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582 Guidelines for the performance and testing criteria, and surveys of low expansion foam concentrates for fixed fire extinguishing systems (MSC/Circ.582/Corr.1)
Geldigheid:10-07-2000 t/m Versie:vergelijk
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1 At its sixtieth session, the Maritime Safety Committee approved "Guidelines for the performance and testing criteria, and surveys of low-expansion foam concentrates for fixed fire-extinguishing systems".

2 Member Governments are recommended to ensure that tests for type approval and periodical control of the low-expansion foam concentrates are performed, in accordance with the attached guidelines.

Ingangsdatum: 23-04-1992

1 At its sixtieth session, the Maritime Safety Committee approved "Guidelines for the performance and testing criteria, and surveys of low-expansion foam concentrates for fixed fire-extinguishing systems".

2 Member Governments are recommended to ensure that tests for type approval and periodical control of the low-expansion foam concentrates are performed, in accordance with the attached guidelines.

Annex Guidelines for the performance and testing criteria, and surveys of low expansion foam concentrates for fixed fire extinguishing systems

Ingangsdatum: 23-04-1992

1 General

Ingangsdatum: 23-04-1992

1.1 - Application

These Guidelines apply to the foam concentrates for fixed low-expansion fire-extinguishing systems required by SOLAS 74(83) Reg. 11-2/61 for oil tankers. These Guidelines also apply to foam concentrates for fixed low-expansion fire-extinguishing systems in machinery spaces according to SOLAS 74(83) Reg. 11-2/8.

1.2 - Definitions

For the purpose of these Guidelines the following definitions apply.

(a) Foam (fire fighting) : an aggregate of air filled bubbles formed from an aqueous solution of a suitable foam concentrate.

(b) Foam solution: a solution of foam concentrate and water.

(c) Foam concentrate: the liquid which, when mixed with water in the appropriate concentration, gives a foam solution.

(d) Expansion ratio: the ratio of the volume of foam to the volume of foam solution from which it was made.

(e) Spreading coefficient: a measurement of the ability of one liquid to spontaneously spread across another.

(f) 25% (50%) drainage time: the time for 25% (50%) of the liquid content of a foam to drain out.

(g) Gentle application: application of foam to the surface of a liquid fuel via a backboard, tank wall or other surface.

(h) Sediment: insoluble particles in the foam concentrate.

2 Sampling procedure

Ingangsdatum: 23-04-1992

The sampling method should ensure representative samples which should be stored in filled containers.

The sample size should be :

-30 litres for type tests (see Section 3)
- 2 litres for periodical controls (see Section 4) .

3 Tests for type approval of foam concentrates


For foam concentrate type approval, the tests under paragraphs 3.1-3.11 should be performed. They should be carried out at laboratories acceptable to the Administration .

Ingangsdatum: 23-04-1992

For foam concentrate type approval, the tests under paragraphs 3.1-3.11 should be performed. They should be carried out at laboratories acceptable to the Administration .

3.01 Freezing and thawing

Ingangsdatum: 23-04-1992

3.1.1 - Before and after temperature conditioning in accordance with 3.1.2, the foam concentrate should show no visual sign of stratification, non -homogeneity or sedimentation

3.1.2 - Freezing and thawing test

(a) Apparatus:

- freezing chamber, capable of achieving temperatures required as stated in (b.1);
- polyethylene tube, approximately 10 mm diameter, 400 mm long and sealed and weighted at one end, with suitable spacers attached. Figure 1 shows a typical form;
- 500 mL cylinder approximately 400 mm high and 65 mm diameter. (b) Procedure: (b .1) Set the temperature of the freezing chamber to a temperature which is 10¡ÆC below the freezing point of the sample measured in accordance with BS 5117: Section 1.3 (excluding 5.2 in the standard). To prevent the glass measuring cylinder from breaking, due to expansion of the foam concentrate on freezing, insert the tube into the measuring cylinder, sealed end downward, weighted if necessary to avoid notation, the spacers ensuring it remains approximately on the central axis of the cylinder. Place the sample in the cylinder in the chest, cool and maintain at the required temperature for 24 h. At the end of this period thaw the sample for not less than 24 h and not more than 96 h in an ambient temperature cf 20-25¡É. (b .2) Repeat (b.1) three times to give four cycles of freezing and thawing. (b. 3) Examine the sample for stratification and ncn-homogeneity. (b. 4) Condition the sample for 7 days at 60¡É followed by one day at room temperature.

