standards.
4.4.2 Membrane tanks.
4.4.2.1 For membrane tanks, the effects of all static and dynamic loads should be
considered to determine the suitability of the membrane and of the associated insulation
with respect to plastic deformation and fatigue.
4.4.2.2 Before approval is given, a model of both the primary and secondary barriers,
including corners and joints, should normally be tested to verify that they will withstand
the expected combined strains due to static, dynamic and thermal loads. Test conditions
should represent the most extreme service conditions the cargo containment system will see
in its life. Material tests should ensure that ageing is not liable to prevent the materials
from carrying out their intended function.
4.4.2.3 For the purpose of the test referred to in 4.4.2.2, a complete analysis of the
particular motions, accelerations and response of ships and cargo containment systems
should be performed, unless these data are available from similar ships.
4.4.2.4 Special attention should be paid to the possible collapse of the membrane due to
an overpressure in the inter-barrier space, to a possible vacuum in the cargo tank, to the
sloshing effects and to hull vibration effects.
4.4.2.5 A structural analysis of the hull should be to the satisfaction of the Administration,
taking into account the internal pressure as indicated in 4.3.2. Special attention, however,
should be paid to deflections of the hull and their compatibility with the membrane and
associated insulation. Inner hull plating thickness should meet at least the requirements of
Recognized Standards for deep tanks taking into account the internal pressure as indicated
in 4.3.2. The allowable stress for the membrane, membrane-supporting material and
insulation should be determined in each particular case.
4.4.3 Semi-membrane tanks.
A structural analysis should be performed in accordance with the requirements for
membrane tanks or independent tanks as appropriate, taking into account the internal
pressure as indicated in 4.3.2.
4.4.4 Type A independent tanks.
4.4.4.1 A structural analysis should be performed to the satisfaction of the Society taking
into account the internal pressure as indicated in 4.3.2. The cargo tank plating thickness
should meet at least the requirements of Recognized Standards for deep tanks taking into
account the internal pressure as indicated in 4.3.2 and any corrosion allowance required by
4.5.2.
4.4.4.2 For parts such as structure in way of supports not otherwise covered by
Recognized Standards, stresses should be determined by direct calculations, taking into
account the loads referred to in 4.3 as far as applicable, and the ship deflection in way of
supports.
4.4.5 Type B independent tanks.
For tanks of this type the following applies :
.1 The effects of all dynamic and static loads should be used to determine the
suitability of the structure with respect to :
- plastic deformation
- buckling
- fatigue failure
- crack propagation
Statistical wave load analysis in accordance with 4.3.4, finite element analysis or
similar methods and fracture mechanics analysis or an equivalent approach, should
be carried out.
.2 A three-dimensional analysis should be carried out to evaluate the stress levels
contributed by the ship's hull. The model for this analysis should include the
cargo tank with its supporting and keying system as well as a reasonable part of
the hull.
.3 A complete analysis of the particular ship accelerations and motions in irregular
waves and of the response of the ship and its cargo tanks to these forces and
motions should be performed unless these data are available from similar ships.
.4 A buckling analysis should consider the maximum construction tolerances.
.5 Where deemed necessary by the Society, model tests may be required to
determine stress concentration factors and fatigue life of structural elements.
.6 The cumulative effect of the fatigue load should comply with :
where :
n
_{ i} = number of stress cycles at each stress level during the life of the ship
N
_{i} = number of cycles to fracture for the respective stress level according to
the Woler (S-N) curve
N
_{j} = number of cycles to fracture for the fatigue loads due to loading and
unloading
C
_{w} should be less than or equal to 0.5, except that the Administration may
give special consideration to the use of a value greater than 0.5 but not greater
than 1.0, dependent on the test procedure and data used to establish the Wohler
(S-N) curve.
4.4.6 Type C independent tanks
4.4.6.1 Scantlings based on internal pressure should be calculated as follows :
.1 The thickness and form of pressure-containing parts of pressure vessels under
internal pressure, including flanges should be determined according to a standard
acceptable to the Administration. These calculations in all cases should be based
on generally accepted pressure vessel design theory, Openings in
pressure-containing parts of pressure vessels should be reinforced in accordance
with a standard acceptable to the Administration.
.2 The design liquid pressure defined in 4.3.2 should be taken into account in the
above calculations.
.3 The welded joint efficiency factor to be used in the calculation according to
4.4.6.1.1 should be 0.95 when the inspection and the non-destructive testing
referred to in 4.10.9 are carried out. This figure may be increased up to 1.0 when
account is taken of other considerations, such as the material used, type of joints,
welding procedure and type of loading. For process pressure vessels the
Administration may accept partial nondestructive examinations, but not less than
those of 4.10.9.2.2 depending on such factors as the material used, the design
temperature, the nil ductility transition temperature of the material as fabricated,
the type of joint and welding procedure, but in this case an efficiency factor of
not more than 0.85 should be adopted. For special materials, the above-mentioned
factors should be reduced depending on the specified mechanical properties of the
welded joint.
4.4.6.2 Buckling criteria should be as follows :
.1 The thickness and form of pressure vessels subject to external pressure and other
loads causing compressive stresses should be to a standard acceptable to the
Society. These calculations in all cases should be based on generally accepted
pressure vessel buckling theory and should adequately account for the difference
in theoretical and actual buckling stress as a result of plate edge misalignment,
ovality and deviation from true circular form over a specified arc or chord length.