3.02 Heat stability

Ingangsdatum: 23-04-1992

An unopened 20 litre container (or other standard shipping container) as supplied by the manufacturer from a production batch should be maintained for 7 daysat 60&degC, followed by one day at room temperature. Following this conditioning, the foam liquid after agitating/stirring will be subjected to the fire test as per 3.9, and comply with the requirements given in these guidelines.

3.03 Sedimentation

Ingangsdatum: 23-04-1992

3.3.1 - Any sediment in the concentrate prepared in accordance with Section 2 should be dispersible through a 180 ìm sieve, and the percentage volume of sediment should not be more than 0,25% when tested in accordance with 3.3.2.

3.3.2 - The test should be carried out as follows:

(a) Apparatus:

- graduated centrifuge tubes;
- centrifuge operating at 6000 ±100m/s2;
- 180 sieve complying with ISO 3310-1;
- plastic wash bottle . NOTE: A centrifuge and tubes 0 complying with ISO 3734 are suitable. (b) Procedure: Centrifuge each sample for 10 min. Determine the volume of the sediment and determine the percentage of this volume with respect to the centrifuged sample volume. Wash the contents of the centrifuge tube onto the sieve and check that the sediment can or cannot be dispersed through the sieve by the jet from the plastic wash bottle. NOTE: It is possible that the test method is not suitable for some non-Newtonian foam concentrates. In this case an alternative method, to the satisfaction of the Administration, should be used so that compliance with this requirement can be verified.

3.04 Kinematic viscosity

Ingangsdatum: 23-04-1992

3.4.1 - The test should be carried out according to ASTM D 445-86 or ISO 3104. Kinematic viscosity should not exceed 200 mm2/s.

3.4.2 - The method for determining viscosity of non-Newtonian foam concentrates should be to the satisfaction of the Administration.

3.05 pH value

Ingangsdatum: 23-04-1992

The pH of the foam concentrate prepared in accordance with Section 2 should be not less than 6,0 and not more than 9,5 at (20 +2)&degC.

3.06 Film formation of the foam solution

Ingangsdatum: 23-04-1992

3.07 Expansion ratio

3.7 Expansion ratio

3.7.1 - The test should be carried out according to para 3. 7 .2 , wi th sea water at about 20°C. Simulated sea water having the characteristics stated under 3.7.3 may be used.

The expansion ratio obtained with nozzles used on board chould be consistent with the expansion ratio obtained with the nozzles durimg the fire test . 3.7.2 - Determination of the expansion ratio (a) Apparatus:
- plastic collecting vessel of volume V, known to 16 mL as shown in figure 2, equipped with a bottom discharge facility;
- foam collector as shown in figure 3 ;
- foam making equipment with nozzle as shown in figure 4 which when tested with water has a flow rate of 11,4 L/min at a nozzle pressure of (6.3 0.3) bar. (b) Procedure: (b .1) Check that the pipework and hose from the foam solution tank to the nozzle is completely full of solution .Set up the nozzle horizontally directly in front of the foam collector .with the front of the nozzle (3+0.3) m from the top edge of the collector. Wet the vessel internally and weigh it ( W1) .Set up the foam equipment and adjust the nozzle pressure to give a flow rate of 6 L/min. Discharge the foam and adjust the height of the nozzle so that the discharge strikes the collector centrally. Keep the nozzle horizontal. Stop the foam discharge and rinse all foam from the collector. Check that the foam solution tank is full. Start discharging the foam and after ( 30 +5) s to allow the discharge to stabilize, place the collecting vessel, with the discharge outlet closed, on the collector . As soon as the vessel is full, remove it from the collector , strike the foam surface level with the rim and start the clock. Weigh the vessel (W2). (b. 2) Calculate the expansion E from the equation:
in which it is assumed that the density of the foam solution is 1.0 and where: V is the vessel volume (mL) W1 is the mass of the empty vessel (g) W2 is the mass of the full vessel (g). (b .3) Open the drainage facility and collect the foam solution in the measuring cylinder to measure the 25% drainage time (see paragraph 3.8.1 hereinafter). 3.7.3 - Simulated sea water may be made up by dissolving
25,0 g Sodium chloride ( NaCl )
11,0 g Magnesium chloride (MgCI2 6H2O)
1,6 g Calcium chloride (CaC12 2H2 O)
4,0 g Sodium sulphate (Na2 SO4) in each litre of potable water.
Ingangsdatum: 2310-0407-19922000
Geldig tot en met: 09-07-2000
3.7 Expansion ratio

3.7.1The test should be carried out according to paragraph 3.7.2 with simulated seawater at about 20ºC having the characteristics stated in paragraph 3.7.3.
The expansion ratio obtained with nozzles used on board chould be consistent with the expansion ratio obtained with the nozzles durimg the fire test . 3.7.2 - Determination of the expansion ratio (a) Apparatus:
  • plastic collecting vessel of volume V, known to 16 mL as shown in figure 2, equipped with a bottom discharge facility;

  • foam collector as shown in figure 3 ;

  • foam making equipment with nozzle as shown in figure 4 which when tested with water has a flow rate of 11,4 L/min at a nozzle pressure of (6.3 0.3) bar.