.2 The design external pressure P
_{e} used for verifying the buckling of the pressure
vessels should not be less than that given by :
P
_{e}=P
_{1}+P
_{2}+P
_{3}+P
_{4} (bar)
where :
P
_{1} = setting value of vacuum relief valves. For vessels not fitted with vacuum
relief valves P
_{1} should be specially considered, but should not in general
be taken as less than 0.25 bar.
P
_{2} = the set pressure of the pressure relief valves for completely closed spaces
containing pressure vessels or parts of pressure vessels ; elsewhere P
_{2} = 0.
P
_{3} = compressive actions in the shell due to the weight and contraction of
insulation, weight of shell, including corrosion allowance, and other
miscellaneous external pressure loads to which the pressure vessel may be
subjected. These include, but are not limited to, weight of domes, weight of
towers and piping, effect of product in the partially filled condition,
accelerations and hull deflection. In addition the local effect of external or
internal pressure or both should be taken into account.
P
_{4} = external pressure due to head of water for pressure vessels or part of
pressure vessels on exposed decks ;
elsewhere P
_{4} = 0.
4.4.6.3 Stress analysis in respect of static and dynamic loads should be performed as
follows :
.1 Pressure vessel scantlings should be determined in accordance with 4.4.6.1 and .2.
.2 Calculations of the loads and stresses in way of the supports and the shell
attachment of the support should be made. Loads referred to in 4.3 should be
used, as applicable. Stresses in way of the supports should be to a standard
acceptable to the Society. In special cases a fatigue analysis may be required by
the Administration.
.3 If required by the Society, secondary stresses and thermal stresses should be
specially considered.
4.4.6.4 For pressure vessels, the thickness calculated according to 4.4.6.1 or the thickness
required by 4.4.6.2 plus the corrosion allowance, if any, should be considered as a
minimum without any negative tolerance.
4.4.6.5 For pressure vessels, the minimum thickness of shell and heads including corrosion
allowance, after forming, should not be less than 5 ㎜ for carbon-manganese steels and
nickel steels, 3 ㎜ for austenitic steels or 7 ㎜ for aluminium alloys.
4.4.7 Internal insulation tanks.
4.4.7.1 The effects of all static and dynamic loads should be considered to determine the
suitability of the tank with respect to :
- fatigue failure
- crack propagation from both free and supported surfaces
- adhesive and cohesive strength
- compressive, tensile and shear strength.
Statistical wave load analysis in accordance with 4.3.4, finite element analysis or similar
methods and fracture mechanics analysis or an equivalent approach should be carried out.
4.4.7.2.1 Special attention should be given to crack resistance and to deflections of the
inner hull or independent tank structure and their compatibility with the insulation
materials. A three-dimensional structural analysis should be carried out to the satisfaction of
the Society. This analysis is to evaluate the stress levels and deformations contributed
either by the inner hull or by the independent tank structure or both and should also take
into account the internal pressure as indicated in 4.3.2 Where water ballast spaces are
adjacent to the inner hull forming the supporting structure of the internal insulation tank,
the analysis should take account of the dynamic loads caused by water ballast under the
influence of ship motions.
4.4.7.2.2 The allowable stresses and associated deflections for the internal insulation tank
and the inner hull structure or independent tank structure should be determined in each
particular case.
4.4.7.2.3 Thicknesses of plating of the inner hull or of an independent tank should at
least comply with the requirements of Recognized Standards, taking into account the
internal pressure as indicated in 4.3.2. Tanks constructed of plane surfaces should at least
comply with the recognized standards for deep tanks.
4.4.7.3 A complete analysis of the response of ship, cargo and any ballast to accelerations
and motions in irregular waves of the particular ship should be performed to the
satisfaction of the Society unless such analysis is available for a similar ship.
4.4.7.4.1 In order to confirm the design principles, prototype testing of composite models
including structural elements should be carried out under combined effects of static,
dynamic and thermal loads.
4.4.7.4.2 Test conditions should represent the most extreme service conditions the cargo
containment system will be exposed to during the lifetime of the ship, including thermal
cycles. For this purpose, 400 thermal cycles are considered to be a minimum, based upon
19 round voyages per year; where more than 19 round voyages per year are expected, a
higher number of thermal cycles will be required. These 400 thermal cycles may be
divided into 20 full cycles (cargo temperature to 45°c) and 380 partial cycles (cargo
temperature to that temperature expected to be reached in the ballast voyage).
4.4.7.4.3 Models should be representative of the actual construction including corners, joints,
pump mounts, piping penetrations and other critical areas, and should take into account
variations in any material properties, workmanship and quality control.
4.4.7.4.4 Combined tension and fatigue tests should be carried out to evaluate crack
behaviour of the insulation material in the case where a through crack develops in the
inner hull or independent tank structure. In these tests, where applicable the crack area
should be subjected to the maximum hydrostatic pressure of the ballast water.
4.4.7.5 The effects of fatigue loading should be determined in accordance with 4.4.5.6 or
by an equivalent method.
4.4.7.6 For internal insulation tanks, repair procedures should be developed during the
prototype testing programme for both the insulation material and the inner hull or the
independent tank structure.