3.7 Expansion ratio(b) Procedure:

(b .1) Check that the pipework and hose from the foam solution tank to the nozzle is completely full of solution .Set up the nozzle horizontally directly in front of the foam collector .with the front of the nozzle (3+0.3) m from the top edge of the collector. Wet the vessel internally and weigh it ( W1) .Set up the foam equipment and adjust the nozzle pressure to give a flow rate of 11.4 L/min Discharge the foam and adjust the height of the nozzle so that the discharge strikes the collector centrally. Keep the nozzle horizontal. Stop the foam discharge and rinse all foam from the collector. Check that the foam solution tank is full. Start discharging the foam and after ( 30 +5) s to allow the discharge to stabilize, place the collecting vessel, with the discharge outlet closed, on the collector . As soon as the vessel is full, remove it from the collector , strike the foam surface level with the rim and start the clock. Weigh the vessel (W2).

(b. 2) Calculate the expansion E from the equation:

3.7.1 - The test should be carried out according to para 3. 7 .2 , wi th sea water at about 20°C. Simulated sea water having the characteristics stated under 3.7.3 may be used.

The expansion ratio obtained with nozzles used on board chould be consistent with the expansion ratio obtained with the nozzles durimg the fire test . 3.7.2 - Determination of the expansion ratio (a) Apparatus:
- plastic collecting vessel of volume V, known to 16 mL as shown in figure 2, equipped with a bottom discharge facility;
- foam collector as shown in figure 3 ;
- foam making equipment with nozzle as shown in figure 4 which when tested with water has a flow rate of 11,4 L/min at a nozzle pressure of (6.3 0.3) bar. (b) Procedure: (b .1) Check that the pipework and hose from the foam solution tank to the nozzle is completely full of solution .Set up the nozzle horizontally directly in front of the foam collector .with the front of the nozzle (3+0.3) m from the top edge of the collector. Wet the vessel internally and weigh it ( W1) .Set up the foam equipment and adjust the nozzle pressure to give a flow rate of 6 L/min. Discharge the foam and adjust the height of the nozzle so that the discharge strikes the collector centrally. Keep the nozzle horizontal. Stop the foam discharge and rinse all foam from the collector. Check that the foam solution tank is full. Start discharging the foam and after ( 30 +5) s to allow the discharge to stabilize, place the collecting vessel, with the discharge outlet closed, on the collector . As soon as the vessel is full, remove it from the collector , strike the foam surface level with the rim and start the clock. Weigh the vessel (W2). (b. 2) Calculate the expansion E from the equation:
in which it is assumed that the density of the foam solution is 1.0 and where: V is the vessel volume (mL) W1 is the mass of the empty vessel (g) W2 is the mass of the full vessel (g). (b .3) Open the drainage facility and collect the foam solution in the measuring cylinder to measure the 25% drainage time (see paragraph 3.8.1 hereinafter). 3.7.3 - Simulated sea water may be made up by dissolving
25,0 g Sodium chloride ( NaCl )
11,0 g Magnesium chloride (MgCI2 6H2O)
1,6 g Calcium chloride (CaC12 2H2 O)
4,0 g Sodium sulphate (Na2 SO4) in each litre of potable water.

3.08 Drainage time

3.8 Drainage time

3.8.1 - The drainage time should be determined according to paragraph 3.7.2 (b.3) hereinabove, after having determined the expansion ratio.

3.8.2 - The test should be carried out with sea water at about 20°C. Simulated sea water having the characteristics stated in 3.7.3 may be used.

3.8.3 - Drainage time obtained with nozzles used on board should be consistent with the drainage time obtained with the nozzles during the fire test.

Ingangsdatum: 23-04-1992
Geldig tot en met: 09-07-2000

3.8 Drainage time

3.8.1 - The drainage time should be determined according to paragraph 3.7.2 (b.3) hereinabove, after having determined the expansion ratio.

3.8.2 - The test should be carried out with sea water at about 20°C. Simulated sea water having the characteristics stated in 3.7.3 may be used.

3.8.3 - Drainage time obtained with nozzles used on board should be consistent with the drainage time obtained with the nozzles during the fire test.

3.08 3.8 Drainage time
[Niet geldig (geldigheid vanaf 2000-07-10)]
Ingangsdatum: 10-07-2000

3.8 Drainage time

3.8.1 - The drainage time should be determined according to paragraph 3.7.2 (b.3) hereinabove, after having determined the expansion ratio.

3.8.2 - The test should be carried out with simulated seawater at about 20ºC having the characteristics stated in paragraph 3.7.3.

3.8.3 - Drainage time obtained with nozzles used on board should be consistent with the drainage time obtained with the nozzles during the fire test.

3.09 Fire tests

3.9 Fire tests

Fire tests should be carried out according to the following paragraphs 3.9.1 - 3.9.7.

NOTE: The fire tests of this Section 3.9 are more expensive and time consuming than the other tests of these guidelines. It is recommended that fire tests should be carried out at the end of the test programme, so as to avoid the expense of unnecessary testing of foam concentrates which do not comply in other respects .

3.9.1 - Environmental conditions

  • Air temperature (15+5)°C

  • Maximum wind speed 3 m/s in proximity of the fire tray

NOTE: If necessary, some form of wind -screen may be used .

3.9.2 - Records

During the fire test, record the following:

  • indoor or outdoor test

  • air temperature

  • fuel temperature

  • water temperature

  • foam solution temperature

  • wind speed

  • extinction time

  • 25% burnback time.

NOTE: Burnback tim : may either be determined visually by an experienced person or may be determined from thermal radiation measurements.

3.9.3 - Foam solution

  1. Prepare a foam solution following the recommendations from the supplier for concentration, maximum premix time, compatibility with the test equipment, avoiding contamination by other types of foam, etc.

  2. The test should be carried out with sea water at about 20°C. Simulated sea water having the characteristics stated in 3.7.3 may be used.

3.9.4 - Apparatus

  1. Fire tray:

    Square fire tray with the following dimensions :
    • area 4.5 m²

    • Depth 200 mm

    • thickness of steel wall 2.5 mm with a vertical steel backboard (1+0,05) m high and (1+0,05) m long.

  2. Foam making equipment:

    In accordance with sub-paragraph 3.7.2 (a).

  3. Burnback pot:

    Circular burnback pot with the following dimensions :
  • diameter ( 300 +5) mm

  • height ( 150 +5) mm

  • thickness of steel wall 2.5 mm.

3.9.5 - Fuel

Use an aliphatic hydrocarbon mixture with physical properties according to the following specification:

  • distillation range
84°C -105°C
  • maximum difference between initial and final boiling points
10°C
  • maximum aromatic content
1%
  • density at 15°C
(707,5 +2,5) kg/m3
  • temperature
about 20°C


NOTE: Typical fuels meeting this specification ar-e n-heptane and certain solvent fractions sometimes referred to as commercial heptane.

The Administration may require additional fire tests using an additional test fuel.

3.9.6 - Test procedure

  1. Place the tray directly on the ground and ensure that it is level. Add approximately 90 litres of sea water, or simulated sea water having the characteristics stated in 3.7.3, and check that the base of the tray is completely covered. Set up the foam nozzle horizontally, about 1 metre above the ground in a position where the central part of the foam discharge will strike the centre axis of the backboard, (0.35+0.1) m above the rim of the tray, (gentle application). Add (144 +5) litres of fuel, to give a nominal freeboard of 150 mm.

  2. Ignite the tray not more than 5 min after adding the fuel and allow it to burn for a period of (60 +5) s after full involvement of the surface of the fuel, then start foam application.

  3. Apply foam for (300 +2) s. Stop foam application and after a further (300 +10) s place the burnback pot, containing (2 +0.1) litres of fuel in the centre of the tray and ignite. Record the 25% burnback time .

3.9.7 - Permissible limits

  1. extinction time: not more than 5 min;

  2. burnback time: not less than 15 min for 25% of the surface.
Ingangsdatum: 2310-0407-19922000
Geldig tot en met: 09-07-2000

3.9 Fire tests

Fire tests should be carried out according to the following paragraphs 3.9.1 - 3.9.7.

NOTE: The fire tests of this Section 3.9 are more expensive and time consuming than the other tests of these guidelines. It is recommended that fire tests should be carried out at the end of the test programme, so as to avoid the expense of unnecessary testing of foam concentrates which do not comply in other respects .

3.9.1 - Environmental conditions

  • Air temperature (15+5)°C

  • Maximum wind speed 3 m/s in proximity of the fire tray

NOTE: If necessary, some form of wind -screen may be used .

3.9.2 - Records

During the fire test, record the following:

  • indoor or outdoor test

  • air temperature

  • fuel temperature

  • water temperature

  • foam solution temperature

  • wind speed

  • extinction time

  • 25% burnback time.

NOTE: Burnback tim : may either be determined visually by an experienced person or may be determined from thermal radiation measurements.

3.9.3 - Foam solution

  1. Prepare a foam solution following the recommendations from the supplier for concentration, maximum premix time, compatibility with the test equipment, avoiding contamination by other types of foam, etc.

  2. TheThe test should be carried out with simulated seawater at about 20ºC having the characteristics stated in paragraph 3.7.3. test should be carried out with sea water at about 20°C. Simulated sea water having the characteristics stated in 3.7.3 may be used.

3.9.4 - Apparatus

  1. Fire tray:

    Square fire tray with the following dimensions :
    • area 4.5 m²

    • Depth 200 mm

    • thickness of steel wall 2.5 mm with a vertical steel backboard (1+0,05) m high and (1+0,05) m long.

  2. Foam making equipment:

    In accordance with sub-paragraph 3.7.2 (a).

  3. Burnback pot:

    Circular burnback pot with the following dimensions :
    • diameter ( 300 +5) mm

    • height ( 150 +5) mm

    • thickness of steel wall 2.5 mm.

  • diameter ( 300 +5) mm

  • height ( 150 +5) mm

  • thickness of steel wall 2.5 mm.

3.9.5 - Fuel

Use an aliphatic hydrocarbon mixture with physical properties according to the following specification:

  • distillation range
84°C -105°C
  • maximum difference between initial and final boiling points
10°C
  • maximum aromatic content
1%
  • density at 15°C
(707,5 +2,5) kg/m3
  • temperature
about 20°C


NOTE: Typical fuels meeting this specification ar-e n-heptane and certain solvent fractions sometimes referred to as commercial heptane.

The Administration may require additional fire tests using an additional test fuel.

3.9.6 - Test procedure

  1. Place the tray directly on the ground and ensure that it is level. AddAdd approximately 90 L of simulated seawater having the characteristics stated in paragraph 3.7.3 and check that the base of the tray is completely covered. approximately 90 litres of sea water, or simulated sea water having the characteristics stated in 3.7.3, and check that the base of the tray is completely covered. Set up the foam nozzle horizontally, about 1 metre above the ground in a position where the central part of the foam discharge will strike the centre axis of the backboard, (0.35+0.1) m above the rim of the tray, (gentle application). Add (144 +5) litres of fuel, to give a nominal freeboard of 150 mm.

  2. Ignite the tray not more than 5 min after adding the fuel and allow it to burn for a period of (60 +5) s after full involvement of the surface of the fuel, then start foam application.

  3. Apply foam for (300 +2) s. Stop foam application and after a further (300 +10) s place the burnback pot, containing (2 +0.1) litres of fuel in the centre of the tray and ignite. Record the 25% burnback time .

3.9.7 - Permissible limits

  1. extinction time: not more than 5 min;

  2. burnback time: not less than 15 min for 25% of the surface.

3.10 Corrosiveness

Ingangsdatum: 23-04-1992

The storage container shall be compatible with its foam concentrate, throughout the service life of the foam, such that the chemical and physical properties of the foam shall not deteriorate below the initial values accepted by the Administration .

3.11 Volumic mass

Ingangsdatum: 23-04-1992

According to ASTM D 1298-85.

4 Periodical controls of foam concentrates stored on board

Ingangsdatum: 23-04-1992

The attention of the Administration is drawn to the fact that particular installation conditions (excessive ambient temperature, incomplete filling of the tank etc.) may lead to an abnormal aging of the concentrates.

For the periodical control of foam concentrate the tests under paragraphs 4.1 -4.5 should be performed. They should be carried out at laboratories acceptable to the Administration.

The deviations in the values obtained by these tests , in respect of those obtained during the type approval tests, should be within ranges acceptable to the Administration.

Tests under items 4.1, 4.3 and 4.4 should be carried out on samples maintained at 60&degC for 24 hours and subsequently cooled to the test temperature.

4.1 - Sedimentation

According to paragraph 3.3 above.

4.2 - pH value

According to paragraph 3.5 above .

4. 3 - Expansion ratio

According to paragraph 3.7 above .

4 .4 - Drainage time

According to paragraph 3.8 above .

4.5 - Volumic mass

According to paragraph 3.11 above.

5 Intervals of periodical controls

Ingangsdatum: 23-04-1992

The first periodical control of foam concentrates stored on board should be performed after a period of 3 years and, after that, every year.

A record of the age of the foam concentrates and of subsequent controls should be kept on board.